1. EROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTION
  2. CONTROL PROGRAM MANUAL
  3. FINAL
  4. Technical Guidance Number
  5. 363-2134-008
  6. March 2012
    1. FOREWORD
    2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      1. TABLE OF CONTENTS
      2. Page
      3. Page
    3. LIST OF FIGURES
    4. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
    5. CHECKLISTS, STANDARD E&S WORKSHEETS, STANDARD NOTES
    6. AND REFERENCES
      1. CHAPTER 1 - REQUIRED E&S PLAN CONTENT
      2. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-1
      3. Rock Construction Entrance
      4. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-2 Rock Construction Entrance with Wash Rack
      5. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-3
      6. Crowned Roadway
      7. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-4
      8. Insloped Roadway
      9. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-5
      10. Waterbar
      11. TABLE 3.1 – Maximum Waterbar Spacing
      12. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-8
      13. Open-top Culvert
      14. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-9
      15. Water Deflector
      16. FIGURE 3.1 - Typical Roadside Ditch Section
      17. FIGURE 3.2 - Access Road Layout
      18. TABLE 3.4 - Recommended Maximum Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts (18” dia. CMP)
      19. For Permanent Access Roads
      20. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-10
      21. Ditch Relief Culvert
      22. FIGURE 3.3
      23. Typical Turnout
      24. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-11
      25. Compost Sock Sediment Trap
      26. FIGURE 3.4
      27. Temporary Bridge Stream Crossing
      28. Waterbars and broad-based dips shall discharge to sediment removal facilities.
      29. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-12
      30. Temporary Stream Crossing - Plan View
      31. Follow permit conditions regarding removal of crossing.
      32. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-13
      33. Temporary Stream Crossing
      34. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-14 Temporary Stream Crossing - Multiple Pipes
      35. FIGURE 3.5
      36. Typical Tire Mat Wetland Crossing
      37. FIGURE 3.6
      38. Typical Expanded Metal Grating Wetland Crossing
      39. FIGURE 3.7
      40. Typical Wood Mat for Wetland Crossing
      41. FIGURE 3.8
      42. TYPICAL CAUSEWAY
      43. FIGURE 3.9
      44. Bypass Channel with Non-Erosive Lining
      45. FIGURE 3.10
      46. Rigid or Flexible Pipe Flume Through a Work Area
      47. FIGURE 3.11
      48. Temporary Cofferdam and Pump Bypass Around In-channel Work Areas
      49. NOTE: Pump intake
      50. shall be maintained a sufficient distance from bottom to
      51. prevent sediment from entering the system.
      52. FIGURE 3.12
      53. In-stream Cofferdam Diversion
      54. non-erosive material, no earth fill.
      55. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-15
      56. Sandbag Diversion Dam or Cofferdam
      57. FIGURE 3.13
      58. Jersey Barrier Cofferdam – End View
      59. FIGURE 3.14
      60. Turbidity Barrier Installation
      61. No Current and Sheltered from Wind and Waves
      62. FIGURE 3.15
      63. Turbidity Barrier Installation
      64. Small to Moderate Current (< 3.5 FPS) and Some Wind and Wave Action
      65. FIGURE 3.16
      66. Turbidity Barrier Installation
      67. Considerable Current (3.5 - 5 FPS) and Potential Tidal, Wind, and Wave Action
      68. FIGURE 3.17
      69. Turbidity Barrier Installation - Tidal Condition
      70. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-16
      71. Pumped Water Filter Bag
      72. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-17
      73. Sump Pit
      74. FIGURE 3.18
      75. Typical Compost Sock Washout Installation
      76. FIGURE 4.1
      77. Sediment Barrier Alignment
      78. TABLE 4.1
      79. Compost Sock Fabric Minimum Specifications
      80. Material Type 3 mil HDPE 5 mil HDPE 5 mil HDPE Multi-Filament
      81. Polypropylene
      82. (MFPP)
      83. Heavy Duty Multi-Filament Polypropylene (HDMFPP)
      84. Material
      85. Characteristics
      86. Sock
      87. Diameters
      88. Tensile
      89. Stability % Original
      90. Strength (ASTM G-155)
      91. Minimum Functional Longevity
      92. TABLE 4.2
      93. Compost Standards
      94. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #4-1
      95. COMPOST FILTER SOCK
      96. FIGURE 4.2
      97. MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SLOPE LENGTH ABOVE COMPOST FILTER SOCKS
      98. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #4-2
      99. Compost Filter Berm
      100. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-3 Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation
      101. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-4
      102. Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation in a Concentrated Flow Area
      103. PLAN VIEW
      104. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-5
      105. Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation Across a Wide Flow Path
      106. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-6
      107. Rock Filter Outlet
      108. TABLE 4.3
      109. Fabric Properties for Silt Fence
      110. TABLE 4.4
      111. Maximum Slope Length for Silt Fence
      112. FIGURE 4.3
      113. Maximum Permissible Slope Length above Silt Fence and Straw Bale Barriers
      114. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-7
      115. Standard Silt Fence (18” High)
      116. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-8
      117. Reinforced Silt Fence (30" High)
      118. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-9 Silt Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales
      119. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-10
      120. Super Silt Fence
      121. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-11
      122. Sediment Filter Log (Fiber Log)
      123. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-12
      124. Wood Chip Filter Berm
      125. TABLE 4.5
      126. Maximum Slope Length for Straw Bale Barriers and Wood Chip Filter Berms
      127. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-13
      128. Straw Bale Barrier
      129. FIGURE 4.4
      130. Straw Bale Barrier Installation
      131. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-14
      132. Rock Filter
      133. FIGURE 4.5 Vegetative Filter Strip
      134. Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet
      135. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-16 Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet
      136. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-17
      137. Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet
      138. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-19
      139. Stone Inlet Protection and Berm - Type C Inlet
      140. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-24
      141. Alternate Stone Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet Above Grade
      142. CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF CALCULATIONS
      143. TABLE 5.1
      144. Pennsylvania Rainfall by County
      145. (For Use with Technical Release 55 - Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds)
      146. NOT TO BE USED WITH THE RATIONAL EQUATION
      147. (C 1 A 1 ) + (C 2 A 2 ) +….(C n A n )
      148. = ----------------------------------------------------
      149. A (total)
      150. TABLE 5.2
      151. Runoff Coefficients for the Rational Equation*
      152. TABLE 5.3
      153. Roughness Coefficient for Sheet Flow T c Computations
      154. FIGURE 5.1
      155. Nomograph to Determine Shallow Concentrated Flow Velocity
      156. TABLE 5.4
      157. Time of
      158. Concentration
      159. Storm Return Frequency (ARI)
      160. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      161. year
      162. 500 year
      163. Figure 5.2 - RAINFALL REGION MAP A
      164. Figure 5.3 - RAINFALL REGION MAP B
      165. Figure 5.4 - RAINFALL REGION MAP C
      166. Figure 5.5 - RAINFALL REGION MAP D
      167. Figure 5.6 - RAINFALL REGION MAP E
      168. Figure 5.7 RAINFALL REGION MAP F
      169. TABLE 5.5
      170. 5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 1
      171. Time of
      172. Concentration
      173. Rainfall Depth (in)
      174. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      175. year
      176. 500 year
      177. Figure 5.8
      178. TABLE 5.6
      179. 5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 2
      180. Time of
      181. Concentration
      182. Rainfall Depth (in)
      183. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      184. year
      185. 500 year
      186. Figure 5.9
      187. TABLE 5.7
      188. 5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 3
      189. Time of
      190. Concentration
      191. Rainfall Depth (in)
      192. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      193. year
      194. 500 year
      195. Figure 5.10
      196. TABLE 5.8
      197. 5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 4
      198. Time of
      199. Concentration
      200. Rainfall Depth (in)
      201. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      202. year
      203. 500 year
      204. Figure 5.11
      205. TABLE 5.9
      206. 5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 5
      207. Time of
      208. Concentration
      209. Rainfall Depth (in)
      210. 1 year 2 year 5 year 10 year 25 year 50 year
      211. year
      212. 500 year
      213. Figure 5.12
      214. Determination of Time of Concentration (T c ) Using Standard E&S Worksheet # 9
      215. Determination of Peak Runoff (Q) Using the Rational Formula
      216. and Standard Worksheet E&S # 10
      217. TABLE 6.1
      218. Geometric Elements of Channel Sections
      219. TABLE 6.2
      220. Maximum Permissible Shear Stresses for Various Channel Liners
      221. Lining Category Lining Type lb/ft
      222. TABLE 6.3
      223. TABLE 6.4
      224. Maximum Permissible Velocities (ft/sec) for Channels Lined with Vegetation
      225. NOTE: These values subject to the 7 limitations below
      226. TABLE 6.5
      227. FIGURE 6.1
      228. Maximum Permissible Flow Depth for Riprap Channels
      229. TABLE 6.6
      230. Riprap Gradation, Filter Blanket Requirements, Maximum Velocities
      231. TABLE 6.7
      232. Comparison of Various Gradations of Coarse Aggregates
      233. Total Percent Passing
      234. TABLE 6.8
      235. Riprap Size Adjustment Factor for Various Rock Types
      236. TABLE 6.9
      237. Recommended n Values to be Used with Manning’s Equation When Doing Stability
      238. Analyses of Receiving Streams
      239. Design values should be utilized unless documentation is provided
      240. range is appropriate.
      241. Figure 6.2
      242. “n” Values for Riprap Channels
      243. TABLE 6.10
      244. Maximum Permissible Velocities and Shear Stresses for Reno Mattress and Gabions
      245. FIGURE 6.3
      246. Plan Map of Sample Channel
      247. FIGURE 6.4
      248. Void Space in Riprap Channel Bottom
      249. Channel #1 (Diversion Channel) on
      250. WORKSHEET # 11
      251. CHANNEL DESIGN DATA
      252. Channel #1 (Diversion Channel) on
      253. WORKSHEET # 11
      254. CHANNEL DESIGN DATA (CONTINUED)
      255. Channel #1 Segments “A” and “B”
      256. On Tables from Standard Construction Details 6-1 and 6-3
      257. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 6-1
      258. Vegetated Channel
      259. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #6-2
      260. Sodded Channel
      261. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 6-3
      262. RIPRAP CHANNEL
      263. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 6-4
      264. Top-of-Slope Berm
      265. FIGURE 6.5
      266. Maintaining Top-of-slope Berms and Temporary Slope Pipes
      267. TABLE 6.11
      268. Minimum Dimensions for Temporary Slope Pipes
      269. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 6-5
      270. Temporary Slope Pipe
      271. SLOPE PIPE WITH TRANSVERSE BERM
      272. TABLE 6.12
      273. Bench Spacing
      274. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 6-6
      275. Bench Detail
      276. FIGURE 7.1
      277. Sediment Basin
      278. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-1
      279. Skimmer
      280. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-2 Skimmer Attached to a Permanent Riser
      281. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-3
      282. Skimmer with Stone Landing Berm
      283. No guide rails shall be required for this installation.
      284. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-4
      285. Sediment Basin Embankment and Spillway Details - Skimmer
      286. FIGURE 7.2
      287. Skimmer Orifice Design Chart
      288. TABLE 7.1
      289. K p Values for Common Sizes of Pipe
      290. Pipe
      291. Diameter (inches)
      292. Flow
      293. Area (sq. ft)
      294. Manning’s Coefficient
      295. Concrete Pipe
      296. n = 0.015
      297. Corrugated Metal Pipe n = 0.025
      298. FIGURE 7.3
      299. Riser Inflow Curves
      300. TABLE 7.2 - PIPE FLOW CAPACITY - n = 0.015
      301. For 70’ long Corrugated Plastic Pipe, where Km = 1, (full flow assumed) H
      302. Barrel Diameter
      303. (IN)
      304. Barrel
      305. Length (FT)
      306. TABLE 7.3 - PIPE FLOW CAPACITY n = 0.025
      307. For 70’ long Corrugated Metal Pipe, where Km = 1, (full flow assumed)
      308. (FT)
      309. Barrel Diameter
      310. (IN)
      311. Barrel
      312. Length (FT)
      313. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-5
      314. Trash Rack and Anti-vortex Device
      315. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-6
      316. Sediment Basin Embankment and Spillway Details - Perforated Riser
      317. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-7
      318. Sediment Basin Temporary Riser*
      319. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-8
      320. Sediment Basin/Detention Pond Embankment and Spillway Details
      321. TABLE 7.4
      322. Concrete Base Requirements for Various Sizes of Temporary Riser Pipes
      323. Riser Pipe Diameter (in)
      324. Buoyant Force
      325. (lb/V.F. of Riser Height)
      326. Volume of Concrete per Vertical Foot of Riser Height (cf/VF) Needed to
      327. Prevent Flotation
      328. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-10
      329. Temporary Riser Extension and Trash Rack for Permanent Structure
      330. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-11
      331. Dry Sediment Basin Temporary Riser*
      332. FIGURE 7.4
      333. Typical Sediment Forebay
      334. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-14
      335. Baffle
      336. FIGURE 7.5
      337. Use of Baffles in Sediment Basins
      338. FIGURE 7.6 Anti-seep Collar Design
      339. FIGURE 7.7
      340. Graphical Determination of Length of Pipe in the Saturated Zone (L s )
      341. FIGURE 7.8
      342. Typical Filter Diaphragm Installation
      343. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 7-18
      344. Sediment Basin or Sediment Trap Sediment Storage Dewatering Facility
      345. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-1
      346. Embankment Sediment Trap
      347. TABLE 8.1
      348. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-2
      349. Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap
      350. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #8-3
      351. Sediment Trap Temporary Riser
      352. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-4
      353. Dry Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap
      354. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #8-5
      355. Dry Sediment Trap Temporary Riser
      356. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-6
      357. Sediment Trap Outlet Basin Detail
      358. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-7
      359. Type M Inlet Sediment Trap
      360. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 8-8
      361. Concrete Riser with Temporary Dewatering Holes
      362. FIGURE 9.1
      363. Velocity Adjustment Nomograph for Less Than Full Pipe Flow
      364. FIGURE 9.2
      365. PROPER OUTFALL ORIENTATION TO RECEIVING STREAM
      366. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 9-1
      367. Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet with Flared End Section or Endwall
      368. FIGURE 9.3
      369. Riprap Apron Design, Minimum Tailwater Condition
      370. FIGURE 9.4
      371. Riprap Apron Design, Maximum Tailwater Condition
      372. FIGURE 9.5
      373. Typical Transition Mat Installation
      374. FIGURE 9.6
      375. Minimum Coverage Length vs. Exit Velocity for Flow Transition Mat
      376. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 9-4
      377. Stilling Basin
      378. h (ft)
      379. Riprap Size
      380. (R_)
      381. d 50 Stone Size d (in)
      382. Riprap thickness shall be 1.5 times the maximum stone size.
      383. FIGURE 9.7
      384. d 50 Stone Size for Stilling Basins
      385. FIGURE 9.8
      386. Stilling Well Height
      387. FIGURE 9.9 Stilling Well Diameter
      388. FIGURE 9.10
      389. Depth of Well Below Invert
      390. FIGURE 9.11
      391. Typical Drop Structure
      392. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 9-5
      393. Earthen Level Spreader
      394. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #10-1 Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Above Roadway
      395. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #10-2 Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Below Roadway
      396. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #10-3
      397. Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Along Ascending or Descending Roadway
      398. FIGURE 11.1
      399. Stair Step Grading of Cut Slopes
      400. Figure 11.2
      401. Grooved Slope Details
      402. FIGURE 11.3
      403. Tracking a Fill Slope
      404. TABLE 11.1
      405. TABLE 11.2
      406. Soil Amendment Application Rate Equivalents
      407. Permanent Seeding Application Rate
      408. Notes Per Acre Per 1,000 sq. ft. Per 1,000 sq. yd.
      409. Temporary Seeding Application Rate
      410. TABLE 11.3
      411. Plant Tolerances of Soil Limitation Factors
      412. TABLE 11.4
      413. Recommended Seed Mixtures
      414. TABLE 11.5
      415. Recommended Seed Mixtures for Stabilizing Disturbed Areas
      416. FIGURE 11.4
      417. Straw Mulch Applied at 3 Tons/Acre
      418. TABLE 11.6
      419. Mulch Application Rates
      420. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 11-1
      421. Erosion Control Blanket Installation
      422. TABLE 11.7
      423. Typical Polymer Stabilized Fiber Matrix Application Rates
      424. FIGURE 11.5
      425. Sodding
      426. FIGURE 11.6
      427. Typical Cellular Confinement System Installation
      428. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #13-1
      429. Typical Utility Line Flumed Stream Crossing with Optional Access Road
      430. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 13-4
      431. Typical Trench Plug Installation
      432. TABLE 13.1
      433. FIGURE 13.1
      434. Waterbar Installation on a Utility Line Right-of-way
      435. TABLE 13.2
      436. Maximum Spacing for Permanent Waterbars on a Utility Line Right-of-way
      437. FIGURE 14.1
      438. TABLE 14.1
      439. Minimum Vegetative Filter Strip Widths for Timber Harvesting
      440. FIGURE 14.2
      441. Typical Timber Harvest Site Plan
      442. FIGURE 14.3
      443. Alternative Timber Harvest Site Plan
      444. FIGURE 14.4
      445. Typical Timber Harvest Plan Mapping Symbols
      446. Figure 15.1
      447. Riprap Streambank Protection with Optional Live Stakes
      448. FIGURE 15.2
      449. Extension of Primary Rock Riprap Protection Area
      450. FIGURE 15.3
      451. Gabion Streambank Protection
      452. FIGURE 15.4
      453. Reno Mattress Streambank Protection
      454. FIGURE 15.5
      455. Grid Pavers
      456. FIGURE 15.6
      457. Live Stakes
      458. TABLE 15.1 Live Fascine Spacing (ft)
      459. FIGURE 15.7
      460. Live Fascines
      461. FIGURE 15.8
      462. Branchpacking
      463. FIGURE 15.9
      464. Fabric Encapsulated Soil with Branchpacking
      465. FIGURE 15.10
      466. Fiber Rolls
      467. TABLE 16.1
      468. Recommended Minimum Setbacks for Fill Placement in the Vicinity of Regulated
      469. Waters, Highways, Railroads, and Other Public Transportation Facilities*
      470. FIGURE 17.1
      471. Sinkhole Repair with a Bentonite Cap
      472. FIGURE 17.2
      473. Sinkhole Repair with a Pervious Cover
      474. FIGURE 17.3
      475. Sinkhole Repair with an Impervious Cover
      476. FIGURE 17.4
      477. Sinkhole Repair with Soil Cover
      478. RECOMMENDED PROCESS FOR SITES WITH REGULATED SUBSTANCES
    7. FLOW CHART A
      1. TABLE 17.1
      2. PROCESSES LEADING TO LANDSLIDES
      3. APPENDIX A. - CHECKLISTS
      4. COMPLETE PLAN CHECKLIST
      5. STANDARD E&S CONTROL PLAN TECHNICAL REVIEW CHECKLIST
      6. EXPANDED E&S CONTROL PLAN TECHNICAL REVIEW CHECKLIST
      7. APPENDIX B - STANDARD E&S WORKSHEETS
      8. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET #1
      9. Compost Filter Socks
      10. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET #2
      11. Compost Filter Berms
      12. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET #3
      13. Standard Silt Fence
      14. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 4
      15. Reinforced Silt Fence
      16. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET #5 Silt Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales
      17. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 6
      18. Super Silt Fence
      19. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 7
      20. Straw Bale Barriers
      21. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 8
      22. Rock Filters
      23. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 9
      24. Time of Concentration
      25. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 10
      26. Rational Equation
      27. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 11
      28. Channel Design Data
      29. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 12 Sediment Basin Capacity Requirements
      30. Sediment Basin Dimensions and Elevations
      31. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 14 Sediment Basin/Sediment Trap Storage Data
    8. STAGE STORAGE CURVE
    9. STORAGE VOLUME (CF)
      1. Curve.
      2. L E V A T I
      3. (FT)
      4. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 15
      5. Sediment Basin/Sediment Trap Dewatering Discharge Data
      6. PERFORATION DISCHARGE (TOP OF RISER TO SEDIMENT CLEAN-OUT ELEVATION)
      7. WATER
      8. SURFACE ELEVATION
      9. RISER PERFORATION DISCHARGE RATES
      10. TOTAL
      11. DISCHARGE
      12. (CFS)
      13. ROW ELEVATION
      14. Elevation 3
      15. NOTE: Where skimmers are used, Figure 7.2, with basin dewatering volume and
      16. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 16 Sediment Basin Dewatering Time Data
      17. to top of Sediment Storage Zone (Elevation 2).
      18. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 17 Sediment Basin Discharge Capacity
      19. PRINCIPAL SPILLWAY DISCHARGE CAPACITY
      20. BASIN NO:
      21. EMERGENCY SPILLWAY DISCHARGE CAPACITY
      22. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 18
      23. Anti-seep Collar Design
      24. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 19
      25. Sediment Trap Design Data
      26. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 20 Riprap Apron Outlet Protection
      27. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 21
      28. Temporary and Permanent Vegetative Stabilization Specifications
      29. STANDARD E&S WORKSHEET # 22
      30. PLAN PREPARER RECORD OF TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE IN EROSION AND
      31. SEDIMENT POLLUTION CONTROL METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
      32. NAME OF PLAN PREPARER:
      33. FORMAL EDUCATION:
      34. Name of College or Technical Institute:
      35. Curriculum or Program:
      36. Dates of Attendance: From: To:
      37. Degree Received
      38. OTHER TRAINING:
      39. Name of Training:
      40. Presented By:
      41. Date:
      42. EMPLOYMENT HISTORY:
      43. Current Employer:
      44. Telephone:
      45. Former Employer:
      46. Telephone:
      47. RECENT E&S PLANS PREPARED:
      48. Name of Project:
      49. County:
      50. Municipality:
      51. Permit Number:
      52. Approving Agency:
      53. APPENDIX C - STANDARD E&S PLAN NOTES
      54. APPENDIX D - STANDARDS FOR MAPS AND DRAWINGS
      55. APPENDIX E - SOIL USE LIMITATIONS
      56. TABLE E.1 LIMITATIONS OF PENNSYLVANIA SOILS PERTAINING TO EARTHMOVING
      57. PROJECTS (Absence of an X does not mean “No Potential Limitation”)
      58. NOTE: THIS IS NOT NECESSARILY AN ALL-INCLUSIVE LIST.
      59. FIGURE F.1
      60. Typical Roughness Element Dissipater
      61. FIGURE F.2
      62. Forces Acting on a Roughness Element
      63. FIGURE F.3
      64. Critical Dimensions Used in Designing Roughness Element Dissipaters
      65. V = Q/A
      66. Fr = V O / (32.2 Y O )
      67. 2 (K P K D )
      68. C D A F N = ----------------------
      69. FIGURE F.4
      70. Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlets of Rectangular Culverts on Horizontal
      71. and Mild Slopes
      72. Yo / D
      73. FIGURE F.5
      74. Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlets of Circular Culverts on Horizontal and
      75. Mild Slopes
  7. Yo / D
      1. FIGURE F.6
      2. Flow for Circular Pipe Flowing Full
      3. FIGURE F.7
      4. Design Values for Roughness Element Dissipaters
      5. FIGURE F.8
      6. Average Velocity in Abrupt Expansion below Rectangular Outlet
      7. FIGURE F.9
      8. Average Velocity for Abrupt Expansion below Circular Outlet
      9. FIGURE F.10
      10. Average Depth for Abrupt Expansion below Rectangular Outlet
      11. FIGURE F.11
      12. Average Depth for Abrupt Expansion below Circular Outlet
      13. FIGURE F.12
      14. Riprap Size for Use Downstream of Energy Dissipaters
      15. DESIGN RESTRICTIONS
      16. DESIGN PROCEDURE
      17. Y e = (A / 2)
      18. 2 / 2g
      19. TABLE F.1
      20. Impact Dissipater Dimensions (ft - inches)
      21. FIGURE F.13
      22. Design Curve for Impact Dissipaters
      23. FIGURE F.14
      24. Impact Dissipater Dimensions
      25. APPENDIX G - Technical Paper: “Level Spreaders and Off-site Discharges of
      26. Stormwater to Non-surface Waters”
      27. APPENDIX H - DUST CONTROL
      28. APPENDIX K – E&S BMPs FOR WATER WELL DRILLING AND AQUIFER TESTING
      29. APPENDIX L – GLOSSARY
      30. REFERENCES

EROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTION

Back to top


CONTROL PROGRAM MANUAL

Back to top


FINAL

Back to top


Technical Guidance Number

Back to top


363-2134-008

Back to top


March 2012
BUREAU OF WATERWAYS ENGINEERING AND WETLANDS
DIVISION OF WETLANDS, ENCROACHMENT AND TRAINING

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page i
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Bureau of Waterways Engineering and Wetlands
DOCUMENT NUMBER:
363-2134-008
TITLE:
Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Program Manual
EFFECTIVE DATE:
March 31, 2012
AUTHORITY:
Pennsylvania Clean Stream Law (35 P.S. §
§
691.1—691.1001) and
regulations at 25 Pa. Code Chapter 102.
POLICY:
It is the policy of the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to
provide guidance and procedures for those engaged in earth disturbance
activities on ways to minimize accelerated erosion and resulting sediment
pollution to surface waters.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this guidance is to inform those engaged in earth
disturbance activities and in the preparation of Erosion and Sediment
Control (E&S) Plans how to comply with regulations found at 25 Pa. Code
Chapter 102.
APPLICABILITY:
This guidance applies to all those engaged in the preparation of E&S
Plans for earth disturbance activities in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania.
DISCLAIMER:
The policies and procedures outlined in this guidance are intended to
supplement existing requirements. Nothing in the policies or procedures
shall affect regulatory requirements.
The policies and procedures herein are not an adjudication or a
regulation. There is no intent by DEP to give the rules in these policies
that weight or deference. This document establishes the framework
within which DEP will exercise its administrative discretion in the future.
DEP reserves the discretion to deviate from this policy statement if
circumstances warrant.
PAGE LENGTH:
563 pages
DEFINITIONS:
See 35 P.S.
§
691.1 and 25 Pa. Code § 102.1.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page ii
FOREWORD
The various Best Management Practices (BMPs) described herein are primarily used during earth
disturbances associated with land development and construction activities. Other special BMPs for
agricultural plowing or tilling activities which provide for the economic viability of farms, maintenance of
the land, and protection of Pennsylvania waterways are described in the Natural Resources
Conservation Services’
Pennsylvania Soil and Water Conservation Technical Guide
. An overview
of these agricultural BMPs is also provided in
A Conservation Catalog: Practices for the
Conservation of Pennsylvania’s Natural Resources
.
Persons conducting agricultural plowing or
tilling activities are encouraged to review the practices described in the catalog and contact their local
conservation district or Natural Resources Conservation Service office for more detailed planning
information and assistance.
This manual lists various BMPs and design standards which are acceptable in Pennsylvania. BMPs,
when designed according to these standards, and properly implemented and maintained, are expected
to achieve the regulatory standard of minimizing the potential for accelerated erosion and
sedimentation, and at the same time to protect, maintain, reclaim and restore water quality and existing
and designated uses of surface waters.
This manual contains a selection of performance oriented BMPs that minimize accelerated soil erosion
and sedimentation associated with temporary earth disturbance activities. It is a tool for developing
erosion and sediment control plans that use basic principles of sound science and reasonable scientific
certainty for minimizing accelerated erosion and sedimentation. Erosion and sediment control BMPs
associated with earth disturbance activities have undergone extensive research and development to
achieve the desired level of BMP effectiveness. Much of the design criteria and supporting calculations
have been developed through various technical organizations, academia, and government agencies
with expertise of the management practice functionality, standardized test methods and procedures,
statistical analysis, and environmental, health and safety considerations. The BMP standards and
specifications adopted by the Department are typically identified and used for the specific field
applications as a performance-based effluent limitation for sediment and related pollutants. Many of
the supporting calculations are assumed and have been incorporated into the standard details and
specifications; however, some simple calculations for drainage area, slope steepness and length, or
other site-specific feature may need to be identified to apply the practice for the earth disturbance
activity. Generally, details and specifications identify the purpose of the BMP, conditions where the
BMP applies, planning considerations, design criteria, construction specifications and maintenance
procedures.
Alternate BMPs that are not listed in this manual but that provide the same (or greater) level of
protection may also be used to attain the regulatory standard. It is incumbent on the person proposing
the use of alternative BMPs to demonstrate their effectiveness with appropriate test results or other
documentation.
BMPs that fail after installation shall be repaired to function properly or be replaced by alternative BMPs
that will serve the intended purpose. For example, if a skimmer in a basin or trap does not function as
intended, it may need to be replaced by a perforated riser that functions as intended. Likewise, if
unforeseen conditions occur on a site, and the installed BMPs are obviously not effective, then
alternate BMPs should be designed and installed. The need for redesign will be determined on a case-
by-case basis.
Erosion is a natural process, which occurs with each runoff event. Human activities which remove
protective vegetative cover alter topography and runoff patterns and typically increase the rate of
erosion to many times that which occurs naturally. It is this accelerated erosion which is regulated by
the Department’s Chapter 102 regulations. Minimizing accelerated erosion and the resultant
sedimentation is the focus of this manual.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The following individuals and organizations participated in developing this manual. Participation does
not infer concurrence or endorsement of the manual or its contents.
E & S Manual Oversight Committee:
Barbara Beshore, PA DEP
Robert Cadwallader, P.E., PA DEP
Douglas W. Caylor, P.E., PA DEP
James R. Coslo, Jr., Centre County Conservation District
Chris Droste, Westmoreland Conservation District
Brent Hilderbrand, Butler Conservation District
Karl Kaerchner, Lebanon County Conservation District
Mark Lonergan, PA DEP
Brian Mackowski, PA DEP
Jeffrey McKenna, Montgomery County Conservation District
Jeffry Means, P.E., PA DEP
Domenic Rocco, P.E., PA DEP
Darl Rosenquest, P.E., P.G., PA DEP
Bryon Ruhl, Berks County Conservation District
Darrell Smeal, PA DEP
Dennis Stum, P.E., PA DEP
Christy Zulli, Schuylkill Conservation District
Special thanks to Stackhouse Bensinger, Inc. of Sinking Spring, PA for providing detail drawings for the
Standard Construction Details contained in this manual and also to Britt Faucette of Filtrexx
International for providing compost standards and details for compost filter socks. In addition, thanks to
Assistant Professor William Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University for granting permission to
include his publications regarding preservation and planting of trees on construction sites as
appendices to this manual.
Finally, thank you to all who by their comments and suggestions helped make this manual better.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword ......................................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgments ............................................................................................................................ iii
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... xv
Chapter 1 - Required E&S Plan Content .......................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2 - Best Management Practice (BMP) Sequencing ............................................................. 8
Chapter 3 - Site Access ................................................................................................................... 13
Rock Construction Entrance....................................................................................................... 13
Rock Construction Entrance with Wash Rack ............................................................................ 15
Rumble Pad ............................................................................................................................... 17
Wheel Wash .............................................................................................................................. 17
Temporary and Permanent Access Roads ................................................................................. 18
Waterbar .................................................................................................................................... 21
Broad-based Dip ........................................................................................................................ 23
Open-top Culvert ........................................................................................................................ 26
Water Deflector .......................................................................................................................... 28
Roadside Ditch........................................................................................................................... 30
Ditch Relief Culvert .................................................................................................................... 31
Turnout ...................................................................................................................................... 33
Compost Sock Sediment Trap ................................................................................................... 34
Temporary Stream and Wetland Crossings ................................................................................ 36
Stream Crossing ............................................................................................................. 36
Wetland Crossing ........................................................................................................... 41
Earthwork within Stream Channels ............................................................................................ 42
Earthwork within Lakes and Ponds ............................................................................................ 49
Turbidity Barrier (Silt Curtain) ......................................................................................... 49
Dewatering Work Areas ............................................................................................................. 53
Pumped Water Filter Bag ........................................................................................................... 53
Sump Pit .................................................................................................................................... 55
Site Housekeeping and Materials Management ......................................................................... 57
Waste Management…………
…………………………………………………………………...57
Concrete Washout .......................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 4 - Sediment Barriers and Filters ........................................................................................ 61
Compost Filter Sock ................................................................................................................... 62
Compost Filter Berm .................................................................................................................. 67
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube .................................................................................................. 69
Rock Filter Outlet ....................................................................................................................... 73
Silt Fence (Filter Fabric Fence) .................................................................................................. 75
Super Silt Fence (Super Filter Fabric Fence) ............................................................................. 82
Sediment Filter Log (Fiber Log) .................................................................................................. 85
Wood Chip Filter Berm ............................................................................................................... 87
Straw Bale Barrier ...................................................................................................................... 89
Rock Filter .................................................................................................................................. 92
Vegetative Filter Strip ................................................................................................................. 94
Storm Inlet Protection ................................................................................................................. 96
Inlet Filter Bag ................................................................................................................ 97
Stone Inlet Protection ..................................................................................................... 100
Chapter 5 - Runoff Calculations ....................................................................................................... 108
The Rational Equation ................................................................................................................ 110
Runoff Coefficient (C) ..................................................................................................... 110
Rainfall Intensity (I) ......................................................................................................... 112
Drainage Area (A) .......................................................................................................... 123
Chapter 6 - Runoff Conveyance BMPs ............................................................................................ 127
Channels .................................................................................................................................... 127

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page v
Page
Manning’s Equation……………………………………………………………………………..127
Berm ....................................................................................................................................... 150
Top-of-Slope Berm ..................................................................................................................... 150
Temporary Slope Pipe ............................................................................................................... 153
Bench ........................................................................................................................................ 157
Chapter 7 - Sediment Basins ........................................................................................................... 159
Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................... 159
Storage Volume Criteria ............................................................................................................. 164
Design Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 164
Skimmer Dewatering .................................................................................................................. 166
Perforated Riser Dewatering ...................................................................................................... 174
Freeboard .................................................................................................................................. 192
Emergency Spillway ................................................................................................................... 192
Flow Length to Width Ratio ........................................................................................................ 199
Outlet Barrels ............................................................................................................................. 202
Anti-seep Collar ......................................................................................................................... 203
Filter Diaphragm ........................................................................................................................ 209
Sediment Storage Zone Dewatering .......................................................................................... 211
Chapter 8 - Sediment Traps ............................................................................................................. 212
Design Criteria ........................................................................................................................... 212
Embankment Sediment Trap ...................................................................................................... 214
Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap ........................................................................................................ 217
Chapter 9 - Outlet Protection ........................................................................................................... 229
Riprap Apron .............................................................................................................................. 232
Flow Transition Mat .................................................................................................................... 242
Stilling Basin (Plunge Pool) ........................................................................................................ 245
Stilling Well ................................................................................................................................ 248
Energy Dissipater ....................................................................................................................... 251
Drop Structure............................................................................................................................ 252
Earthen Level Spreader ............................................................................................................. 253
Structural Level Spreader .......................................................................................................... 255
Chapter 10 - Low Hazard Individual Lot E&S Plans ......................................................................... 256
Chapter 11 - Stabilization Methods and Standards .......................................................................... 260
Surface Roughening .................................................................................................................. 260
Stair Step Grading .......................................................................................................... 260
Grooving Slopes ............................................................................................................. 261
Tracking Slopes .............................................................................................................. 262
Vegetative Stabilization .............................................................................................................. 262
Topsoil Application ......................................................................................................... 263
Seeding .......................................................................................................................... 263
Mulching ......................................................................................................................... 270
Composting .................................................................................................................... 271
Erosion Control Blankets ............................................................................................................ 273
Hydraulically Applied Blankets ........................................................................................ 275
Soil Binders ................................................................................................................................ 276
Sodding...................................................................................................................................... 277
Cellular Confinement Systems ................................................................................................... 280
Chapter 12 - New Products and Procedures .................................................................................... 282
Chapter 13 - Utility Line Projects ...................................................................................................... 283
Roadway Crossings ................................................................................................................... 284
Stream Crossings ...................................................................................................................... 284
Wetland Crossings ..................................................................................................................... 290

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page vi
Page
Waterbars .................................................................................................................................. 292
Chapter 14 - Timber Harvesting ....................................................................................................... 294
Haul Roads ................................................................................................................................ 294
Skid Roads and Skid Trails ........................................................................................................ 297
Log Landings ............................................................................................................................. 298
Winter Harvests ......................................................................................................................... 300
Retirement of Haul Roads, Skid Roads, Skid Trails, and Landings ............................................ 302
Chapter 15 - Streambank Stabilization ............................................................................................. 303
Vegetation .................................................................................................................................. 303
Riprap ........................................................................................................................................ 304
Gabions ..................................................................................................................................... 307
Grid Pavers ................................................................................................................................ 310
Cellular Confinement Systems ................................................................................................... 312
Miscellaneous Hard Armor Techniques ...................................................................................... 313
Fluvial Geomorphology (FGM) Techniques ................................................................................ 313
Bioengineering ........................................................................................................................... 314
Live Stakes ..................................................................................................................... 314
Live Fascines ................................................................................................................. 316
Branchpacking ................................................................................................................ 319
Fabric Encapsulated Soil ................................................................................................ 321
Fiber Rolls ...................................................................................................................... 323
Chapter 16 - Grading Standards ...................................................................................................... 325
Chapter 17 - Areas of Special Concern ............................................................................................ 327
Sinkhole Repair .......................................................................................................................... 327
Erosion and Sediment Pollution Control Practices for Contaminated Sites ................................. 332
NPDES Permits Involving Site Remediation and Redevelopment ................................... 340
Special Protection Watersheds .................................................................................................. 343
Policy ............................................................................................................................. 343
Antidegradation .............................................................................................................. 343
Nondischarge Alternatives .................................................................................. 344
Antidegradation Best Available Combination of Technologies (ABACT) .............. 344
ABACT BMPs for E&S Plans .............................................................................. 345
Slope Failures ............................................................................................................................ 347
Geothermal Well Drilling ............................................................................................................ 351
Appendix A - Checklists ................................................................................................................... 354
Complete Plan Checklist ............................................................................................................ 355
Standard E&S Control Plan Technical Review Checklist ............................................................ 357
Expanded E&S Control Plan Technical Review Checklist .......................................................... 360
Appendix B - Standard E&S Worksheets ......................................................................................... 371
Appendix C - Standard E&S Plan Notes .......................................................................................... 394
Appendix D - Standards for Maps and Drawings.............................................................................. 397
Appendix E - Soil Use Limitations .................................................................................................... 400
Appendix F - Energy Dissipaters ...................................................................................................... 410
Roughness Element Dissipater .................................................................................................. 411
Impact Dissipater ....................................................................................................................... 426
Appendix G - Technical Paper: “Level Spreaders and Off-site Discharges of Stormwater to Non-
surface Waters” .......................................................................................................... 430
Appendix H - Dust Control ............................................................................................................... 451
Appendix I - Publication: “A Guide to Preserving Trees in Development Projects” by
William Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University (1999) ................................ 454
Appendix J - Publication: “Understanding Tree Planting in Construction-damaged Soils” by William
Elmendorf of The Pennsylvania State University (2008) ............................................. 483

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page vii
Appendix K - Fact Sheet - E & S BMPs for Water Well Drilling and Aquifer Testing ......................... 496
Appendix L - Glossary...................................................................................................................... 498
LIST OF TABLES
Table Number
Name
Page
3.1
Maximum Waterbar Spacing .................................................................................. 22
3.2
Maximum Spacing of Broad-based Dips, Open-top Culverts and Deflectors .......... 23
3.3
Sizing and Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts for Temporary Access Roads ............. 31
3.4
Recommended Maximum Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts (18” dia CMP) for
Permanent Access Roads ..................................................................................... 32
3.5
Minimum Distance Between Culvert Pipes ............................................................. 37
4.1
Compost Sock Fabric Minimum Specifications ....................................................... 63
4.2
Compost Standards……………………………………………………………………… 64
4.3
Fabric Properties for Silt Fence .............................................................................. 75
4.4
Maximum Slope Length for Silt Fence ................................................................... 76
4.5
Maximum Slope Length for Straw Bale Barriers and Wood Chip Filter Berms........ 89
4.6
Minimum Filter Strip Width for Sediment Removal ................................................. 95
5.1
Pennsylvania Rainfall by County ............................................................................ 109
5.2
Runoff Coefficients for the Rational Equation ........................................................ 111
5.3
Roughness Coefficient for Sheet Flow T
c
Computations ........................................ 112
5.4
Appropriate Rainfall Regional Map for Various Times of Concentration
and Frequencies .................................................................................................... 114
5.5
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 1 ......................................... 118
5.6
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 2 ......................................... 119
5.7
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 3 ......................................... 120
5.8
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 4 ......................................... 121
5.9
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 5 ......................................... 122
6.1
Geometric Elements of Channel Sections .............................................................. 128
6.2
Maximum Permissible Shear Stresses for Various Channel Liners ........................ 130
6.3
Manning’s “n” for Trapezoidal Channels with Vegetative Stabilization
(Retardance C) ...................................................................................................... 131
6.4
Maximum Permissible Velocities (ft/sec) for Channels Lined with Vegetation ........ 132
6.5
Manning’s Roughness Coefficient (“n”) for Commonly Used Temporary Channel
Linings ................................................................................................................... 133
6.6
Riprap Gradation, Filter Blanket Requirements, Maximum Velocities ..................... 135
6.7
Comparison of Various Gradations of Coarse Aggregates ..................................... 135
6.8
Riprap Size Adjustment Factor for Various Rock Types ......................................... 136
6.9
Recommended n Values to be Used with Manning’s Equation When Doing
Stability Analyses of Receiving Streams ................................................................ 137
6.10
Maximum Permissible Velocities and Shear Stresses for Reno Mattresses
and Gabions .......................................................................................................... 139
6.11
Minimum Dimensions for Temporary Slope Pipes ................................................. 154
6.12
Bench Spacing....................................................................................................... 157
7.1
K
p
Values for Common Sizes of Pipe ..................................................................... 176
7.2
Pipe Flow Capacity - n = 0.015 .............................................................................. 178
7.3
Pipe Flow Capacity - n = 0.025 .............................................................................. 179
7.4
Concrete Base Requirements for Various Sizes of Temporary Riser Pipes ........... 187
7.5
Grass-lined Emergency Spillway Capacity in CFS (Side Slopes 1H:1V) ................ 196
7.6
Grass-lined Emergency Spillway Capacity in CFS (Side Slopes 2H:1V) ................ 197
7.7
Grass-lined Emergency Spillway Capacity in CFS (Side Slopes 3H:1V) ................ 197
7.8
Grass-lined Emergency Spillway Capacity in CFS (Side Slopes 4H:1V) ................ 198
8.1
Recommended Minimum Pipe Sizes for Barrel/Riser Sediment Traps ................... 217
11.1
Cubic Yards of Topsoil Required for Application to Various Depths ....................... 263
11.2
Soil Amendment Application Rate Equivalents....................................................... 266
11.3
Plant Tolerances of Soil Limitation Factors ............................................................ 267

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page viii
Table Number
Name
Page
11.4
Recommended Seed Mixtures ............................................................................... 268
11.5
Recommended Seed Mixtures for Stabilizing Disturbed Areas .............................. 269
11.6
Mulch Application Rates ........................................................................................ 271
11.7
Typical Polymer Stabilized Fiber Matrix Application Rates ..................................... 276
13.1
Maximum Spacing and Materials for Trench Plugs ................................................ 291
13.2
Maximum Spacing for Permanent Waterbars on a Utility Line Right-of-way ........... 293
14.1
Minimum Vegetative Filter Strip Widths for Timber Harvesting ............................... 298
15.1
Live Fascine Spacing ............................................................................................. 317
16.1
Recommended Minimum Setbacks for Fill Placement in the Vicinity of Regulated
Waters, Highways, Railroads, and Other Public Transportation Facilities .............. 326
17.1
Processes Leading to Landslides........................................................................... 349
E.1
Limitations of Pennsylvania Soils Pertaining to Earthmoving Projects .................... 401
F.1
Impact Dissipater Dimensions (ft-inches) ............................................................... 427
G.1
Allowable Velocities for Downslope Covers for Channel Flows .............................. 441
G.2
Maximum Velocities of Flow Across a Level Spreader ........................................... 443
G.3
Level Spreader Lengths for Various Downslope Covers and Discharges ............... 444
G.4
Reduced Level Spreader Lengths for Wooded Riparian Buffers ............................ 444
H.1
Application Rates for Dust Suppressants ............................................................... 452
H.2
Adhesives Used for Dust Control ........................................................................... 453

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page ix
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Number
Name
Page
I.1
Raindrop Impact ................................................................................................. xv
I.2
Types of Erosion ................................................................................................. xvi
3.1
Typical Roadside Ditch Section .......................................................................... 30
3.2
Access Road Layout ........................................................................................... 30
3.3
Typical Turnout ................................................................................................... 33
3.4
Temporary Bridge Stream Crossing .................................................................... 38
3.5
Typical Tire Mat Wetland Crossing ..................................................................... 41
3.6
Typical Expanded Metal Grating Wetland Crossing ............................................ 41
3.7
Typical Wood Mat For Wetland Crossing ............................................................ 42
3.8
Typical Causeway ............................................................................................... 43
3.9
Bypass Channel with Non-erosive Lining ............................................................ 44
3.10
Rigid or Flexible Pipe Flume Through a Work Area ............................................ 45
3.11
Temporary Cofferdam and Pump Bypass Around In-channel Work Areas .......... 46
3.12
In-stream Cofferdam Diversion ........................................................................... 47
3.13
Jersey Barrier Cofferdam-end View .................................................................... 48
3.14
Turbidity Barrier Installation - No Current and Sheltered from
Wind and Waves ................................................................................................. 50
3.15
Turbidity Barrier Installation - Small to Moderate Current (< 3.5 FPS) and
Some Wind and Wave Action ............................................................................. 51
3.16
Turbidity Barrier Installation - Considerable Current (3.5 -5 FPS) and
Potential Tidal, Wind and Wave Action ............................................................... 51
3.17
Turbidity Barrier Installation - Tidal Condition ...................................................... 52
3.18
Typical Compost Sock Washout Installation ....................................................... 58
4.1
Sediment Barrier Alignment ................................................................................ 61
4.2
Maximum Permissible Slope Length Above Compost Filter Socks ...................... 66
4.3
Maximum Permissible Slope Length Above Silt Fence and Straw
Bale Barriers ....................................................................................................... 78
4.4
Straw Bale Barrier Installation ............................................................................. 91
4.5
Vegetative Filter Strip .......................................................................................... 95
5.1
Nomograph to Determine Shallow Concentrated Flow Velocity .......................... 113
5.2
Rainfall Region Map A ........................................................................................ 115
5.3
Rainfall Region Map B ........................................................................................ 115
5.4
Rainfall Region Map C ........................................................................................ 116
5.5
Rainfall Region Map D ........................................................................................ 116
5.6
Rainfall Region Map E ........................................................................................ 117
5.7
Rainfall Region Map F ........................................................................................ 117
5.8
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 1 ..................... 118
5.9
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 2 ..................... 119
5.10
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 3 ..................... 120
5.11
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 4 ..................... 121
5.12
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 5 ..................... 122
6.1
Maximum Permissible Flow Depth for Riprap Channels ...................................... 134
6.2
“n” Values for Riprap Channels ........................................................................... 138
6.3
Plan Map of Sample Channel ............................................................................. 140
6.4
Void Space in Riprap Channel Bottom ................................................................ 141
6.5
Maintaining Top-of-slope Berms and Temporary Slope Pipes ............................. 152
7.1
Sediment Basin ................................................................................................... 163
7.2
Skimmer Orifice Design Chart ............................................................................. 173
7.3
Riser Inflow Curves ............................................................................................. 177
7.4
Typical Sediment Forebay .................................................................................. 200
7.5
Use of Baffles in Sediment Basins ...................................................................... 202
7.6
Anti-seep Collar Design ...................................................................................... 203

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page x
Figure Number
Name
Page
7.7
Graphical Determination of Length of Pipe in the Saturated Zone (L
s
) ................ 206
7.8
Typical Filter Diaphragm Installation ................................................................... 209
9.1
Velocity Adjustment Nomograph for Less Than Full Pipe Flow ........................... 231
9.2
Proper Outfall Orientation to Receiving Stream ................................................... 232
9.3
Riprap Apron Design, Minimum Tailwater Condition ........................................... 239
9.4
Riprap Apron Design, Maximum Tailwater Condition .......................................... 240
9.5
Typical Transition Mat Installation ....................................................................... 243
9.6
Minimum Coverage Length vs. Exit Velocity for Flow Transition Mat .................. 244
9.7
d50 Stone Size for Stilling Basins ....................................................................... 247
9.8
Stilling Well Height .............................................................................................. 248
9.9
Stilling Well Diameter .......................................................................................... 249
9.10
Depth of Well Below Invert .................................................................................. 250
9.11
Typical Drop Structure ........................................................................................ 252
11.1
Stair Step Grading of Cut Slopes ........................................................................ 261
11.2
Grooved Slope Details ........................................................................................ 261
11.3
Tracking a Fill Slope ........................................................................................... 262
11.4
Straw Mulch Applied at 3 Tons/Acre ................................................................... 270
11.5
Sodding .............................................................................................................. 279
11.6
Typical Cellular Confinement System Installation ................................................ 281
13.1
Waterbar Installation on a Utility Line Right-of-way ............................................. 293
14.1
Typical Timber Harvest Haul Road Layout .......................................................... 296
14.2
Typical Timber Harvest Site Plan ........................................................................ 299
14.3
Alternative Timber Harvest Site Plan .................................................................. 300
14.4
Typical Timber Harvest Plan Mapping Symbols .................................................. 301
15.1
Riprap Streambank Protection with Optional Live Stakes ................................... 305
15.2
Extension of Primary Rock Riprap Protection Area ............................................. 306
15.3
Gabion Streambank Protection ........................................................................... 308
15.4
Reno Mattress Streambank Protection ............................................................... 309
15.5
Grid Pavers ......................................................................................................... 311
15.6
Live Stakes ......................................................................................................... 315
15.7
Live Fascines ...................................................................................................... 318
15.8
Branchpacking .................................................................................................... 320
15.9
Fabric Encapsulated Soil with Branchpacking ..................................................... 322
15.10
Fiber Rolls .......................................................................................................... 324
17.1
Sinkhole Repair with a Bentonite Cap .................................................................... 328
17.2
Sinkhole Repair with a Pervious Cover .................................................................. 329
17.3
Sinkhole Repair with an Impervious Cover ............................................................. 330
17.4
Sinkhole Repair with Soil Cover ............................................................................. 331
F.1
Typical Roughness Element Dissipater .................................................................. 411
F.2
Forces Acting on a Roughness Element ................................................................ 412
F.3
Critical Dimensions Used in Designing Roughness Element Dissipaters ............... 412
F.4
Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlets of Rectangular Culverts on Horizontal
and Mild Slopes............................................................................................. 417
F.5
Dimensionless Rating Curves for Outlets of Circular Culverts on Horizontal
and Mild Slopes............................................................................................. 418
F.6
Flow for Circular Pipe Flowing Full ......................................................................... 419
F.7
Design Values for Roughness Element Dissipaters ............................................... 420
F.8
Average Velocity in Abrupt Expansion below Rectangular Outlet ........................... 421
F.9
Average Velocity in Abrupt Expansion below Circular Outlet .................................. 422
F.10
Average Depth for Abrupt Expansion below Rectangular Outlet ............................ 423
F.11
Average Depth for Abrupt Expansion below Circular Outlet ................................... 424
F.12
Riprap Size for Use Downstream of Energy Dissipaters ........................................ 425
F.13
Design Curve for Impact Dissipaters ...................................................................... 428
F.14
Impact Dissipater Dimensions ................................................................................ 429

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xi
Figure Number
Name
Page
G.1
Convex Contours and Slopes are Less Susceptible to Reconcentrating Flows ...... 433
G.2
Turf Reinforcement Mat (TRM) for Level Spreader with Vegetated Lip .................. 435
G.3
Typical Orientation of Level Spreader with Surface Discharge ............................... 435
G.4
Variation of Plunge Pool Dimensions ..................................................................... 436
G.5
Typical Orientation of Level Spreader with Subsurface Discharge ......................... 437
G.6
View of Level Spreader Face Looking Downslope ................................................. 438
G.7
Concentration of Flow Downslope of Level Spreader ............................................. 441
G.8
Weir Equation Inputs.............................................................................................. 443
G.9
Outfall Layout ........................................................................................................ 446
G.10
Rill/Gully Repair ..................................................................................................... 447
G.11
Stream Bank/Gully Repair ..................................................................................... 447
G.12
Common Level Spreader Failures.......................................................................... 448

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xii
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
Number
Name
Page
3-1
Rock Construction Entrance ............................................................................... 14
3-2
Rock Construction Entrance with Wash Rack ..................................................... 16
3-3
Crowned Roadway ............................................................................................. 19
3-4
Insloped Roadway .............................................................................................. 20
3-5
Waterbar ............................................................................................................. 22
3-6
Broad-based Dip for Low Gradient (< 5%) Roadways ......................................... 24
3-7
Broad-based Dip for High Gradient (5%-10%) Roadways ................................... 25
3-8
Open-top Culvert ................................................................................................ 27
3-9
Water Deflector ................................................................................................... 29
3-10
Ditch Relief Culvert ............................................................................................. 32
3-11
Compost Filter Sock Trap ................................................................................... 35
3-12
Temporary Stream Crossing - Plan View ............................................................ 38
3-13
Temporary Stream Crossing ............................................................................... 39
3-14
Temporary Stream Crossing - Multiple Pipes ...................................................... 40
3-15
Sandbag Diversion Dam or Cofferdam ............................................................... 48
3-16
Pumped Water Filter Bag .................................................................................... 54
3-17
Sump Pit ............................................................................................................. 56
4-1
Compost Filter Sock............................................................................................ 65
4-2
Compost Filter Berm ........................................................................................... 68
4-3
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation ......................................................... 70
4-4
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation in a Concentrated Flow Area ........... 71
4-5
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation Across a Wide Flow Path ................ 72
4-6
Rock Filter Outlet ................................................................................................ 74
4-7
Standard Silt Fence (18” High) ............................................................................ 79
4-8
Reinforced Silt Fence (30” High) ......................................................................... 81
4-9
Silt Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales ..................................................... 81
4-10
Super Silt Fence ................................................................................................. 84
4-11
Sediment Filter Log (Fiber Log) .......................................................................... 86
4-12
Wood Chip Filter Berm ........................................................................................ 88
4-13
Straw Bale Barrier ............................................................................................... 90
4-14
Rock Filter .......................................................................................................... 93
4-15
Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet.............................................................. 98
4-16
Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet ............................................................. 99
4-17
Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet ................................... 100
4-18
Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet ................................... 101
4-19
Stone Inlet Protection and Berm - Type C Inlet ................................................... 102
4-20
Stone Inlet Protection and Berm - Type M Inlet .................................................. 103
4-21
Alternate Stone Inlet Protection for Type M Inlet - at Grade ................................ 104
4-22
Alternate Type C Inlet Protection - Not at Grade ................................................. 105
4-23
Alternate Type M Inlet Protection - Not at Grade ................................................. 106
4-24
Alternate Stone Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet Above Grade .............................. 107
6-1
Vegetated Channel ............................................................................................. 146
6-2
Sodded Channel ................................................................................................. 148
6-3
Riprap Channel ................................................................................................... 149
6-4
Top-of-Slope Berm ............................................................................................. 151
6-5
Temporary Slope Pipe ........................................................................................ 155
6-6
Bench Detail ....................................................................................................... 158
7-1
Skimmer ............................................................................................................. 167
7-2
Skimmer Attached to a Permanent Riser ............................................................ 168
7-3
Skimmer with Stone Landing Berm ..................................................................... 170
7-4
Sediment Basin Embankment and Spillway Details - Skimmer ........................... 171

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xiii
Detail Number
Name
Page
7-5
Trash Rack and Anti-vortex Device ..................................................................... 180
7-6
Sediment Basin Embankment and Spillway Details - Perforated Riser ............... 181
7-7
Sediment Basin Temporary Riser ....................................................................... 183
7-8
Sediment Basin/Detention Pond Embankment and Spillway Details ................... 185
7-9
Sediment Basin/Detention Pond Riser Structures ............................................... 188
7-10
Temporary Extension Riser and Trash Rack for Permanent Structure ................ 190
7-11
Dry Sediment Basin Temporary Riser ................................................................. 191
7-12
Sediment Basin Emergency Spillway with Riprap Liner ...................................... 193
7-13
Sediment Basin Emergency Spillway with TRM Liner ......................................... 194
7-14
Baffle .................................................................................................................. 201
7-15
Metal Anti-seep Collar for Temporary Basins or Traps ........................................ 207
7-16
Concrete Anti-seep Collar for Permanent Basins or Traps .................................. 208
7-17
Concrete Cradle for Basin or Trap Outlet Barrel .................................................. 210
7-18
Sediment Basin or Sediment Trap Sediment Storage Dewatering Facility .......... 211
8-1
Embankment Sediment Trap .............................................................................. 215
8-2
Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap................................................................................. 218
8-3
Sediment Trap Temporary Riser ......................................................................... 220
8-4
Dry Barrel/Riser Sediment Trap .......................................................................... 221
8-5
Dry Sediment Trap Temporary Riser .................................................................. 223
8-6
Sediment Trap Outlet Basin Detail ...................................................................... 225
8-7
Type M Inlet Sediment Trap ................................................................................ 226
8-8
Concrete Riser with Temporary Dewatering Holes .............................................. 227
9-1
Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet with Flared End Section or Endwall ........................ 234
9-2
Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet without Flared Endwall ............................................ 235
9-3
Riprap Apron at Pipe Outlet to an Existing Channel ............................................ 237
9-4
Stilling Basin ....................................................................................................... 246
9-5
Earthen Level Spreader ...................................................................................... 254
10-1
Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Above Roadway...................................................... 257
10-2
Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Below Roadway ...................................................... 258
10-3
Typical On-lot BMPs for Lot Along Ascending or Descending Roadway ............. 259
11-1
Erosion Control Blanket Installation .................................................................... 274
13-1
Typical Utility Line Flumed Stream Crossing with Optional Access Road ............ 287
13-2
Typical Utility Line Stream Crossing with Pump Bypass ...................................... 288
13-3
Typical Utility Line Stream Crossing with Cofferdam ........................................... 289
13-4
Typical Trench Plug Installation .......................................................................... 291

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xiv
CHECKLISTS, STANDARD E&S WORKSHEETS, STANDARD NOTES
AND REFERENCES
Worksheet
Number
Name
Page
Complete Plan Checklist ..................................................................................... 355
Standard E&S Control Plan Technical Review Checklist ..................................... 357
Expanded E&S Control Plan Technical Review Checklist ................................... 360
1
Compost Filter Socks .......................................................................................... 372
2
Compost Filter Berms ......................................................................................... 373
3
Standard Silt Fence ............................................................................................ 374
4
Reinforced Silt Fence .......................................................................................... 375
5
Silt Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales ..................................................... 376
6
Super Silt Fence ................................................................................................. 377
7
Straw Bale Barriers ............................................................................................. 378
8
Rock Filters ......................................................................................................... 379
9
Time of Concentration ......................................................................................... 380
10
Rational Equation ............................................................................................... 381
11
Channel Design Data .......................................................................................... 382
12
Sediment Basin Capacity Requirements ............................................................. 383
13
Sediment Basin Dimensions and Elevations ....................................................... 384
14
Sediment Basin/Sediment Trap Storage Data ..................................................... 385
15
Sediment Basin/Sediment Trap Dewatering Discharge Data .............................. 386
16
Sediment Basin Dewatering Time Data .............................................................. 387
17
Sediment Basin Discharge Capacity ................................................................... 388
18
Anti-seep Collar Design ...................................................................................... 389
19
Sediment Trap Design Data ................................................................................ 390
20
Riprap Apron Outlet Protection ........................................................................... 391
21
Temporary and Permanent Vegetative Stabilization Specifications ..................... 392
22
Plan Preparer Record of Training and Experience in Erosion and Sediment
Pollution Control Methods and Techniques ................................................ 393
Standard E&S Plan Notes ................................................................................... 394
References ......................................................................................................... 560

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xv
Plant
& Soil Sciences elibrary
Figure
I.1
Raindrop Impact
INTRODUCTION
(Adapted from the Delaware Erosion and Sediment Control Handbook)
“What is the harm if a little
mud washes into the
stream?” “Erosion takes
place all the time naturally,
so what’s the big deal?”
“Do you know how much
money these erosion
control BMPs are costing
me?” These are questions
that earthmovers ask us all
the time. They are
legitimate questions that
deserve an answer. First,
let’s look at the natural
process of erosion, then
how it is affected by
earthmoving projects, and
finally how that affects both
the environment and all of
us as residents and tax
payers.
Soil erosion is the process by which the land’s surface is worn away by the action of wind, water, ice
and gravity. Natural or geologic erosion has been occurring at a relatively slow rate since the earth was
formed, and is a tremendous factor in the creation of the earth as we know it today. The rolling hills of
the Allegheny Plateau, the steep slopes of the Valley and Ridge Province, and the relatively low profile
of the Coastal Plain are all results of the geologic erosion and sedimentation process in Pennsylvania.
Except for some cases of shoreline and stream channel erosion, natural erosion occurs at a slow rate
and is an important factor in maintaining an ecological balance.
Water-generated erosion is the most severe type of erosion, especially in developing areas. It is this
type of erosion that is the focus of this manual. Water-generated erosion occurs as a result of the
impact of rain droplets on unprotected soil surfaces and is due to frictional forces on soil particles as
those rain droplets combine and move across the surface of the land. The force due to impact of
raindrops is primarily vertical and tends to detach soil particles, while the force of flowing water is
primarily horizontal and acts to move detached particles from one place to another.
TYPES OF EROSION
Water-generated erosion can be broken down into the
following types:
Raindrop Erosion is the initial effect of a rainstorm
upon the soil. Raindrop impact dislodges soil
particles and splashes them into the air (See
Figure
I.1).
These detached particles are then
vulnerable to the following types of erosion.
Sheet Erosion is caused by the shallow flow of
water over the land’s surface before it concentrates.
Although seldom the detaching agent, it can
transport soil particles detached by raindrop impact.
Sheet erosion has been identified as a major cause of soil loss on agricultural fields. Although there
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xvi
are cases where sheet flow has occurred for distances up to 150 feet, this is rare in Pennsylvania.
Surface irregularities typically cause concentration of the flow in less than 30 feet.
Rill Erosion occurs as sheet flow begins to concentrate in the low spots of irregular surfaces. As flow
changes from sheet flow to shallow concentrated flow, velocity and turbulence of flow increase. The
energy of this concentrated flow is able to detach and transport additional soil particles. When this
occurs, the running water begins to cut small channels. Rills are small but well-defined channels up to
a few inches deep. They are easily removed by harrowing and other surface treatments.
Gully Erosion occurs when rills combine to form larger and deeper channels. The main difference
between rill erosion and gully erosion is magnitude. Gullies are often too large to be repaired by tillage
equipment and typically require heavy equipment and special repair techniques.
Channel Erosion takes place when the volume and velocity within a stream channel are such that bed
and/or bank materials are moved and not replaced. Figure
I.2
illustrates the five stages of erosion.
NRCS
Figure
I.2
Types of Erosion
FACTORS AFFECTING EROSION
The erosion potential of any surface is determined by four basic factors: soil characteristics, vegetative
cover, topography, and climate. Although each factor will be addressed separately in this section, they
are inter-related in determining erosion potential.
SOIL CHARACTERISTICS which influence soil erodibility are those which affect infiltration capacity
and resistance to detachment by falling or flowing water. The most important of these characteristics
are:
1. Soil Texture (particle size and gradation)
2. Percentage of organic content
3. Soil Structure
4. Soil Permeability
Soils with high percentages of fine sand and silt content are usually the most erodible. Increasing the
clay and organic matter content of these soils decreases their erodibility. Clays tend to bind soil
particles together, while soils having high organic matter have a more stable structure which improves
permeability. Such soils resist detachment due to raindrop impact and tend to infiltrate more rainwater.
Reduced runoff results in decreased erosion. Clear, well-drained and well-graded gravel and gravel-
sand mixes are usually the least erodible soils.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xvii
VEGETATIVE COVER is extremely important in controlling erosion, because it provides the following
benefits:
1. It shields the soil surface from raindrop impact.
2. Root systems hold soil particles in place.
3. The soil’s capacity to absorb water is maintained.
4. Runoff velocity is reduced.
5. Evapotranspiration reduces subsurface water between rainfalls.
Soil erosion and the resultant sedimentation can be significantly reduced by decreasing the extent of
existing vegetation removed and staging construction to reduce the duration of exposure. Special
attention should be given to maintaining existing vegetation in areas having high erosion potential such
as erodible soils, steep slopes, drainage courses, and streambanks.
TOPOGRAPHY The volume and rate of runoff are affected by the size, shape, and slope of a
watershed. Increasing slope length and gradient increases the rate of runoff as well as the potential for
erosion. Slope orientation can also influence erosion potential. For example, a south-facing slope
having droughty soils may have poor growing conditions that make achieving an erosion-resistant
vegetative cover difficult.
CLIMATE The frequency, intensity, and duration of rainfall events are important factors influencing the
amount of runoff produced in a given watershed. Increased volume and velocity of runoff result in
increased erosion potential. Where storms are frequent and intense or are of long duration, erosion
risks are high. Seasonal changes in temperature, as well as variations in rainfall, help define the high
erosion risk periods of each year. Precipitation falling as snow does not usually result in erosion.
However, when the snow melts, and runoff occurs, erosion hazards can be high. Partially frozen soil
has reduced absorption capacity, and while frozen soils are relatively erosion-resistant, soils with high
moisture content are subject to uplift by freezing action. This makes them vulnerable to erosion upon
thawing.
SEDIMENTATION
During a typical storm event, runoff rapidly increases to a peak and then diminishes. Soil particles are
eroded and transported during the higher flows. As velocity decreases, the capacity of the flowing
water to transport sediment decreases and some of the soil particles are deposited. Often, these
particles are picked up once again by subsequent peak flows. In this way, eroded soil can be
transported great distances downslope, or downstream, in intermittent fashion from their source. This
process is called
sedimentation
.
A certain amount of sedimentation occurs in all stream channels. This natural process operates in
dynamic equilibrium. However, when human activity changes the sediment load and/or the hydrology
of a watershed, the stream channel is no longer in equilibrium. Over time, the stream channel will
adjust to the changes. The size and shape of the channel will be revised to bring the system back into
equilibrium. Where this results in channel erosion, additional material will be transported to
downstream receiving waters affecting their equilibrium. Potential environmental and economic
impacts due to this process of sedimentation will be discussed later.
EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION SITES
Land development activities often expose soils to the erosive forces of water through precipitation and
stormwater runoff. The shaping of land for construction or development purposes removes the soil’s
protective cover and changes the characteristics of the soil itself in many ways that are often
detrimental to infiltration, runoff patterns, and stream flow characteristics. Protective vegetation is
reduced or eliminated, topsoil is removed and stockpiled, and cuts and fills are made, altering the
topography and runoff characteristics of the site. This can increase the rate at which erosion takes
place to 10 or many more times the natural rate, depending on site conditions. Even when the topsoil

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xviii
is replaced following earthmoving, the physical properties of the soil have been changed. Surrounding
properties as well as receiving waters can be adversely affected, even by projects of limited size.
Uncontrolled runoff and the resulting sediment pollution can cause considerable economic damage to
individuals and to society, in general. Lost water usages, damage to public and private facilities and
water supplies, increased flooding, hazards to river traffic, and lost time, effort and money to remediate
these problems are all attributable to sediment pollution.
While the benefits of development are desirable, there are some very serious potential hazards
associated with that development which should be addressed. These include:
1. A significant increase in exposure of soil to erosive forces during construction
2. Increased volumes of stormwater runoff, accelerated erosion and sediment yield, and higher
peak flows caused by:
a. Removal of protective vegetative cover
b. Exposure of underlying soil or geologic formations which are less permeable and/or
more erodible than the original surface soil
c. Reduced capacity of soils to absorb rainfall due to compaction by heavy equipment
d. Enlarged drainage areas caused by grading operations, street construction, and
stormwater conveyance facilities
e. Prolonged exposure of disturbed areas due to scheduling and/or sequencing problems
f. Reduced times of concentration of surface runoff due to steepened slopes, shortened
flow paths, and use of materials with low resistance to flow
g. Increased impervious surface areas due to construction of streets, buildings, sidewalks,
and parking lots
3. Alteration of the groundwater regime, which adversely affects drainage systems, slope stability,
and survival of vegetation
4. Exposure of subsurface materials that are rocky, acidic, droughty, or otherwise unfavorable to
the establishment of vegetation
5. Adverse alteration of surface runoff patterns
Although streams and rivers naturally carry sediment loads, sediment yields from construction sites can
elevate these loads well above those in undisturbed watersheds. The erosion rates from construction
sites are generally acknowledged to be much greater than from almost any other land use. Both field
studies and erosion models indicate that erosion rates from construction sites are typically an order of
magnitude larger than row crops, and several orders of magnitude greater than well-vegetated forests
and pastures (USDA, 1970, cited in Dillaha et al., 1982: Meyer et al., 1971). Wolman and Schick
(1967) studied fluvial systems in Maryland and found sediment yields in areas undergoing construction
to be 1.5 to 75 times greater than in natural or agricultural catchments. A highway construction project
in West Virginia disturbed only 4.2% of a 4.75 square mile basin, but this resulted in a three-fold
increase in suspended solids (Downs and Appel, 1986).
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT
Stormwater discharges generated during construction have a potential for serious water quality
impacts. The biological, chemical, and physical properties of the waters may be severely affected. A
number of pollutants are often absorbed into the mineral or organic particles that comprise sediment.
The erosion and transportation of sediment into aquatic ecosystems is the primary pathway for
delivering nutrients (especially phosphorus), metals, and organic compounds. According to the
Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, ”Sediment pollution in lakes, reservoirs and bays can
introduce excess nutrients resulting in algal blooms; block the amount of available sunlight for aquatic
plants; reduce water depth resulting in warmer water temperatures; and speed up the water bodies
natural aging process (eutrophication).” It has been estimated that 80% of the phosphorus and 73% of
the Kjeldahl nitrogen in streams is associated with eroded sediment (USDA, 1989, cited in Fennessey
and Jarrett, 1994). Sediment can also act as a long-term storage media for toxicants. Studies show
that pollutants such as DDT, DDE, PCBs and chlordane can be found at detectable levels in sediment
deposited years ago at the bottoms of streams and rivers.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page xix
Where construction activities are intensive, the localized impacts upon water quality can be severe due
to high pollutant loads, primarily sediment. By volume, sediment is the greatest pollutant to the surface
waters of Pennsylvania. Excess sediments are associated with increased turbidity and reduced light
penetration in the water column, as well as more long-term effects associated with habitat destruction
and increased difficulty in filtering drinking water. In addition to reducing light penetration, fine sediment
(fine sand and smaller) impedes sight-feeding, smothers benthic organisms, abrades gills and other
sensitive structures, reduces habitat by clogging interstitial spaces within a stream bed, and reduces
the intergravel dissolved oxygen by reducing the permeability of the bed material. The overall effect of
fine sediment is to drastically reduce both the kinds and numbers of organisms present.
Coarser-grained materials blanket bottom areas and suppress aquatic life found in these areas. Where
currents are strong enough to move bedload, the abrasive action of suspended sediment accelerates
channel scour. Introduction of large volumes of sediment also has the potential of filling lakes and
reservoirs as well as clogging stream channels.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), sediment is the primary stressor for
31% of all declared impaired stream miles in the United States.
ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT
It has been estimated that over four billion tons of sediment reach the ponds, rivers, and lakes of the
United States each year, and approximately one billion tons of this sediment eventually reaches the
ocean. Sediment entering small streams in upland areas can be carried downstream into larger,
navigable rivers and reservoirs necessitating costly dredging. Every year in the United States about
497 million cubic yards of material are dredged by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers and private
operators to create and maintain navigable waterways and harbors. Without such efforts, many
waterways and port facilities would soon become impassable by most large commercial and defense
vessels. The cost of keeping these waters passable is approximately $500 million dollars annually
(1986 dollars). In addition, the disposal of dredged material has become increasingly difficult with the
dwindling supply of suitable sites available.
According to the Philadelphia Water Department, sediment pollution can increase the cost of water
filtration for public drinking water. Sediment pollution, according to Pennsylvania Fish and Boat
Commission and Trout Unlimited, costs Commonwealth residents tens of millions of dollars each year
in lost revenue (e.g. hotel rooms, restaurants, etc.) associated with recreational fishing because of
degraded water quality and reduced fish habitat. Other forms of tourism that may suffer include hiking,
swimming and sightseeing.
Sediment deposition can contribute to accelerated streambank erosion which translates into property
losses for public and private property owners.
In 1985, a study by Clark, et. al., estimated that the annual cost of sediment damage in the United
States ranged from $1 billion to $13 billion ($2.1 billion and $27.3 billion in 2011 dollars*). Another
study by Osterkamp, et. al. found that the annual costs of water pollution due to sediment in North
America approached $16 billion in 1988 ($31 billion in 2011 dollars*). It is clear from these studies that
the economic damage due to sediment pollution is significant. It is also clear that the benefits of sound
erosion control practices during earthmoving operations not only make good sense from an
environmental viewpoint, but from an economic one as well.
* Adjusted according to the Consumer Price Index

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 1
CHAPTER 1 - REQUIRED E&S PLAN CONTENT
Pa. Code Title 25 Chapter 102.4 (b) requires the “implementation and maintenance of E&S BMPs” to
minimize the potential for accelerated erosion and sedimentation, including those activities which
disturb less than 5,000 square feet (464.5 square meters)” [102(b)(1)]. It also requires that “a person
proposing earth disturbance activities shall develop and implement a written E&S Plan under this
chapter if one or more of the following criteria apply [102.4(b)(2)]:
1.
The earth disturbance activity will result in a total earth disturbance of 5,000 square feet
(464.5 square meters) or more,
2.
The person proposing the earth disturbance activities is required to develop an E&S Plan under
this chapter or under other Department regulations, or
3.
The earth disturbance activity, because of its proximity to existing drainage features or patterns,
has the potential to discharge to a water classified as a High Quality or Exceptional Value water
under Chapter 93 (relating to water quality standards)..”
§102.4(b)(3) requires that the E&S Plan “be prepared by a person trained and experienced in E&S
control methods and techniques applicable to the size and scope of the project being designed.”
§102.4(b)(4) requires that “unless otherwise authorized by the Department or conservation district after
consultation with the Department, earth disturbance activities shall be planned and implemented to the
extent practicable in accordance with the following:
1.
Minimize the extent and duration of the earth disturbance.
2.
Maximize protection of existing drainage features and vegetation.
3.
Minimize soil compaction.
4.
Utilize other measures or controls that prevent or minimize the generation of increased
stormwater runoff.”
Perhaps the most neglected and yet the most important aspect of designing an effective E&S plan is
knowledge of the specific site in question. It is essential that the plan designer have as complete an
understanding of the unique characteristics of the site as possible. Therefore, it is highly recommended
that a site visit be scheduled at the earliest practical point in the development of the plan.
Site characteristics that will affect the plan design as well as the construction of the project
(e.g., drainage patterns, seeps and springs, steepness and stability of slopes, sinkholes, etc.) should be
noted and mapped. Sensitive and special value features (e.g., wetlands, woodlands, flow paths,
riparian areas, etc.) should be identified, mapped, and protected as much as possible. A little time well
spent in the field can save much time and money due to plan revisions, unforeseen hazards, penalties,
and shutdowns. Only after the designer has a good working knowledge of the site should the designer
proceed with developing the E&S plan.
The basic concept of providing effective, efficient and practical erosion and sediment control should be
considered when determining the locations and types of BMPs. All off-site surface water should be
diverted away from areas to be disturbed (wherever feasible); all runoff from disturbed areas should be
collected and conveyed to a sediment basin, sediment trap, or other BMP for sediment removal. The
extent of the disturbance, as well as the time period between initial disturbance and final stabilization,
should be minimized. Existing vegetation, especially existing trees, should be preserved wherever
possible (see Appendix I for more information regarding tree preservation). Temporary stabilization
must be provided for earth-exposed areas where earthwork is delayed or stopped for a period of 4 or
more days, and permanent stabilization must ultimately be provided for all disturbed areas (25 Pa Code
§ 102.22). Sediment removal treatment for water pumped from excavations is usually needed. Access
to the site and removal of mud from vehicle tires before vehicles exit onto existing roadways — public
or private — are also required.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 2
25 Pa. Code § 102.4(b)(5) of the Pennsylvania Code requires that the following items be included in the
drawings and narrative of an E&S plan for earth disturbance activities:
1.
The existing topographic features of the project site and the immediate surrounding area
.
These features should be shown on a map or maps included with or part of the drawings. This
requirement applies to off-site borrow and waste areas as well as the project site. Mapping
should conform to the standards contained in Appendix D. Cross-sections and profiles are not
an acceptable alternative since these do not adequately define existing level contour for
sediment barriers or drainage areas for channels, basins, or traps.
2.
The types, depth, slope, locations and limitations of the soils
. The locations of the soils
may be delineated on the map or drawing discussed above, or on a separate map of the site. A
legible photocopy of a portion of the soil survey maps on which the proposed project can be
clearly shown may also be used. The locations of all proposed sediment basins and traps
should be shown on any separate or soil survey maps.
The types, depth, slope and limitations of the soils should be included in the narrative portion of
the plan or on the plan drawings/maps. Data on the physical characteristics of the soils, such
as their texture, resistance to erosion and suitability for intended use is to be included in the
narrative report. This information is available from the tables on the USDA, Natural Resources
Conservation Service website:
http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/WebSoilSurvey.aspx
.
Soils information is also available from the Penn State website at:
http://soilmap.psu.edu
.
However, the data from the Penn State website might not be as current as that from the NRCS
website, and, therefore, it should only be used if the county survey has not been updated.
Only those limitations relevant to the proposed project should be cited (e.g. suitability for corn
production would not be appropriate for a housing project, but soil erodibility, slope stability,
suitability for winter grading, piping tendencies, and potential trench caving would be
appropriate). Appendix E lists some of the most common soil use limitations for many of the
soils in Pennsylvania. The means to address the identified soils limitations should be included
on the drawings. For example, a note to use only certain areas of the site as sources for
embankment material for sediment basins or traps, or special fertilization requirements for
portions of the project, etc. The intent of Appendix E is to alert designers to potential problems
that could arise during construction and afford an opportunity to avoid or minimize those
problems by proper design. Simply copying Appendix E into the narrative is not sufficient to
meet the requirements of this section.
3.
The characteristics of the earth disturbance activity, including the past, present and
proposed land uses and the proposed alteration to the project site.
Past land uses are the
actual land use(s) of the project site for the past 50 years or longer if known, not just the zoning
of the land. Present land uses are the dominant land uses of the project site for the 5 years
preceding the planned project, not just the zoning of the land. For sites requiring a National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, this information is contained in the
completed Notice of Intent (NOI). For non-permitted sites, it should be included in the narrative.
Site design and layout should employ an environmentally sensitive approach that minimizes the
effect of the development on water, land, and air to the maximum extent practicable. The
guidelines for Non-Structural BMPs set forth in Chapter 5 of the Department’s Pennsylvania
Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual (Document No. 363-0300-002) should be
incorporated prior to design of the E&S plan. The proposed alteration to the project area and
the limits of the project area should be shown on maps or drawings. These maps should be at
the same scale as the original topographic map. The use of the original contour map as a base
map, with the new contours superimposed and identified in the legend, should be used to depict
the alteration to the area. Such information as the limits of clearing and grubbing, the areas of
cuts and fills and the locations of roads, paved areas, buildings and other structures are to be
included. Final contours of the project area at an interval that will adequately describe the

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 3
topography of the site should be included on these maps. Final contours should tie into existing
contours. Separate maps/drawings, or inserts on the main project drawings should be included
for off-site borrow or disposal areas which are part of the project. These drawings or inserts
should include all information required on the main drawings. A legend that describes all of the
alterations and BMPs to be used for erosion and sediment control should be shown on the
maps or drawings. Proposed grading should conform to the standards provided in Chapter 16
of this manual.
4.
The volume and rate of runoff from the project site and its upstream watershed area.
The
area draining to a particular BMP should be determined. Acceptable methods to calculate
runoff are described in Chapter 5 of this manual and Chapter 8 of the Pennsylvania Stormwater
Best Management Practices Manual. In some instances the drainage areas will increase or
decrease as the site grading proceeds. In either case, the maximum drainage area to the BMP
should be used to determine the design capacity. Design capacity requirements are included in
the descriptions for the various BMPs. It should be noted that “due to the limitations of the
Rational Method itself, as well as assumptions in the Modified Rational Method about the total
storm duration, this method may not be used to calculate water quality, infiltration, or capture
volumes for Post Construction Stormwater Management BMPs” (Pennsylvania Stormwater Best
Management Practices Manual, 2006).
For many projects, alterations to drainage patterns, impervious coverage or other watershed
characteristics may necessitate an Off-Site Stability Analysis. This analysis is necessary where
stormwater discharges are proposed to be directed to off-site areas that are not Surface Waters
(i.e. uplands) or to areas unsuitable for carrying storm event flows. This can include overland
flows that discharge to an open area, or follow an existing swale or other natural flow path
lacking clearly defined bed and banks. For more guidance on these discharges, see Appendix
G - Technical Paper: “Level Spreaders and Off-site Discharges of Stormwater to Non-surface
Waters”. Specific guidance for determining adequacy of discharge can found under the section
on
Legal Considerations
. Further guidance can be obtained from the Department’s factsheet
regarding "Off Site Discharges of Stormwater to Areas that are not Surface Waters" (Document
No. 3930-FS-DEP4124).
A stream stability analysis is necessary where discharges are anticipated to overburden a
receiving stream, most notably headwater streams which are typically the least tolerant to
increases in magnitude, duration or frequency of discharges. Wherever a proposed discharge
will result in a discernible increase in rate or volume to a receiving waterway, a stream stability
analysis should be included in the narrative stating the impact of the discharge on the
watercourse’s ability to resist erosion. Design computations for all proposed protective
measures for downstream watercourses should be included. (See Chapter 6 for guidance on
calculating channel capacity and checking the stability of existing or proposed linings).
Additional guidance and information regarding stream channel stability analysis may also be
obtained from Technical Bulletin No. 1 - “Stream Channel Erosion Control Policy Guidance”
from Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation
(http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/stormwater_management/documents/tecbltn1.PDF).
5.
The location of all surface waters, which may receive runoff within or from the project
site and their classification under Chapter 93.
All streams in Pennsylvania are classified
based on their designated and existing water uses and water quality criteria. Designated uses
for surface waters are found in 25 Pa. Code §§ 93.9a—93.9z. Existing uses of surface waters
are usually the same as the designated use, except where information has been provided to or
obtained by the Department, which indicates that a particular water body actually attains a more
stringent water use than the designated use. Existing uses are protected pursuant to 25 Pa.
Code §§ 93.4a—93.4c. Existing uses may be obtained from DEP’s website at:
http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=514&objID=553974&mode=2
. If the runoff
from a permitted project site discharges to a stream that is classified for special protection (High

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 4
Quality [HQ] or Exceptional Value [EV]), more stringent criteria are to be used to design the
BMPs for that site. Nondischarge alternatives are to be used wherever possible. If during a 2-
year/24-hour storm event it is not possible to avoid increasing the rate or volume of runoff from
disturbed areas to a special protection watershed, Antidegradation Best Available Combination
of Technologies (ABACT) BMPs must be used to the fullest extent possible. BMPs with low
sediment removal efficiencies (e.g. rock filters) are not ABACT. BMPs with moderate sediment
removal efficiencies (e.g., barrel/riser sediment traps) are ABACT for HQ watersheds, but not
EV watersheds. BMPs with high sediment removal efficiencies (e.g. compost filter socks) are
ABACT for HQ and EV watersheds. The BMPs contained in this manual are rated in the
sections where those BMPs are addressed. A list of acceptable ABACT is provided in Chapter
17. Some of the criteria for common erosion control BMPs to meet ABACT requirements are
listed here for emphasis:
(i)
Special Sediment Basin Requirements
(a)
Principal spillways should be designed to skim water from the top 6 inches of the
dewatering zone, or have permanent pools greater than or equal to 18 inches
deep.
(b)
The basin should be designed with a flow length to average basin width ratio of
4L:1W or greater.
(c)
The basin should be designed such that the settling volume dewaters in no less
than 4 days and no more than 7 days when at full capacity (i.e. top of the settling
volume, elevation 3 on Standard E&S Worksheet # 13 to top of sediment storage
elevation, elevation 2 on Standard E&S Worksheet # 13).
(ii)
Channels, collectors, and diversions should be lined with permanent vegetation, rock,
geotextile, or other non-erosive material.
(iii)
Temporary BMPs that divert or carry surface water should be designed to have a
minimum capacity to convey the peak discharge from a 5-year frequency storm.
(iv)
Upon completion or temporary cessation of the earth disturbance activity, or any stage
thereof, the project site shall be immediately stabilized.
(v)
The Department may approve alternate BMPs that will maintain and protect existing
water quality and existing and designated uses.
Where it can be shown that the use of flocculants can help to meet effluent standards, and that
the use of such flocculants, consistent with the manufacturer’s recommendations, does not in
itself pose a threat to water quality, their use can be approved on a case-by-case basis.
6.
A narrative description of the location and type of perimeter and on site BMPs used
before, during, and after the earth disturbance activity.
For permitted sites, this description is provided when the NOI is properly completed. Otherwise
it should be included in the narrative.
7.
A sequence of BMP installation and removal in relation to the scheduling of earth
disturbance activities, prior to, during and after earth disturbance activities that ensure
the proper functioning of all BMPs.
The plan drawings should include a complete schedule of installation and removal of erosion
control BMPs as they relate to the various phases of earthmoving activities. A good sequence
will minimize the time of disturbance without unnecessarily restricting the construction process.
The sequence should be site-specific and address all proposed erosion control and stabilization
BMPs. Appropriate BMPs for sediment pollution control should be in place and functional

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 5
before earth disturbance occurs within a given drainage area. All of the steps to be taken from
the initial site clearing through the final stabilization of the site should be included. A stabilized
construction entrance is often installed as a first item of work on a given site. Other BMPs are
constructed when needed to accommodate the planned sequence of project installation.
Chapter 2 provides additional guidance on BMP sequencing.
8.
Supporting calculations and measurements.
All design information for all proposed BMPs
(including outlet channels from proposed basins, traps, and stormwater outfall protection)
should be included in the narrative report. This information will vary according to the BMP, but
may include such information as the drainage area, anticipated flow rate, velocity and the
proposed method of stabilization. The standard worksheets, included in Appendix B of this
manual, give guidance for the design calculations and information required. Use of these
standard worksheets is recommended in order to expedite plan reviews. Failure to provide all of
the information requested by the appropriate worksheet(s) will constitute a plan that is
administratively incomplete. These worksheets may not be altered in form or content unless
prior approval is obtained from the reviewing agency.
9.
Plan drawings.
The locations of the BMPs should be shown on the map(s) described earlier.
A legend, describing all symbols should be included on all plan maps or drawings. Proposed
new contours should tie into existing contours. All construction details and specifications for the
facilities should be included on the drawings. Typical sketches may be used. However, these
sketches should provide sufficient detail to show critical dimensions and construction details.
Standard construction details may be copied from this manual and inserted into the E&S plan
drawings of specific projects. It should be noted that many of these standard details have
attached notes in bold type. These notes should be considered part of that detail and included
on the plan drawings. Construction details that have been altered in form or content may not be
labeled “Standard Construction Detail.” Many of the standard construction details and standard
worksheets contain tables of dimensions that should be copied onto the E&S plan drawings.
Appendix C contains standard notes that should be placed on the plan drawings. Optional
notes are also provided and should be used where appropriate. Additional notes may be added
as needed so long as they do not contradict the standard notes, details, sequence, or
maintenance requirements.
10.
A maintenance program that provides for the operation and maintenance of BMPs and
the inspection of BMPs on a weekly basis and after each stormwater event, including the
repair or replacement of BMPs to ensure effective and efficient operation. The program
must provide the completion of a written report documenting each inspection and all
BMP repair or replacement and maintenance activities.
A maintenance program for both
the temporary and permanent erosion and sediment control BMPs, including disposal of
materials removed from the BMPs or project area, should be included on the plan drawings.
The maintenance program should include a schedule for inspection of the various BMPs that
provides for inspection after each runoff event as well as on a weekly basis. The type of
maintenance, such as cleanout, repair, replacement, regrading, restabilizing, etc. for each of the
BMPs should be included on the plan drawings. For sediment basins and traps, the elevation
corresponding to top of sediment storage level should be specified and a means to identify this
elevation should be identified. The means of disposal of the materials removed from the BMPs
should also be specified. If materials removed from the BMPs are to be removed from the
project area, the site and method of disposal should be indicated. Guidance on appropriate
maintenance actions is provided for each BMP described in this manual.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 6
11.
Procedures which ensure that the proper measures for the recycling or disposal of
materials associated with or from the project site will be undertaken in accordance with
Department regulations.
Individuals responsible for earth disturbance activities must ensure
that proper mechanisms are in place to control waste materials. Construction wastes include,
but are not limited to, excess soil materials, building materials, concrete wash water, sanitary
wastes, etc. that could adversely impact water quality. Measures should be planned and
implemented for housekeeping, materials management, and litter control. Wherever possible,
recycling of excess materials is preferred, rather than disposal. A note requiring recycling of
waste materials, where feasible, should be added to the drawings.
12.
Identification of the natural occurring geologic formations or soil conditions that may
have the potential to cause pollution during earth disturbance activities and include
BMPs to avoid or minimize potential pollution and its impacts from such formations.
Geologic formations containing minerals (e.g. pyrite) in sufficient quantities that could result in
discharges which do not meet water quality standards for the receiving surface water(s) must be
identified. The locations of the formations containing those minerals (if not site wide) should be
shown on the plan maps. Appropriate measures to prevent such discharges (including but not
limited to, proper handling, isolation, disposal, etc.) should be provided on the plan drawings
along with typical details illustrating the procedures and/or BMPs to be used.
Bedrock or soil conditions which could result in significant slope failures resulting in mass soil
movement into surface waters, property damage, or a public safety hazard should also be
identified. The erosion control plan narrative should briefly state the methods incorporated into
the plan which address such hazards. Plan maps should clearly mark the locations where
potential for slope failures exist, and appropriate construction details and typicals should be
provided on the plan drawings.
13.
Identification of potential thermal impacts to surface waters of this Commonwealth from
the earth disturbance activity including BMPs to avoid, minimize or mitigate potential
pollution from thermal impacts.
An analysis of how thermal impacts associated with the
project will be avoided should be provided. If thermal impacts cannot be avoided, describe how
impacts were minimized and the BMPs that will mitigate the impacts in a manner that will protect
and maintain water quality in surface waters. Additional information on minimizing thermal
impacts can be found in the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual.
14.
The E&S Plan shall be planned, designed, and implemented to be consistent with the
Post Construction Stormwater Management (PCSM) Plan under 25 Pa. Code § 102.8
(relating to PCSM requirements). Unless otherwise approved by the Department, the
E&S Plan must be separate from the PCSM Plan and labeled ''E&S'' or ''E&S Plan'' and be
the final plan for construction.
The overall design of the project must support the
management of stormwater for erosion and sediment control during earth disturbance activities
in a manner that is compatible with — and can be integrated into— structural and non-structural
PCSM practices and approaches.
15.
Identification of existing and proposed riparian forest buffers.
When riparian forest buffers
will be incorporated into a project site in accordance with 25 Pa. Code § 102.14 as part of the
PCSM Plan, the areas of existing buffers or the areas where buffers will be developed should be
identified on the plan drawings. Certain restrictions on earthmoving within 150 feet in a special
protection watershed and 100 feet in areas where a voluntary riparian buffer will be installed
must be met for permitted sites. All proposed earthmoving, including installation of E&S BMPs,
must comply with those restrictions.
E&S Antidegradation Implementation for Special Protection Waters -
Chapter 102.4(b)(6) states,
“In order to satisfy the Antidegradation implementation requirements of 25 Pa Code Section 93.4c(b)
(relating to implementation of antidegradation requirements), for an earth disturbance activity that
requires a permit under this chapter and for which any receiving surface waters of this Commonwealth

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 7
is classified as High Quality (HQ) or Exceptional Value (EV) under Chapter 93, the person proposing
the activity shall in their permit application:
(i)
Evaluate and include nondischarge alternatives in the E&S plan, unless a person
demonstrates that nondischarge alternatives do not exist for the project.
(ii)
If the person makes the demonstration in (i) that nondischarge alternatives do not exist
for the project, the E&S plan shall include ABACT (Except as provided in
§93.4C(b)(1)(iii) (relating to Socio-Economic Justification).”
Section 102.1 defines a nondischarge alternative as “environmentally sound and cost-effective BMPs
that individually or collectively eliminate the net change in stormwater volume, rate and quality for storm
events up to and including the 2-year/24-hour storm when compared to the stormwater rate, volume
and quality prior to the earth disturbance activities to maintain and protect the existing quality of the
receiving surface waters of this Commonwealth.” Therefore, an applicant for an NPDES Permit or an
ESCP (Erosion and Sediment Control Permit) permit should be able to show no net increase in volume
or rate of discharge in the summary table of the NOI for pre- vs. post-construction conditions. This
should be supported by Worksheets 1 through 5 from the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Practices
Manual. In addition, Worksheet 10 from the Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices
Manual should show no degradation of water quality.
In HQ watersheds, socio-economic justification (SEJ) for degradation may be provided in accordance
with Chapter 93. However, no SEJ is allowable in EV watersheds.
The chapters which follow evaluate specific BMPs as to whether they should be considered ABACT for
HQ or EV watersheds. Those with low sediment removal potential are not rated as ABACT. Those
with moderate sediment removal potential are rated as ABACT for HQ but not EV watersheds. Only
those with high sediment removal potential are rated as ABACT for EV watersheds. It should be
understood that a BMP that is not rated as ABACT for an HQ or an EV watershed is not prohibited from
use in that watershed. However, it may not be the only BMP used. Non-ABACT BMPs may be used in
conjunction with ABACT to increase their efficiency. The Department may also consider whether use of
several non-ABACT in a treatment train may constitute an ABACT in effect. Chapter 17 addresses
Special Protection Watersheds, Antidegradation, and ABACT in more detail.
While nondischarge alternatives and/or ABACT are not required for non-permitted sites, they are
recommended. Site conditions such as proximity to the receiving surface water, steepness of slope,
soil conditions, and nature of the project should be considered when determining whether to use these
options.
Alternative BMPs
- The Department may approve alternative BMPs (not contained in this manual, or
using a different design method or standards than those described in this manual) that maintain and
protect existing water quality and existing and designated uses. However, the burden of proof that the
proposed BMPs are appropriate for the intended use lies with the plan designer. Sufficient supporting
documentation (calculations, manufacturer’s specs, etc.) should be included with the application to
allow the reviewer to make an informed decision. For more information regarding new products and
procedures, see Chapter 12.
Riparian buffers
- Section 102.14 requires persons conducting permitted activities in HQ or EV
watersheds to protect, convert, or establish new riparian forest buffers within 150 feet of a perennial or
intermittent river, stream, creek, lake, pond, or reservoir. See 25 Pa. Code § 102.14 for additional
guidance.
Additional Information
- The Department or conservation district, after consultation with the
Department, may require other information necessary to adequately review a plan, or may require
alternative BMPs on a case-by-case basis when necessary to ensure the maintenance and protection
of water quality and existing and designated uses. In cases where the Department has already
provided guidance regarding the need for additional information, a conservation district may require
additional information in accordance with that guidance without consulting with the Department.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 8
CHAPTER 2 - BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (BMP) SEQUENCING
A BMP sequence is a specified work schedule that coordinates the timing of earthmoving activities and
subsequent stabilization with the installation and removal of E&S BMPs or the conversion of those E&S
BMPs to PCSM BMPs. The purpose of the sequence is to reduce the potential for accelerated erosion
and the resultant sediment pollution to surface waters by ensuring that the BMPs designed to
accomplish that are in place and functioning when they are needed. In cases where the earthmoving
contractor is known at the time of the application, the contractor should be involved in the development
of the sequence to minimize potential conflicts of the proposed sequence with efficient construction
practices. Any earthmoving contractor who finds the sequence to be non-feasible, in whole or in part,
must obtain written approval from the approving agency prior to altering the sequence.
A BMP sequence must be provided for every earthmoving project requiring a written E&S plan. Since
each project differs from all others in some way, the BMP installation sequence must be site specific. It
should identify the specific BMPs that will be employed during each stage of construction.
Whenever possible, larger projects should be phased so that only part of the site is disturbed at any
one time, thus minimizing sediment being transported from dormant parts of the project. Cuts and fills
should be coordinated so that the need for temporary storage of materials is minimized. Ideally, the
sequence should be set up according to watershed areas with disturbances limited to one watershed at
a time. Where it is not possible to limit disturbance to one watershed at a time, the sequence should
clearly identify the BMPs that should be in place and functioning before work progresses into an
adjacent watershed. In this way, the contractor may work within the various watersheds, or drainage
areas, in whatever order is most efficient, or even simultaneously, so long as the sequence is followed
for each watershed or drainage area.
Sequences that require very complicated or restrictive construction practices should be avoided
wherever possible. Apparent savings in construction of BMPs can be lost many times over by
unrealistic restrictions placed upon the contractor. The simpler the staging requirements, the more
likely it is that the contractor will be able to complete the project without stepping outside of the
approved sequence. A system of channels and traps or sediment basins usually provides adequate
sediment pollution protection while allowing freedom to the contractor to perform the earthmoving in a
cost effective manner. Often, these facilities can be converted to PCSM BMPs upon completion of the
project.
However, concentrating site runoff into a few large impoundments is not always the best solution to
sediment pollution or stormwater management. Consideration should be given to whether several
smaller structures could operate more efficiently, at a lower cost, and with less impact on receiving
waters than one large one. Managing site runoff close to its source is therefore encouraged.
The BMP installation sequence should be complete, i.e. it should address all aspects of the proposed
earthmoving as it applies to erosion and sediment pollution control. The sequence should be a step-by-
step outline of the proposed project detailing what BMPs will be installed prior to each stage of
construction (including drilling of geothermal wells where applicable, see Chapter 17). Wherever
possible, the locations of the control facilities should be specified. An acceptable alternative is to
number the BMPs and indicate which numbers are being installed during each step of the sequence.
The sequence should indicate that stabilized construction entrances will be installed wherever it is
known that construction vehicles will be exiting onto a roadway (public or private). It should also
indicate the necessity of constructing a stabilized construction entrance wherever needed, although not
specifically identified by the plan.
Appropriate controls should be installed and functioning prior to clearing and grubbing. Temporary
stream crossings must be provided wherever clearing vehicles will be crossing existing stream
channels (perennial or intermittent). Initial clearing should be limited to that which is necessary to

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 9
install the proposed perimeter BMPs. General site clearing and grubbing should be done only in those
areas where suitable BMPs have been installed and are functioning. Progressive clearing and
grubbing, beginning in the location of BMPs and support areas, may be used as long as the installation
of BMPs keeps pace with the clearing and grubbing.
Note: For permitted sites, the NPDES permit,
ESCP permit or ESCGP (Erosion and Sediment Control General Permit for Earth Disturbance
Associated with Oil and Gas Exploration, Production, Processing, or Treatment Operations or
Transmission Facilities) permit must be obtained prior to beginning clearing and grubbing
operations.
If it is necessary to construct access roads in order to install proposed BMPs, the sequence should
address how these access roads will be stabilized. If the access road is to remain in place following
completion of any BMP, runoff from the roadway should be directed into an appropriate BMP by means
of a waterbar, culvert, broad-based dip, or other drainage control device. The locations of temporary
access roads should be shown on the plan maps.
Wherever BMPs will be discharging to proposed storm sewers, the storm sewers should be installed
and functioning prior to construction of the BMPs in question. However, care should be taken to avoid
conflicts with any proposed cuts or fills in the areas of the proposed storm sewer location.
Wherever it is necessary for construction vehicles to cross a proposed channel, the sequence should
specify the installation of a temporary crossing (culvert or bridge if it is a diversion channel, outlet
channel or bypass channel; culvert, bridge, or ford for a collector channel).
The sequence should describe how flow/runoff in existing streams or swales will be handled during any
proposed culvert (pipe or box) installation. It is recommended that a mini sequence be included along
with the installation detail on a detail sheet. The main sequence may refer to the mini sequence without
repeating the specifics. The plan should also specify how water pumped from work areas during
culvert construction will be handled.
Sequences should specify the controls to be used during construction of any proposed basins or traps.
If stream flow will need to be diverted around the work area, the sequence should provide instructions
for how this will be accomplished. Note: bypass pipes should be constructed around, not through,
basins or traps. The sequence should also describe the proper method of embankment construction
and stabilization or refer to the specifications provided elsewhere on the plan drawings.
The sequence should specify the completion of the proposed E&S BMPs (basins, traps, channels, etc.)
including any required outlet protection or conveyance channels prior to any general earthmoving within
a specific work area.
Runoff should be directed away from outslopes of constructed fills wherever possible. Consideration
should be given to use of berms along the tops of fill slopes to direct runoff to temporary slope pipes or
groin ditches, which discharge into sediment traps, sediment basins, or collector channels discharging
to basins or traps located below the fill. An acceptable alternative is the maintenance of rock chimney
drains to rock toe benches, wherever such benches are available and such drainage does not
compromise the stability of the fill, the chimney drains can be kept open, and runoff can be directed to
the drains.
Anticipated runoff at the cut/fill interfaces should be addressed by the sequence. Since erosion gullies
tend to form at these locations, some means of conveying the water downslope should be provided
(e.g. catch basins or suitably lined groin ditches).
The sequence should provide specifics about the installation of any proposed sewer lines or utility lines.
This information should conform to the standards contained in Chapter 9. If storm sewer inlets (existing
or proposed) will need protection, the sequence should indicate when the protection should be

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 10
installed. Utility lines that cross traps and basins should be constructed prior to the embankment
construction.
The BMP installation sequence must limit exposed areas. As stated above, initial clearing and
grubbing should be limited to that which is necessary to construct the proposed perimeter BMPs.
Generalized statements such as, “Install all proposed control facilities within XYZ watershed,” are not
acceptable.
The sequence must require immediate stabilization upon temporary cessation of work —4 days or more
— or as soon as any graded area reaches final grade. Waiting for an entire phase to reach final grade
before seeding and mulching takes place is not acceptable.
Long, steep cuts and fill slopes should be seeded and mulched in 15’ vertical increments. This will
provide a little more than 33 feet of slope length for tracking equipment on a 2H:1V slope. If very large
equipment is used, the vertical increment may be increased to 20 feet. An acceptable alternative is to
construct benches at 30-foot vertical intervals. Fill slopes below each bench should be stabilized upon
their completion. Such benches should be designed to provide positive drainage to a suitably stabilized
outlet. Otherwise, the sequence should specify seeding and mulching of all completed areas on a
periodic —every 7 days or specified number of feet or acres — basis.
The BMP installation sequence should specify the removal of temporary E&S BMPs upon completion
and stabilization of the disturbed area tributary to each BMP. Conditions of stabilization should be
specified. Vegetated areas must achieve a minimum uniform 70% perennial vegetative cover over the
entire disturbed area. Roadways and parking areas should at least have a clean subbase in place.
Any E&S BMPs that are to remain as PCSM BMPs must be modified where necessary to meet the
requirements of the permanent facility. If any sediment basins or traps are to be converted to detention
ponds, conversion should be restricted to the growing season, and the sequence should describe the
procedure to be used. This should include:
a)
Flushing accumulated sediment from the contributing storm sewer system
b)
The method of dewatering the impoundment
c)
Removal and proper disposal of accumulated sediment
d)
Removal of all other temporary facilities such as baffles, cleanout stakes, dewatering
facilities etc.
e)
Sediment protection of permanent orifice or weir until interior of permanent facility is
stabilized
f)
Removal of the temporary riser and the installation/opening of the permanent riser.
g)
Stabilization of the interior of the impoundment as well as steps necessary to provide
any proposed infiltration capacity
Installation of PCSM BMPs not used as temporary E&S BMPs should be scheduled for after the areas
tributary to them have been stabilized. Wherever this is not possible, the PCSM BMPs should be
protected from sediment-laden runoff. Failure to adequately protect PCSM BMPs from sediment
deposition will require rehabilitation to restore them to proper functioning.
Maintenance information should not be included in the BMP sequence. All maintenance information
should be contained in the maintenance section of the plan drawings or adjacent to the construction

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 11
detail(s) for the specific BMP. In addition, maintenance information should be included in the operation
and maintenance plan for the project.
It is recommended that the following standard notes be placed immediately prior to the sequence on
the plan drawings for permitted sites:
1. At least 7 days prior to starting any earth disturbance activities (including clearing and grubbing),
the owner and/or operator shall invite all contractors, the landowner, appropriate municipal officials,
the E&S plan preparer, the PCSM plan preparer, and a representative from the (insert appropriate
County) conservation district to an on-site preconstruction meeting.
2. Upon installation or stabilization of all perimeter sediment control BMPs and at least 3 days prior to
proceeding with the bulk earth disturbance activities, the permittee or co-permittee shall provide
notification to the Department or authorized conservation district.
3. At least 3 days prior to starting any earth disturbance activities, or expanding into an area
previously unmarked, the Pennsylvania One Call System Inc. shall be notified at 1-800-242-1776
for the location of existing underground utilities.
4. All earth disturbance activities shall proceed in accordance with the sequence provided on the plan
drawings.
Deviation from that sequence must be approved by the (insert appropriate County)
conservation district or by the Department prior to implementation. Each step of the
sequence shall be completed before proceeding to the next step, except where noted.
The following is a suggested outline for a typical BMP installation sequence. It represents the order in
which the most common BMPs would be installed for most sites. The actual construction sequence for
a specific project may include items not mentioned here or even omit some that are shown, depending
on site conditions and the nature of the project. In all cases, additional site-specific information would
be required for the sequence to be considered complete.
SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR BMP SEQUENCING
1.
Field-mark limits of disturbance and environmentally sensitive areas (including
steep slopes, riparian buffers, wetlands, springs, and floodways)
2.
Rock Construction Entrance(s)
3.
Access to Site/BMPs
a)
Access Roads and their BMPs
b)
Temporary/Permanent Stream Crossings
c)
Roadway Drainage Structures
4.
Surface Water Diversion
a)
Diversion Channels and Berms
b)
Stabilization of Channels and Berms
5.
Installation of Sediment Barriers
6.
Solids Separation BMPs
a)
Sediment Basins
(1)
Sediment Barriers
(2)
Conveyance from Outlet Structures to Surface Water
(3)
Principal Spillway and Energy Dissipater
(4)
Earthwork to Construct Sediment Basin
(5)
Emergency Spillway and Lining
(6)
Stabilization of Basin and of Areas Disturbed to Construct
Sediment Basin
b)
Sediment Traps
(1)
Conveyance from Outlet Structures to Surface Water
(2)
Construct Sediment Trap
(3)
Stabilization of Trap and of Areas Disturbed to Construct
Sediment Trap
7.
Collection of Site Runoff for Treatment

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 12
a)
Collector Channels, Waterbars, Broad-based dips, etc.
b)
Stabilization of Channels, Waterbars, Broad-based dips, etc.
8.
Site Earthwork
a)
Grubbing
b)
Excavations with incremental stabilization
c)
Fills with incremental stabilization
d)
Construction of Buildings, Roadways and Other Structures
e)
Site Utility Construction
9.
Permanent Stabilization
a)
Replacement of Topsoil (4 - 6 inches)
b)
Permanent Seeding
(1)
Soil Amendments
(2)
Seed Application
(3)
Mulch and/or blanketing
c)
Crushed Aggregate Surfaces (Apply as soon as road or parking lot
surfaces are graded)
d)
Paved areas
10.
Removal/Conversion of Temporary Sediment Pollution Controls
a)
Permanent Vegetation Requirement
b)
Interceptor Channels
c)
Basins and Traps
d)
Sediment Barriers
e)
Temporary Diversion Channels
f)
Stabilization of disturbed areas

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 13
CHAPTER 3 - SITE ACCESS
This chapter addresses site access during actual construction of a proposed project. It should be noted
that site access for site preparation work (e.g. surveying, exploration drilling, etc.) should follow the
same general principals. When it becomes necessary to remove vegetative cover or cross surface
waters to conduct a survey, or complete required exploration drilling and sampling, appropriate BMPs
must be provided to protect the surface waters. BMPs not addressed in this chapter may be reviewed
by the Department on a case-by-case basis and approved if they are found to be equal to, or better
than, the following BMPs.
ROCK CONSTRUCTION ENTRANCE -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an
ABACT for special protection watersheds.
A rock construction entrance should be installed
wherever it is anticipated that construction traffic will exit the project site onto any roadway, public or
private. Access to the site should be limited to the stabilized construction entrance(s).
Lake County Stormwater Management Department, Ohio
A geotextile underlayment should be placed over the existing ground prior to placing the stone. At a
minimum, rock construction entrances should be constructed to the dimensions shown on Standard
Construction Detail #3-1. Where site conditions warrant, it may be necessary to extend the length or
width of the rock to ensure the effectiveness of the entrance. Wherever access to the site is across a
roadside ditch, stream channel, natural drainage course, etc., a suitable means of conveying the flow
past the entrance (e.g. a properly sized culvert pipe) should be provided. For such installations, a
mountable berm is recommended to prevent crushing the pipe.
Rock construction entrances should be maintained to the specified dimensions and the capacity to
remove sediment from the tires by adding rock when necessary. For some sites this could occur
several times a day. A stockpile of rock material should be maintained on site for this purpose. It
should be noted that occasionally the rock construction entrance can become too clogged and might
have to be removed and replaced.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 14
Sediment deposited on public roadways should be removed and returned to the construction site
immediately.
Note: Washing the roadway or sweeping the deposits into roadway ditches,
sewers, culverts, or other drainage courses is not acceptable.
Rock construction entrances are not effective sediment removal devices for runoff coming off the
roadway above the entrance. Surface runoff should be directed off the roadway by means of
appropriate drainage devices described later in this chapter. Where these devices do not discharge to
a suitable vegetative filter strip, an appropriately sized sediment trap should be provided. For locations
not having sufficient room for a conventional sediment trap, consideration should be given to use of a
compost sock sediment trap. Compost sock traps may also be used instead of conventional sediment
traps at other points of discharge. Where used, care should be taken to provide continuous contact
between the sock and the underlying soil in order to prevent undermining. It is also important to
properly anchor the sock (Standard Construction Detail #3-1).
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-1
Rock Construction Entrance
Remove topsoil prior to installation of rock construction entrance. Extend rock over full width
of entrance.
Runoff shall be diverted from roadway to a suitable sediment removal BMP prior to entering
rock construction entrance.
Mountable berm shall be installed wherever optional culvert pipe is used and proper pipe cover
as specified by manufacturer is not otherwise provided. Pipe shall be sized appropriately for
size of ditch being crossed.
MAINTENANCE: Rock construction entrance thickness shall be constantly maintained to the
specified dimensions by adding rock. A stockpile shall be maintained on site for this purpose.
All sediment deposited on paved roadways shall be removed and returned to the construction
site immediately. If excessive amounts of sediment are being deposited on roadway, extend
length of rock construction entrance by 50 foot increments until condition is alleviated or install
wash rack. Washing the roadway or sweeping the deposits into roadway ditches, sewers,
culverts, or other drainage courses is not acceptable .
Modified from Maryland DOE

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 15
ROCK CONSTRUCTION ENTRANCE WITH WASH RACK -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: HIGH.
This device is an ABACT for HQ and EV watersheds.
Rock construction entrances with wash racks
should be considered wherever soil and/or traffic conditions require washing the construction vehicle
wheels prior to exiting the site to avoid excessive tracking of mud onto a highway. Access to the site
should be limited to the stabilized entrance(s). NOTE: Wash racks in construction entrances are for
washing of tires only. Where it is necessary to wash an entire vehicle prior to leaving the site, this
should be done at a site designed to prevent untreated nutrient-enriched wastewater or hazardous
wastes from being discharged to surface or ground waters.
At a minimum, rock construction entrances with wash racks should be constructed to the length, width,
and thickness dimensions shown on Standard Construction Detail #3-2
.
A metal wash rack (like the
one illustrated above) is an acceptable alternative to the reinforced concrete one shown in the standard
detail.
Approaches to the wash rack should be lined with AASHTO #1 at a minimum of 25’ on both sides.
The wash rack should discharge to a sediment removal facility, such as a vegetated filter strip or into a
channel leading to a sediment removal device (e.g. a sediment trap or sediment basin).
Rock construction entrances with wash racks should be maintained to the specified dimensions by
adding rock when necessary at the end of each workday. A stockpile of rock material should be
maintained on site for this purpose.
Sediment deposited on paved roadways should be removed and returned to the construction site.
NOTE: Washing the roadway or sweeping the deposits into roadway ditches, sewers, culverts,
or other drainage courses is not acceptable.
Damaged wash racks should be repaired as necessary to maintain their effectiveness.
EPA

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 16
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-2
Rock Construction Entrance with Wash Rack
Wash rack shall be 20 feet (min.) wide or total width of access.
Wash rack shall be designed and constructed to accommodate anticipated construction
vehicular traffic.
A water supply shall be made available to wash the wheels of all vehicles exiting the site.
MAINTENANCE: Rock construction entrance thickness shall be constantly maintained to the
specified dimensions by adding rock. A stockpile of rock material shall be maintained on site
for this purpose. Drain space under wash rack shall be kept open at all times. Damage to the
wash rack shall be repaired prior to further use of the rack. All sediment deposited on
roadways shall be removed and returned to the construction site immediately. Washing the
roadway or sweeping the deposits into roadway ditches, sewers, culverts, or other drainage
courses is not acceptable.
6’ (Min)
Modified from Smith Cattleguard Company

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 17
RUMBLE PAD
Pre-constructed rumble pads may be used instead of rock construction entrances provided they are
installed according to manufacturer’s recommendations and a sufficient number of pads are installed to
provide for a minimum of four tire revolutions while on the pad. More pads may be needed depending
on site conditions. Accumulated materials should be cleaned from the pads daily (more often if
necessary) and disposed in the manner specified by the plan. Rumble pads are not ABACT.
All World Equipment
WHEEL WASH
Manufactured wheel washes may be used as ABACT in special protection watersheds or where special
traffic safety issues exist. All such wheel washes should be installed and operated according to the
manufacturer’s specifications. Waste water from the wheel washes should either be recycled or run
through an approved sediment removal device prior to discharge to a surface water.
NW Equipment Sales

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 18
TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT ACCESS ROADS
In order to construct perimeter BMPs such as basins, traps, channels, and even super silt fence, it is
often necessary to construct temporary access roads. When temporary E&S BMPs are converted to
PCSM BMPs, these access roads may become permanent. If not properly aligned, drained, and
maintained, access roads can become significant sources of sediment pollution. Therefore, careful
thought should be given to the location and construction of access roads. When considering the proper
location for an access road, particular attention should be given to steep slopes, surface waters, rock
outcrops, soil types, and other potential hazards.
Once the most efficient point of ingress and egress has been determined, the next critical aspect to be
considered is the grade. Ideally, road grades should be between 2 and 10 percent. Grades up to
20 percent are not recommended except where absolutely necessary and for short distances.
On long, continuous grades, runoff should be directed off the roadway by means of crowning, insloping,
waterbars, broad-based dips, deflectors, or open-top culverts. All discharges should be to stable
drainage courses, or to well-vegetated areas. Consideration should also be given to whether outlet
protection is needed.
Access roads should be constructed above flood plains and avoid drainage courses wherever possible.
Where it is not possible to avoid drainage courses, seeps, springs, or wet areas, proper drainage
measures should be installed. Roadways paralleling surface waters should be located so that an
adequate filter strip of undisturbed vegetation remains between the road and the stream. If this is not
possible, a suitable sediment barrier should be installed. Appropriate Chapter 105 water obstruction
and encroachment authorization must be obtained prior to construction in these areas.
Wherever it is necessary to cross a watercourse, as defined bed and banks, a properly sized and
stabilized temporary crossing must be provided. Ford type stream crossings are typically not
acceptable for construction sites.
Cuts and fills should be minimized. Long and/or high cut/fill slopes are often difficult to stabilize. In
soils with low shear strength, they also pose an increased potential for slope failures. Cuts deeper than
Source Unknown

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 19
3 feet should be avoided wherever possible, and cut slopes not in competent bedrock should not be
steeper than 2H:1V. Fill slopes should not be steeper than 2H:1V or exceed 5 feet in height wherever
possible. All cut and fill slopes should be stabilized by seeding and mulching, blanketing, or other
suitable method within 24 hours of reaching final grade. This will require the contractor to anticipate the
date of completion and schedule ahead for seeding and mulching.
Road surfaces should be sloped for drainage. In flatter areas, crowning is the most efficient means of
draining the roadway (Standard Construction Detail # 3-3). For hillside construction, insloping with
adequately spaced cross drains is recommended (Standard Construction Detail # 3-4). Outsloping
roads can be very dangerous. Where crowning and insloping are not sufficient to address drainage
requirements, waterbars, broad-based dips, deflectors, or culverts may be needed. All discharges
should be to stable drainage courses, or to well-vegetated areas. Consideration should also be given if
outlet protection is needed.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-3
Crowned Roadway
PA DEP
Cut and fill slopes shall be stabilized immediately upon completion of roadway grading. These
areas shall be blanketed wherever they are located within 50 feet of a surface water or within
100 feet of an HQ or EV surface water or where a suitable vegetative filter strip does not exist.
A top dressing composed of hard, durable stone shall be provided for soils having low strength.
Roadside ditches shall be provided with adequate protective lining wherever runoff cannot
sheet flow away from the roadway.
Adequately sized culverts or other suitable cross drains shall be provided at all seeps, springs,
and drainage courses. Ditch relief culverts or turnouts shall be provided at the intervals
indicated on Table 3.3 or Table 3.4 for roadside ditches. Riprap outlet protection to be sized
according to anticipated discharge velocity.
Roadway shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Damaged roadways, ditches,
or cross drains shall be repaired immediately.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 20
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-4
Insloped Roadway
PA DEP
Cut and fill slopes shall be stabilized immediately upon completion of roadway grading. These
areas shall be blanketed wherever they are located within 50 feet of a surface water or within
100 feet of an HQ or EV surface water or where a suitable vegetative filter strip does not exist.
A top dressing composed of hard, durable stone, shall be provided for soils having low
strength.
Roadside ditches shall be provided with adequate protective lining.
Adequately sized culverts or other suitable cross drains shall be provided at all seeps, springs,
and drainage courses. Ditch relief culverts shall be provided at the intervals indicated on
Table 3.3 or Table 3.4. Riprap outlet protection to be sized according to anticipated discharge
velocity.
Roadway shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Damaged roadways, ditches,
or cross drains shall be repaired immediately.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 21
WATERBAR -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device by itself is not an ABACT
for special protection watersheds.
However, waterbars can be used to make ABACT such as
vegetative filter strips work more effectively by reducing the volume of discharge to a filter strip at any
one location.
Waterbars are typically used to control stormwater runoff on retired access roads and skid trails as well
as pipeline and utility line right-of-ways. They are not recommended for active access roads or skid
trails due to the difficulty of moving equipment over them as well as the need for continual maintenance
due to damage from traffic. Where waterbars are used on active access roads, it is often necessary to
provide reinforcement of the berm with a log, steel pipe, etc. to maintain the integrity of the waterbar
between maintenance operations. All such waterbars should be restored to original dimensions at the
end of each work day. Waterbars are not appropriate for incised roadways, where there is no
opportunity to discharge runoff to either side.
York CCD
Waterbars may be used to direct runoff to well-vegetated areas or sediment removal facilities (e.g.
sediment traps or sediment basins). They should discharge to the downslope side of the access road,
skid trail, or right-of-way so that runoff will flow away from, not back onto the roadway, skid trail, or
right-of-way. A 2% maximum gradient is recommended to ensure proper discharge of water entering
the waterbar. Steeper gradients should be avoided to prevent erosion of the waterbar. Wherever
erodible soils are present, or where there is not a sufficient vegetative filter strip between the waterbar
and a receiving surface water, the waterbar should be provided with a temporary protective liner. All
waterbars should be vegetated. Obstructions, (e.g. straw bales, silt fence, rock filters, etc.) should not
be placed in or across waterbars.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 22
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-5
Waterbar
Adapted from USDA Forest Service
Waterbars shall discharge to a stable area.
Waterbars shall be inspected weekly (daily on active roads) and after each runoff event.
Damaged or eroded waterbars shall be restored to original dimensions within 24 hours of
inspection.
Maintenance of waterbars shall be provided until roadway, skidtrail, or right-of-way has
achieved permanent stabilization.
Waterbars on retired roadways, skidtrails, and right-of-ways shall be left in place after
permanent stabilization has been achieved.
TABLE 3.1 – Maximum Waterbar Spacing
PERCENT SLOPE
SPACING (FT)
<5
250
5 - 15
150
15 - 30
100
> 30
50
Adapted from USDA Forest Service

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 23
BROAD-BASED DIP -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device by itself is not an
ABACT for special protection watersheds, but like a waterbar can be used to make an ABACT
BMP work more effectively.
Broad-based dips may be used to direct runoff from active access roads
to well-vegetated areas or sediment removal BMPs (e.g. sediment traps or sediment basins). Broad-
based dips, unlike waterbars, are easily traversed by most construction equipment and typically require
less maintenance to ensure their integrity. Due to the nature of broad-based dips, they should not be
constructed on roads with grades exceeding 10%. Where access roads exceed 10% gradients,
insloping or other deflection devices should be used to control runoff.
PA DEP
Discharges should be to the downslope side of access roads with a maximum gradient of 3% in the dip.
For access roads with grades up to 5%, Standard Construction Detail # 3-6 should be used. Roadways
with steeper grades should use Standard Construction Detail # 3-7.
TABLE 3.2 – Maximum Spacing of Broad-based Dips, Open-top Culverts and Deflectors
Road Grade
(Percent)
Spacing Between Dips,
Culverts, or Deflectors
(feet)
<2
300
3
235
4
200
5
180
6
165
7
155
8
150
9
145
10
140
USDA Forest Service

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 24
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-6
Broad-based Dip for Low Gradient (<5%) Roadways
Maine DEP
Broad-based dips shall be constructed to the dimensions shown and at the locations shown on
the plan drawings.
Dips shall be oriented so as to discharge to the low side of the roadway.
Dips shall be inspected daily. Damaged or non-functioning dips shall be repaired by the end of
the workday.
Maximum spacing of broad-based dips shall be as shown in Table 3.2

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 25
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-7
Broad-based Dip for High Gradient (5% - 10%) Roadways
USDA Forest Service
Broad-based dips shall be constructed to the dimensions shown and at the locations shown on
the plan drawings.
Dips shall be oriented so as to discharge to the low side of the roadway.
Dips shall be inspected daily. Damaged or non-functioning dips shall be repaired by the end of
the workday.
Maximum spacing of broad-based dips shall be as shown in Table 3.2.
MINIMUM DEPTH = 12”

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 26
OPEN-TOP CULVERTS -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device is not an
ABACT for special protection watersheds, but may be used to make other BMPs that are ABACT
work more effectively.
Open-top culverts may be used to intercept runoff from access or haul roads
and divert it to well-vegetated (erosion resistant) areas or sediment removal facilities. Such culverts are
typically more easily traversed than either waterbars or broad-based dips, but can require more
maintenance if being crossed by heavy equipment or exposed to sediment-laden runoff. Open-top
culverts are not acceptable for stream crossings and should not be used instead of pipe culverts.
Spacing should be according to Table 3.2.
Source Unknown

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 27
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-8
Open-top Culvert
USDA Forest Service
Culverts shall be inspected weekly and after runoff events.
Damaged or non-functioning culverts shall be repaired by the end of the workday.
Accumulated sediment shall be removed within 24 hours of inspection.
Maximum spacing of open-top culverts shall be as shown in Table 3.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 28
WATER DEFLECTOR -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device is not an ABACT
for special protection watersheds, but may be used to make other BMPs that are ABACT work
more effectively.
Deflectors may be used instead of open-top culverts to direct runoff from an access
road to a well-vegetated area or sediment removal facility. A deflector is typically constructed from
rubber belting ranging from 5/16” to ½” thick held between two 2” X 6” wooden planks. This method of
directing runoff from an access road works best on low traffic roads. Deflectors can be used on roads
with grades exceeding 10%.
USDA Forest Service

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 29
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-9
Water Deflector
USDA Forest Service
Deflector shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event.
Accumulated sediment shall be removed from deflector within 24 hours of inspection.
Belt shall be replaced when worn and no longer effective.
Maximum spacing of deflectors shall be as shown in Table 3.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 30
ROADSIDE DITCH -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device is not an ABACT for
special protection watersheds, but may be used to make other BMPs that are ABACT work more
effectively.
In most cases, the ditches paralleling temporary access roads and haul roads need not be
lined if sufficient ditch relief culverts are provided, erosion resistant soils are present, and flow velocities
are less than 2 feet per second (fps). However, protective liners are required for roadside ditches
discharging to special protection waters, where discharging directly to surface waters, or where
necessary to prevent the erosion of the channel itself. A typical cross-section for a roadside ditch is
shown in Figure 3.1.
FIGURE 3.1 - Typical Roadside Ditch Section
USDA Forest Service
FIGURE 3.2 - Access Road Layout
USDA Forest Service
Sizing and spacing of ditch relief culverts should be according to Table 3.3. Rock filters are not
required where roadway surface is stabilized, ditches are provided with protective liners, and cut banks
are stabilized. Suitable outlet protection should be provided at each culvert outfall.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 31
DITCH RELIEF CULVERT (Cross Drains) -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This
device is not an ABACT for special protection watersheds, but may be used to make other
BMPs which are ABACTs work more effectively.
Ditch relief culverts minimize the potential for
erosion of roadside ditches as well as flooding of the roadway by reducing the volume of flow being
conveyed by the ditch. In addition to providing a culvert wherever concentrated upslope drainage is
encountered, it is important to provide additional culverts at intervals along the roadway where runoff is
being conveyed by a ditch (Figure 3.2) (Standard Construction Detail #3-10).
Ditch relief culverts should be placed with a slope of 2 to 4 percent to help keep the culvert clean and
ensure water flow. Sizing and spacing of culverts should be according to Table 3.3 for temporary
culverts and Table 3.4 for permanent culverts.
TABLE 3.3 - Sizing and Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts for Temporary Access Roads
Road
Grade
(%)
Culvert
Spacing*
(ft)
Length of Upslope Drainage (ft)
< 300
300 - 400
400 - 500
500 - 600
>600
Minimum Culvert Size (in)
2
300
12
15
15
15
18
3
235
12
15
15
15
18
4
200
12
15
15
15
18
5
180
12
12
15
15
15
6
165
12
12
12
15
15
7
155
12
12
12
12
15
8
150
12
12
12
12
15
9
145
12
12
12
12
15
10
140
12
12
12
12
15
12
135
12
12
12
12
15
Adapted from Maryland DOE
*Culvert spacing may be adjusted slightly to take advantage of natural drainage courses.
Source Unknown

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 32
TABLE 3.4 - Recommended Maximum Spacing of Ditch Relief Culverts (18” dia. CMP)
For Permanent Access Roads
Road Grade
Percent
Soil Type in Ditch
Gravels,
Sandy
Gravels,
Aggregate
Surfacing
Silty Gravels,
Clayey
Gravels
Plastic and
Nonplastic
Inorganic
Clays
Inorganic
Silts, Silty or
Clayey Sands
Sands, Silty
Sands, and
Gravelly
Sands
Culvert Spacing Feet*
2
390
315
245
170
95
4
335
275
210
145
85
6
285
230
180
125
75
8
240
195
150
105
65
10
200
160
125
90
55
12
160
130
105
75
45
14
135
110
85
60
35
Adapted from USDA Forest Service
*Culvert spacing may be adjusted slightly to take advantage of natural drainage courses.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-10
Ditch Relief Culvert
USDA Forest Service
Minimum diameter for any culvert is 12”; otherwise culvert shall be sized for anticipated peak
flow. Place culvert so bottom is at same level as bottom of ditch or adjoining slope. Culverts
shall be placed with a slope of 2 to 4%. Lower end shall be at least 2” below upper end.
Extend culvert 12” beyond base of road fill on both sides. Firmly pack fill around culvert,
especially the bottom half.
Provide suitable outlet protection* and, where appropriate, inlet protection.
Inspect culvert weekly: remove any flow obstructions and make necessary repairs immediately.
NOTE: This detail may be used for ditch relief culverts and for crossings of roadside ditches. It
is not appropriate for stream crossings.
* For steep slope ( > 2H:1V) outfalls, a minimum 20 foot long R- 5 apron is recommended for
temporary access roads where the recommended culvert spacing is used. For permanent
access roads, a minimum R-6 rock size is recommended.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 33
TURNOUT -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: VERY LOW. This device is not an ABACT for special
protection watersheds, but may be used to make other BMPs which are ABACT work more
effectively.
Channels that drain water away from roads or roadside ditches into well-vegetated areas
are known as turnouts. Turnouts (see Figure 3.3) are typically located along crowned roadways where
runoff cannot sheet flow off the roadway. Like ditch relief culverts, the purpose of turnouts is to
minimize the volume of water in a roadside ditch. Turnouts should be located so as to take advantage
of natural drainage courses or buffer areas wherever possible.
An excavated sump at the end of the
turnout can be effectively used to pond and settle out sediment prior to discharging to a
vegetated buffer.
Where a suitable vegetative filter strip is not available, a compost filter sock, rock
filter or other sediment removal BMP should be installed at the outlet of the turnout.
FIGURE 3.3
Typical Turnout
Indiana CCD
Source Unknown

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 34
COMPOST SOCK SEDIMENT TRAP -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: HIGH. This device is an
ABACT for HQ and EV watersheds.
In many locations, there is little or no opportunity to direct runoff
from an access road into a well-vegetated area. This may occur at entrances or where surface waters
are in relatively close proximity to the access road. At such locations it may still be possible to treat the
runoff by means of a compost sock sediment trap. These structures can be installed, used and later
removed with relatively little disturbance to the area. In fact, the compost within the sock can be used
during cleanup as a vegetative growth medium. Runoff may be directed into the trap using any of the
devices described above. Compost sock sediment traps are addressed in this chapter to emphasize
their usefulness in controlling runoff from access roads. However, these devices may be used at some
other locations where a temporary sediment trap is appropriate. The trap should be constructed
according to Standard Construction Detail # 3-11. Sock material should meet the minimum standards
provided in Table 4.1. Installation of an excavated sump immediately above the socks may increase
trap efficiency where soil conditions permit their construction.
Filtrexx

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 35
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-11
Compost Sock Sediment Trap
PLAN VIEW
Adapted from Filtrexx
STAKING DETAIL
Sock material shall meet the standards of Table 4.1. Compost shall meet the standards of Table
4.2.
Compost sock sediment traps shall not exceed three socks in height and shall be stacked in
pyramidal form as shown above. Minimum trap height is one 24” diameter sock. Additional
storage may be provided by means of an excavated sump 12” deep extending 1 to 3 feet
upslope of the socks along the lower side of the trap.
Compost sock sediment traps shall provide 2,000 cubic feet storage capacity with 12” freeboard
for each tributary drainage acre. (See manufacturer for anticipated settlement.)
The maximum tributary drainage area is 5.0 acres. Since compost socks are “flow-through,” no
spillway is required.
Compost sock sediment traps shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Sediment
shall be removed when it reaches 1/3 the height of the socks.
Photodegradable and biodegradable socks shall not be used for more than 1 year.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 36
TEMPORARY STREAM AND WETLAND CROSSINGS
STREAM CROSSING
Because of the potential for stream degradation, flooding, and safety hazards, stream crossings should
be avoided wherever possible. Alternate routes to work areas should be considered before planning
the installation of a temporary stream crossing. Temporary stream crossings must be provided
wherever construction equipment (including clearing and grubbing equipment) must cross an existing
stream channel (water course with a defined bed and bank). Wherever such crossings are installed,
the appropriate Chapter 105 permits must be obtained from the Department or its designee. Designs
must adhere to the conditions of those permits.
DESIGN CRITERIA
1. All conditions listed on the General Permit-8 (GP-8) application must be met.
2. Ford type crossings should not be used by construction equipment
.
They should be used only
where normal flow is shallow or intermittent across a wide channel and crossings are
anticipated to be infrequent. Wherever possible, they should be located where a rocky stream
bottom exists so as to minimize damage to the channel during crossings. Approaches should
be stabilized with AASHTO #1. Fords are not authorized by general permits in special
protection watersheds.
Source Unknown

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 37
3. Temporary bridges should be installed as shown in Figure 3.4 and GP-8.
4. Culvert pipes must be installed according to GP-8 standards.
5. For crossings that will be in place for one year or less from the date of issuance (Chapter 105
temporary stream crossing permit), the pipe should be sized to handle flow under normal flow
conditions. Normal flow refers to the flow conditions that exist in a given stream channel other
than in response to storm or drought events. A common rule of thumb is to use a pipe or pipes
with a diameter approximately twice the normal flow depth.
6. A series of pipes from stream bank to stream bank may be used where necessary.
7. The minimum pipe diameter is 12 inches.
8. Wherever multiple pipes are used, the minimum distance between pipes shall conform to Table
3.5.
TABLE 3.5 - Minimum Distance Between Culvert Pipes
PIPE DIAMETER (D)
MINIMUM DISTANCE (F)
12” to 24”
12”
24” to 72”
½ Diameter (D)
72” to 120”
36”
PIPE ARCH SIZE (IN.)
MINIMUM DISTANCE (FF)
18 x 11 to 25 x 16
12”
25 x 16 to 72 x 44
1/3 Span of Pipe Arch
Above 72 x 44
30”
8. Only clean rock fill may be used. The rock must be sized according to the anticipated flow
conditions. The rock size used shall conform to Chapter 105 General Permit requirements. The
rock fill should be extended a minimum of 50’ from top of bank on each side of the crossing.
The fill should be depressed a minimum of 6” over the channel to allow for overflow. The
maximum depth of fill over the culvert is the minimum the manufacturer requires.
9. Suitable outlet protection should be provided where necessary to prevent scour at the pipe
outlet. Wherever soft channel bed conditions exist, riprap protection should also be provided at
the culvert entrance.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 38
FIGURE 3.4
Temporary Bridge Stream Crossing
Adapted from Maryland DOE
Waterbars and broad-based dips shall discharge to sediment removal facilities.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-12
Temporary Stream Crossing - Plan View
Adapted from Ohio EPA
Waterbars and broad-based dips shall discharge to sediment removal facility.
Clean rock shall conform to Chapter 105 permitting requirements.
Follow permit conditions regarding removal of crossing.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 39
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-13
Temporary Stream Crossing
PA DEP
Provide 50’ stabilized access to crossing on both sides of stream channel (see Standard
Construction Detail #3-12).
Pipes shall extend beyond the toe of the roadway.
Runoff from the roadway shall be diverted off the roadway and into a sediment removal BMP
before it reaches the rock approach to the crossing.
MAINTENANCE
1. Temporary stream crossings shall be inspected on a daily basis.
2. Damaged crossings shall be repaired within 24 hours of the inspection and before any
subsequent use.
3. Sediment deposits on the crossing or its approaches shall be removed within 24 hours of
the inspection
As soon as the temporary crossing is no longer needed, it shall be removed. All materials shall
be disposed of properly and disturbed areas stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 40
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-14
Temporary Stream Crossing - Multiple Pipes
PA DEP
Multiple pipes and multiple span bridges and culverts which may tend to collect debris,
contribute to the formation of ice jams and increase head losses shall be avoided to the
maximum extent practicable. Crossings of less than 15 feet shall be by one span, except where
conditions make it impractical to affect the crossing without multiple spans (Section 105.162
).
Provide 50’ stabilized access to crossing on both sides of stream channel (Standard
Construction Detail #3-12).
Pipes shall extend beyond the toe of the roadway.
Runoff from the roadway shall be diverted off the roadway and into a sediment removal BMP
before it reaches the rock approach to the crossing.
MAINTENANCE
1. Temporary stream crossings shall be inspected on a daily basis.
2. Damaged crossings shall be repaired within 24 hours of the inspection and before any
subsequent use.
3. Sediment deposits on the crossing or its approaches shall be removed within 24 hours of
the inspection
As soon as the temporary crossing is no longer needed, it shall be removed. All materials shall
be disposed of properly and disturbed areas stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 41
WETLAND CROSSING
Wetland crossings must be avoided wherever possible. Where that is not possible, the location of the
crossing and its orientation must be selected so as to have the least possible impact upon the wetland.
All wetland crossings must conform to Chapter 105 permitting requirements.
Temporary crossings should be constructed from materials that can be placed with a minimum of
disturbance to the soil surface and completely removed when no longer needed. Some examples of
stabilized crossing methods are illustrated in Figures 3.5 through 3.7 below.
FIGURE 3.5
Typical Tire Mat Wetland Crossing
University of Minnesota FS 07013
FIGURE 3.6
Typical Expanded Metal Grating Wetland Crossing
University of Minnesota FS 07011

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 42
FIGURE 3.7
Typical Wood Mat for Wetland Crossing
University of Minnesota FS 07009
A geotextile underlayment shall be used under the wood mat.
EARTHWORK WITHIN STREAM CHANNELS
NOTE: Wherever the structures described in this section are installed, the appropriate Chapter
105 permits must be obtained from the Department. Designs must adhere to the conditions of
those permits.
Whenever possible, work should be scheduled for low flow seasons. Base flows for minor stream
channels are to be diverted past the work area. For major stream channels (normal flow width
> 10 feet) base flow shall be diverted wherever possible. All such bypasses must be completed and
stabilized prior to diverting flow. Where diversion is not possible or where it can be shown that the
potential environmental damage would be greater with diverted flow, this requirement may be waived.
In either case, the duration of the disturbance must be minimized. All disturbed areas within the
channel must be stabilized prior to returning base flow to the portion of the channel affected by the
earthwork (Chapter 15).
Any in-channel excavations should be done from top of bank wherever possible unless this would
require removal of mature trees to access the channel. Where it is not possible to work from top of
bank, a temporary crossing or causeway (Figure 3.8) may be used to provide a working pad for any
equipment within the channel. Upon completion, the crossing or causeway must be removed and all
channel entrances restored, as much as possible, to pre-construction configurations, and stabilized. If
it can be shown that there would be less disturbance to the channel by not using work pads (e.g.
certain stream restorations), work within a live stream channel may be approved by the Department on
a case-by-case basis.
Except for pipeline & utility line projects (Chapter 13), all excavated channel materials that
subsequently will be used as backfill are to be placed in a temporary stockpile located outside the
channel floodway. A sediment barrier must be installed between the storage pile and the stream
channel.
All excavated materials that will not be used on site shall be immediately removed to a disposal site
having an approved E&S plan.
Any water pumped from excavated areas must be filtered prior to discharging into surface waters.
Suitable protection must be provided for the stream channel from any disturbed areas that have not yet
achieved stabilization.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 43
FIGURE 3.8
TYPICAL CAUSEWAY
Adapted from PA DEP GP-8
Wherever a temporary bypass channel is used, it should conform to Figure 3.9. At a minimum, a
geotextile protective lining should be provided for temporary bypass channels.
A temporary bypass channel should be designed to pass normal base flows if the crossing will be
completed in one to three days, otherwise the channel should be designed for bank-full flow (original
channel). All such channels should be constructed from the downstream end upward.
Whenever a temporary bypass pipe is used, it should conform to Figure 3.10. The pipe should be sized
so that the normal flow depth — flow typically observed within the channel, not in response to storm or
drought events — in the pipe (d) is < ½ the diameter of the pipe (D).

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 44
Pumped water bypass systems should conform to Figure 3.11. Pump-around systems should not be
used for bypasses anticipated to last more than 2 weeks.
NOTE: A cofferdam should be
constructed to impound water for the pump intake. DO NOT EXCAVATE A SUMP AREA WITHIN
THE STREAM CHANNEL FOR THE PUMP INTAKE.
Whenever an in-stream cofferdam diversion is used, it should conform to Figure 3.12. Various types of
cofferdams are available from various manufacturers. Wherever such cofferdams are proposed, they
should conform to the manufacturer’s specifications. Any calculations needed to show compliance with
these specs should be included in the narrative. All installation, maintenance, and removal details
should be shown on the plan drawings.
Sand bag diversion dams should conform to Standard Construction Detail #3-15.
FIGURE 3.9
Bypass Channel with Non-Erosive Lining
PA DEP
* Sandbags (Standard Construction Detail #3-15), Jersey barriers (Figure 3.13) or other non-
erosive material, no earth fill.
** See Standard Construction Detail # 4-14. For low gradient channels, the rock filter may be
replaced by an impervious cofferdam to prevent backflow into the work area.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 45
FIGURE 3.10
Rigid or Flexible Pipe Flume Through a Work Area
PA DEP
* Sandbags (Standard Construction Detail #3-15), Jersey barriers (Figure 3.13) or other non-
erosive material, no earth fill.
** See Standard Construction Detail # 4-14. For low gradient channels, the rock filter may be
replaced by an impervious cofferdam to prevent backflow into the work area.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 46
FIGURE 3.11
Temporary Cofferdam and Pump Bypass Around In-channel Work Areas
PA DEP
* Sandbags (Standard Construction Detail #3-15), Jersey barriers (Figure 3.13) or other non-
erosive material, no earth fill. Do not excavate a sump for the pump intake.
** See Standard Construction Detail # 4-14. For low gradient channels, the rock filter may be
replaced by an impervious cofferdam to prevent backflow into the work area.
NOTE: Pump intake
shall be maintained
a sufficient distance
from bottom to
prevent sediment
from entering the
system.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 47
FIGURE 3.12
In-stream Cofferdam Diversion
PA DEP
* Sandbags (Standard Construction Detail #3-15), Jersey barriers (Figure 3.13) or other
non-erosive material, no earth fill.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 48
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-15
Sandbag Diversion Dam or Cofferdam
PA DEP
2 BAG MINIMUM HEIGHT ABOVE NORMAL BASE FLOW
FIGURE 3.13
Jersey Barrier Cofferdam – End View
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 49
EARTHWORK WITHIN LAKES AND PONDS
NOTE: Wherever the structures described in this section are installed, the appropriate
Chapter 105 permits must be obtained from the Department. Designs shall adhere to the
conditions of those permits.
Since the water within a lake or pond typically has no appreciable flow velocity, a cofferdam is usually
sufficient to protect impounded water from the turbidity caused by construction activity. Therefore,
Figure 3.12 may be modified to provide a typical detail for such activity.
Turbidity Barrier (Silt Curtain)
A turbidity barrier is a heavy geosynthetic fabric suspended vertically in a body of water for the purpose
of preventing sediment-laden water from escaping a work area and entering the main body of water. It
is typically supported by a floatation system at the top and weighted at the bottom.
Geosol
A turbidity barrier is generally used where earthwork (e.g. dredging operations, streambank
improvements, bridge pier construction, etc.) occurs within a water body, or along the shoreline, for
relatively short periods of time, usually less than 1 month. It is most effective when used in calm water.
Turbidity barriers should not generally be used where strong currents exist, and should never be placed
across flowing watercourses. They should not typically be left in place during winter.
Design Considerations
For ponds and other relatively still water bodies, the fabric should be relatively impermeable so
as to provide a barrier between the clean water and the sediment-laden water. Runoff into this
type of curtain should be minimized, due to limited available capacity.
For moving water, such as in lakes and stream channels, provision should be made to allow
passage of water through the curtain. This is normally done by constructing at least part of the
curtain from a heavy filter fabric. While such curtains allow for some water movement through
the curtain, the flow rate is low. Therefore, these curtains should not be installed across flowing
watercourses. Turbidity barriers placed in stream channels should be placed parallel to the flow
direction.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 50
Wherever the water body is not subject to tidal and/or wind and wave action, the curtain should
extend the entire depth of the water and rest on (or be anchored to) the bottom. Failure to
maintain contact with the bottom will allow sediment to move under the curtain. It is
recommended that the height of the curtain be 20% greater than the depth of the water to allow
for fluctuations.
Wherever the water body is subject to significant tide, wind, or wave action, the weighted bottom
of the curtain should not extend to the bottom of the water body. Wind and wave action can
cause the bottom of the curtain to move along the bottom, stirring up sediment. Therefore, a
minimum 1-foot gap should be provided between the bottom of the curtain and the bottom of the
water body at mean low water.
Curtain heights beyond 12 feet are generally not practical. Curtains installed deeper than this
are subject to very large loads with consequent strain on curtain materials and the anchoring
system.
The overall length of the curtain should be 10 - 20% greater than the straight-line measurement
of the perimeter to facilitate installation and reduce stress caused by wind and/or waves.
Both ends of the curtain should be securely anchored to the shoreline.
An excessive number of joints should be avoided. A minimum continuous span of 50 feet
between joints is recommended. For stability purposes, the maximum span between joints
should be 100 feet.
For applications where it is desirable for water to pass through the curtain (e.g. when used
instead of a baffle in a sediment basin), a curtain with one or more panels of screen fabric
should be used. In this application, the curtain may remain in place over winter months.
Installation - Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines for proper installation. Make sure all obstacles,
impediments, and potentially damaging objects have been removed from the installation area prior to
beginning the installation. Figures 3.14 through 3.17 illustrate typical installations. However,
manufacturer’s details should be used for actual installation.
FIGURE 3.14
Turbidity Barrier Installation
No Current and Sheltered from Wind and Waves
Adapted from VA DSWC

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 51
FIGURE 3.15
Turbidity Barrier Installation
Small to Moderate Current (< 3.5 FPS) and Some Wind and Wave Action
Adapted from VA DSWC
FIGURE 3.16
Turbidity Barrier Installation
Considerable Current (3.5 - 5 FPS) and Potential Tidal, Wind, and Wave Action
Adapted from VA DSWC

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 52
FIGURE 3.17
Turbidity Barrier Installation - Tidal Condition
Adapted from VA DSWC

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 53
DEWATERING WORK AREAS - Wherever water is pumped from a disturbed area, it must be treated
for sediment removal prior to discharging to a surface water unless it can be shown that the quality of
the water being pumped already meets discharge standards. If a properly functioning sediment basin
or sediment trap is available, the pump discharge may be routed through the trap or basin. While
pumping, the maximum water level in the trap or basin should not exceed the cleanout elevation.
Water pumped from disturbed areas may not be discharged directly to detention ponds, since they are
not designed to be efficient sediment removal structures. Straw bale structures and filter fabric
structures are not acceptable for filtering pumped water due to their history of ineffectiveness. Filter
bags, as shown in Standard Construction Detail #3-16, and Sump Pits, as shown in Standard
Construction Detail #3-17, may be used to filter pumped water as described in the following section.
Other devices for filtering water pumped from excavations will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
The topography and conditions of the ground cover between the discharge point and the receiving
surface water should be evaluated for potential erosion. Appropriate stabilization measures should be
incorporated where needed to prevent erosion.
No filtering device is required for water pumped directly from a stream channel as part of a
pump-around bypass system.
PUMPED WATER FILTER BAG
- Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an
ABACT for special protection watersheds unless surrounded by a compost sock ring or
operated in conjunction with a sump pit.
Filter bags may be used to filter water pumped from
disturbed areas prior to discharging to surface waters. They may also be used to filter water pumped
from the sediment storage areas of sediment basins and sediment traps.
Northampton County Conservation District
The maximum pumping rate for any bag in use or proposed for use on a site should be available at the
site at all times during pumping operations. Pumping rates will vary depending on the size of the filter
bag, and the type and amount of sediment discharged to the bag.
Filter bags should be installed according to the details shown in Standard Construction Detail #3-16.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 54
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 3-16
Pumped Water Filter Bag
PA DEP
Low volume filter bags shall be made from non-woven geotextile material sewn with high
strength, double stitched “J” type seams. They shall be capable of trapping particles larger
than 150 microns. High volume filter bags shall be made from woven geotextiles that meet the
following standards:
Property
Test Method
Minimum Standard
Avg. Wide Width Strength
ASTM D-4884
60 lb/in
Grab Tensile
ASTM D-4632
205 lb
Puncture
ASTM D-4833
110 lb
Mullen Burst
ASTM D-3786
350 psi
UV Resistance
ASTM D-4355
70%
AOS % Retained
ASTM D-4751
80 Sieve
A suitable means of accessing the bag with machinery required for disposal purposes shall be
provided. Filter bags shall be replaced when they become ½ full of sediment. Spare bags shall
be kept available for replacement of those that have failed or are filled. Bags shall be placed on
straps to facilitate removal unless bags come with lifting straps already attached.
Bags shall be located in well-vegetated (grassy) area, and discharge onto stable, erosion
resistant areas. Where this is not possible, a geotextile underlayment and flow path shall be
provided. Bags may be placed on filter stone to increase discharge capacity. Bags shall not be
placed on slopes greater than 5%. For slopes exceeding 5%, clean rock or other non-erodible
and non-polluting material may be placed under the bag to reduce slope steepness.
No downslope sediment barrier is required for most installations. Compost berm or compost
filter sock shall be installed below bags located in HQ or EV watersheds, within 50 feet of any
receiving surface water or where grassy area is not available.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 55
(Additional Notes for Standard Construction Detail # 3-16)
The pump discharge hose shall be inserted into the bags in the manner specified by the
manufacturer and securely clamped. A piece of PVC pipe is recommended for this purpose.
The pumping rate shall be no greater than 750 gpm or ½ the maximum specified by the
manufacturer, whichever is less. Pump intakes shall be floating and screened.
Filter bags shall be inspected daily. If any problem is detected, pumping shall cease
immediately and not resume until the problem is corrected .
SUMP PIT
- Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an ABACT for special
protection watersheds unless used in conjunction with a pumped water filter bag.
For sites
where large volumes of water of low to moderate turbidity (i.e. not flowing from or through work areas)
must be pumped from work areas, and many filter bags would be required, sump pits (Standard
Construction Detail #3-17) can provide a means of filtering the water. They may also be used in
conjunction with filter bags to reduce the amount of sediment being pumped into the bags, reducing the
number of bags required. Sump pits used in conjunction with filter bags may also be used as an
ABACT BMP in special protection watersheds. Sump pits should not be used alone where highly
turbid waters are being pumped such as typically results from active work areas.
Sump pits should be located at a low point in the work area so that the water naturally drains toward the
pit. The size of the pit required depends upon the amount of water that must be pumped from the work
area and the space available.
When used in conjunction with a filter bag, the intake of the pump going to the filter bag should be
inserted into the standpipe of the sump pit.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 56
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #3-17
Sump Pit
Adapted from USDA NRCS
Locate sump at low point in work area and outside of construction activity. Wherever runoff
from a work area flows directly to the sump area, a filter bag shall be attached at the discharge
point unless pumping to a sediment basin or sediment trap.
Minimum diameter of pit bottom shall be 24” larger than pipe diameter. Minimum depth of pit
shall be 24” below water level in work area (including the AASHTO #57 stone). 12” to 24”
perforated CMP or PVC pipe shall be set on 12” of clean AASHTO # 57 stone.
Void space around pipe shall be filled with AASHTO # 57 stone. Pipe to extend 12” min. above
top of stone and/or water being pumped from work area.
Set pump intake inside standpipe.
Discharge from pump shall be to a stable area below disturbances from the work zone.
Sump may be used in conjunction with filter bag where additional filtering is needed.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 57
SITE HOUSEKEEPING AND MATERIALS MANAGEMENT
WASTE MANAGEMENT
- Building materials and other construction site wastes must be properly
managed and disposed of to reduce potential for pollution to surface and ground waters as per 25 Pa.
Code § 102.4(b)(5)(xi). Proper trash disposal, recycling of materials, proper materials handling, and
spill prevention and clean-up reduce the potential for construction site wastes to be mobilized by
stormwater runoff and conveyed to surface waters.
Under no circumstances may erosion control BMPs be used for temporary storage of demolition
materials or construction wastes.
Wherever heavy equipment will be used during construction of the cuts and fills or proposed buildings,
a Pollution Prevention and Contingency (PPC) plan must be available on site. This plan does not have
to be included in the permit application package submitted for an NPDES construction permit in
Pennsylvania but should be available on the project site. The applicant must prepare and implement a
PPC plan when storing, using or transporting materials including: fuels, chemicals, solvents, pesticides,
fertilizers, lime, petrochemicals, wastewater, wash water, core drilling wastewater, cement, sanitary
wastes, solid wastes, or hazardous materials onto, on, or from the project site during earth disturbance
activities. The PPC plan must be available upon request by the Department or conservation district.
Guidance for development of a PPC plan can be found in “Guidelines for the Development and
Implementation of Environmental Emergency Response Plans” (Document #400-2200-001), which can
be found in the Department’s eLibrary at
www.depweb.state.pa.us
.
All applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations must be followed in the use, handling, and
disposal of potentially hazardous materials.
CONCRETE WASHOUT
- For any project on which concrete will be poured or otherwise formed on
site, a suitable washout facility must be provided for the cleaning of chutes, mixers, and hoppers of the
delivery vehicles unless such a facility will be used at the source of the concrete. Under no
circumstances may wash water from these vehicles be allowed to enter any surface waters. Make sure
that proper signage is provided to drivers so that they are aware of the presence of washout facilities.
Washout facilities should not be placed within 50 feet of storm drains, open ditches or surface waters.
They should be in a convenient location for the trucks, preferably near the place where the concrete is
being poured, but far enough from other vehicular traffic to minimize the potential for accidental
damage or spills. Wherever possible, they should be located on slopes not exceeding a 2% grade.
Additional information on washouts may be obtained from EPA’s stormwater website at:
http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/menuofbmps/index.cfm?action=browse&Rbutton=detail&bmp=1
17&minmeasure=4.
Compost Sock Washout
Wherever compost sock washouts are used, a suitable impervious geomembrane should be placed at
the location of the washout. Compost socks should be staked in the manner recommended by the
manufacturer around perimeter of the geomembrane so as to form a ring with the ends of the sock
located at the upslope corner (Figure 3.18). Care should be taken to ensure continuous contact of the
sock with the geomembrane at all locations. Where necessary, socks may be stacked and staked so
as to form a triangular cross-section.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 58
Filtrexx
FIGURE 3.18
Typical Compost Sock Washout Installation
A suitable impervious geomembrane shall be placed at the location of the washout prior to
installing the socks.
Adapted from Filtrexx

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 59
Prefabricated Washout Containers
Care should be taken to ensure that the containers are intended by the manufacturer for use as
concrete washout BMPs, that they are watertight, and appropriately sized. Accumulated materials must
be properly disposed of (preferably recycled) when they reach the cleanout level.
All World Equipment
Self-installed Washouts
These types of washouts should be excavated below grade to prevent runoff of the wash water and
minimize the potential for breaching. They should be sized to handle solids, wash water, and rainfall.
A good rule of thumb is that 7 gallons of wash water are required to wash one truck chute and 50
gallons for the hopper of a concrete pump truck.
For larger sites, a below-grade washout should be a minimum of 10 feet wide and provide at least
12 inches of freeboard above the liquid and solid waste anticipated between cleanout intervals. The pit
should be lined with plastic sheeting of at least 10-mil thickness (with no holes or tears) to prevent
leaching of liquids into the ground.
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 60
Washwater Recyling Systems
Washwater recycling systems have also been developed which separate the solids from the
washwater, capturing both in impermeable bags and allowing them to be recycled. These systems may
be used in lieu of washouts if manufacturers’ specifications are followed. Care must be taken to
prevent the filtered water from entering any surface waters.
Sediment Basins and Sediment Traps
Sediment basins and sediment traps may not be used as concrete washout devices, since they
discharge directly to surface waters. This discharge would have an adverse effect upon the receiving
water. In addition, continued use of a basin or trap as a washout facility would significantly reduce the
storage capacity of the basin or trap.
Maintenance
All concrete washout facilities should be inspected daily. Damaged or leaking washouts should be
deactivated and repaired or replaced immediately.
Accumulated materials should be removed when they reach 75% capacity.
Plastic liners should be replaced with each cleaning of the washout facility.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 61
CHAPTER 4 - SEDIMENT BARRIERS AND FILTERS
Sediment barriers are typically used as perimeter controls for small disturbed areas and as initial
protection against sediment pollution during construction of other BMPs such as sediment basins or
traps. Each type of sediment barrier has specific advantages and limitations. Care should be
exercised in the selection of any sediment barrier to ensure it is suited to the particular site conditions
where it is proposed.
FIGURE 4.1
Sediment Barrier Alignment
PA DEP
Sediment barriers should be installed on existing level grade in order to be effective. Barriers which
cross contours divert runoff to a low point where failure usually occurs. The ends of sediment barriers
should be turned upslope at 45 degrees to the main barrier alignment for a distance sufficient to elevate
the bottom of the barrier ends to the elevation of the top of the barrier at the lowest point. This is to
prevent runoff from flowing around the barrier rather than through it. For most locations, a distance of
8 feet will suffice, as shown in Figure 4.1. In locations where the topography is such that the barrier
would have to extend for a long distance, a compacted berm tying into the ends of the barrier may be
substituted for the upslope extension.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 62
COMPOST FILTER SOCK -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: HIGH. This device is an ABACT for
HQ and EV watersheds.
Compost filter socks are a type of contained compost filter berm. They
consist of a biodegradable or photodegradable mesh tube filled, typically using a pneumatic blower,
with a coarse compost filter media that meets certain performance criteria (e.g. hydraulic flow through
rate, total solids removal efficiency, total suspended solids removal efficiency, turbidity reduction,
nutrient removal efficiency, metals removal efficiency, and motor oil removal efficiency).
York County Conservation District
Compost filter socks are flexible and can be filled in place or in some cases filled and moved into
position. They are especially useful on steep slopes. Heavy vegetation should be removed prior to
installing the sock. Compost socks can also be used on rocky slopes if sufficient preparation is made
to ensure good contact of the sock with the underlying soil along its entire length. They may also be
used on pavement as a perimeter control. Socks used in this manner range in diameter from 8” to 32”.
Note: The flat dimension of the sock should be at least 1.5 times the nominal diameter. Also,
some settlement of the tube typically occurs after installation.
The nominal diameter of the tube is
the dimension to be used for design purposes (i.e. Figure 4.2). Socks with diameters less than 12”
should only be used for residential housing lots of ¼ acre or less that are tributary to a sediment basin
or sediment trap.
As with other sediment barriers, filter socks should be placed parallel to contour with both ends of the
sock extended upslope at a 45 degree angle to the rest of the sock to prevent end-arounds
(Figure 4.1). Socks placed on earthen slopes should be anchored with stakes driven through the
center of the sock (Standard Construction Detail #4-1) or immediately downslope of the sock at
intervals recommended by the manufacturer. Where socks are placed on paved surfaces, concrete
blocks should be used immediately downslope of the socks (at the same intervals recommended for the
stakes) to help hold the sock in place.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 63
The maximum slope length above a compost filter sock should not exceed those shown in Figure 4.2.
NOTE: Slope length is not addressed by use of multiple rows of compost socks.
The anticipated
functional life of a biodegradable filter sock should be 6 months; for photodegradable socks it is 1 year.
Some other types may last longer. Projects with disturbances anticipated to last longer than the
functional life of a sock should plan to replace the socks periodically or use another type of BMP.
Upon stabilization of the tributary area, the filter sock may be left in place and vegetated or removed. In
the latter case, the mesh is typically cut open and the mulch spread as a soil supplement. In either
case, the stakes should be removed.
Filter socks using other fillers may be approved on a case-by-case basis if sufficient supporting
information (including manufacturer’s specs and independent test data) is provided. However, they
might not qualify as ABACTs. Wherever compost socks are used, Table 4.1 should be placed on a
detail sheet.
TABLE 4.1
Compost Sock Fabric Minimum Specifications
Material Type
3 mil HDPE
5 mil HDPE
5 mil HDPE
Multi-Filament
Polypropylene
(MFPP)
Heavy Duty
Multi-Filament
Polypropylene
(HDMFPP)
Material
Characteristics
Photo-
degradable
Photo-
degradable
Bio-
degradable
Photo-
degradable
Photo-
degradable
Sock
Diameters
12”
18”
12”
18”
24”
32”
12”
18”
24”
32”
12”
18”
24”
32”
12”
18”
24”
32”
Mesh Opening
3/8”
3/8”
3/8”
3/8”
1/8”
Tensile
Strength
26 psi
26 psi
44 psi
202 psi
Ultraviolet
Stability %
Original
Strength
(ASTM G-155)
23% at
1000 hr.
23% at
1000 hr.
100% at
1000 hr.
100% at
1000 hr.
Minimum
Functional
Longevity
6 months
9 months
6 months
1 year
2 years
Two-ply systems
Inner Containment Netting
HDPE biaxial net
Continuously wound
Fusion-welded junctures
3/4" X 3/4" Max. aperture size
Outer Filtration Mesh
Composite Polypropylene Fabric
(Woven layer and non-woven fleece
mechanically fused via needle punch)
3/16” Max. aperture size
Sock fabrics composed of burlap may be used on projects lasting 6 months or less.
Filtrexx & JMD
Compost should be a well decomposed, weed-free organic matter derived from agriculture, food, stump
grindings, and yard or wood/bark organic matter sources. The compost should be aerobically
composted. The compost should possess no objectionable odors and should be reasonably free (<1%

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 64
by dry weight) of man-made foreign matter. The compost product should not resemble the raw material
from which it was derived. Wood and bark chips, ground construction debris or reprocessed wood
products are not acceptable as the organic component of the mix.
The physical parameters of the compost should comply with the standards in Table 4.2. The standards
contained in the PennDOT Publication 408 are an acceptable alternative.
TABLE 4.2
Compost Standards
Organic Matter Content
80% - 100% (dry weight basis)
Organic Portion
Fibrous and elongated
pH
5.5 - 8.0
Moisture Content
35% - 55%
Particle Size
98% pass through 1” screen
Soluble Salt Concentration
5.0 dS/m (mmhos/cm) Maximum
Filtrexx

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 65
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #4-1
COMPOST FILTER SOCK
Filtrexx
NTS
Sock fabric shall meet standards of Table 4.1. Compost shall meet the standards of Table 4.2.
Compost filter sock shall be placed at existing level grade. Both ends of the sock shall be
extended at least 8 feet up slope at 45 degrees to the main sock alignment (Figure 4.1).
Maximum slope length above any sock shall not exceed that shown on Figure 4.2. Stakes may
be installed immediately downslope of the sock if so specified by the manufacturer.
Traffic shall not be permitted to cross filter socks.
Accumulated sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the aboveground height of the
sock and disposed in the manner described elsewhere in the plan.
Socks shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Damaged socks shall be repaired
according to manufacturer’s specifications or replaced within 24 hours of inspection.
Biodegradable filter socks shall be replaced after 6 months; photodegradable socks after 1 year.
Polypropylene socks shall be replaced according to manufacturer’s recommendations.
Upon stabilization of the area tributary to the sock, stakes shall be removed. The sock may be
left in place and vegetated or removed. In the latter case, the mesh shall be cut open and the
mulch spread as a soil supplement.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 66
FIGURE 4.2
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SLOPE LENGTH ABOVE COMPOST FILTER SOCKS
Adapted from Filtrexx
NOTE: 8” diameter socks should only be used to control small (
<
¼ acre) disturbed areas on individual house lots).

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 67
COMPOST FILTER BERM -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: MODERATE. This device is an
ABACT for HQ but not EV watersheds unless used in conjunction with another BMP (e.g. silt
fence or vegetative filter strip).
Although compost is typically viewed as a means of stabilization, it
may also be used to construct a filter berm for sediment control. Composts denser in nature and
containing particles that range in size produce the most stable berms. Do not use compost filter berms
in channels or other concentrated flows. As with other types of sediment barriers, compost filter berms
should be located where runoff is anticipated to be in sheet flow. Concentrated or channelized flows
should be directed to sediment basins or traps, not filter berms. The maximum slope length above a
compost filter berm should be that shown in Table 4.4 for the standard silt fence (18” high fence).
Carolina Compost
Compost filter berms may be vegetated or unvegetated. Vegetated filter berms are usually left in place
and provide long-term filtration of stormwater as a post-construction BMP. Unvegetated berms are
typically broken down after stabilization of the tributary drainage area is achieved. The compost is
spread around the site as a soil amendment or mulch.
Compost filter berms may not be used to construct sediment traps or other impoundments.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 68
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL #4-2
Compost Filter Berm
Adapted from PennDOT
Compost shall meet the standards in Table 4.2.
Compost filter berms shall be placed at existing level grade. Both ends of the berm shall be
extended at least 8 feet up slope at 45 degrees to the main berm alignment (see Figure 4.1).
The maximum slope length above a compost filter berm shall not exceed that shown in Table
4.4 for the standard silt fence (18” high fence).
Tall grass shall be cut prior to installation to minimize potential for undercutting. Berm shall be
netted or otherwise anchored after installation.
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach 1/3 the aboveground height of the berm.
Any section compost filter berm which has been undermined or topped shall be immediately
replaced. Concentrated flows shall not be directed toward any compost filter berm.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 69
Installation
- Compost filter berms may be installed by hand, by using construction equipment (e.g.
backhoe, wheel loader, or skid loader), or with specialized equipment such as a pneumatic blower or
side discharge spreader with a berm attachment. The compost should be uniformly applied to the soil
surface, compacted, and shaped into a rough trapezoid. Filter berms may be installed on frozen or
rocky ground. Heavy vegetation should be cut down or removed to ensure proper contact with the
underlying soil surface.
Vegetated berms may be seeded by hand, by incorporating seed into the compost prior to installation
— a typical procedure when installed by pneumatic blower or mixing truck with side discharge — or by
hydraulic seeding after berm construction.
WEIGHTED SEDIMENT FILTER TUBE -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: MODERATE. This device
is an ABACT for HQ but not EV watersheds.
Weighted sediment filter tubes are tube-shaped
devices filled with non-biodegradable filter materials for longevity and reuse. They may be used to
control runoff from small disturbed areas where silt fence would normally be used as well as certain
locations where a silt fence is not typically effective (e.g. above headwalls and endwalls). In general,
the maximum slope length for standard silt fence may be used for 12” diameter tubes and slope lengths
for reinforced silt fence (Table 4.4 or Figure 4.3) may be used for 18” to 20” diameter tubes. However,
longer slope lengths may be considered by the Department on a case-by-case basis. The tubes can
also be used instead of rock filters or as filters for storm sewer inlets located in sump areas. Standard
Construction Details # 4-3 through # 4-5 may be used for weighted sediment filter tubes installation and
maintenance. When the area tributary to a tube has been stabilized, an undamaged tube may be
removed and used at another location.
ACF
Weighted sediment filter tubes may be placed in areas of concentrated flow in lieu of rock filters if
installed according to manufacturer’s recommendations or Standard Construction Detail # 4-4.
Weighted sediment filter tubes may not be used in lieu of protective liners in constructed channels.
Where flow path widths exceed the length of one filter tube, Standard Construction Detail # 4-5 should
be used.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 70
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-3
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation
Adapted from PA Turnpike Commission
Sediment tube placement area shall be prepared so that it is free of all debris, including
rocks, sticks, roots, etc. A 2” layer of AASHTO #57 stone shall be placed where the
logs come together. Ends of tubes may be overlapped according to manufacturer’s
specifications instead of the AASHTO #57 stone.
Sediment tubes shall be placed at existing level grade. Ends shall be extended upslope at 45
O
to the main filter log alignment for a minimum of 8 feet (Figure 4.1).
Sediment tubes shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event.
Sediment deposits shall be cleaned from the log when it reaches half the height of the tube.
Damaged tubes shall be replaced within 24 hours of inspection. A supply of tubes shall be
maintained on site for this purpose.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 71
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-4
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation in a Concentrated Flow Area
Adapted from ACF
PLAN VIEW
NOTE: This detail applicable to flow paths with widths < one tube length.
Metal T-posts shall be installed at the center and at each end of the tube. Additional T-posts
shall be installed as needed to meet the maximum 2-foot spacing.
Sediment tubes shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event.
Accumulated sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the tube and
disposed as directed elsewhere in the E&S plan.
Damaged tubes shall be repaired or replaced within 24 hours of inspection. A supply of tubes
shall be kept on site for this purpose.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 72
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-5
Weighted Sediment Filter Tube Installation Across a Wide Flow Path
Adapted from ACF
Metal T-posts shall be installed at the center and at each end of the tube. Additional T-posts
shall be installed as needed to meet the maximum 2-foot spacing.
Sediment tubes shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event.
Accumulated sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the tube and
disposed as directed elsewhere in the E&S plan.
Damaged tubes shall be repaired or replaced within 24 hours of inspection. A supply of tubes
shall be kept on site for this purpose.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 73
ROCK FILTER OUTLET -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an ABACT for
special protection watersheds.
Rock filter outlets may be used to address problems of concentrated
flows to sediment barriers. Wherever a sediment barrier has failed due to an unanticipated
concentrated flow, a rock filter outlet should be installed unless that concentrated flow can be otherwise
directed away from the barrier.
Westmoreland Conservation District
In special protection watersheds — HQ or EV — or where additional water filtering is desired, a 6 inch
layer of compost should be added and anchored on top of the upslope side of the AASHTO #57 stone.
A 6-inch deep sump may be installed immediately upslope of the rock filter outlet to provide additional
sediment removal capacity.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 74
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-6
Rock Filter Outlet
PA DEP
A rock filter outlet shall be installed where failure of a silt fence or straw bale barrier has
occurred due to concentrated flow. Anchored compost layer shall be used on upslope face in
HQ and EV watersheds.
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach 1/3 the height of the outlet.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 75
SILT FENCE (FILTER FABRIC
FENCE) -
Sediment Removal
Efficiency: LOW. This device is
not an ABACT for special
protection watersheds. However,
it may be used to increase the
efficiency of another BMP which is
an ABACT (e.g. vegetated filter
strip).
Silt fence may be used to
control runoff from small disturbed
areas when it is in the form of sheet
flow, and the discharge is to a stable
area. Only those fabric types
specified for such use by the
manufacturer should be used. In
order to provide sufficient fabric for
proper anchoring of the fence,
standard filter fabric width should be
30” min.; reinforced and super filter
fabric width should be 42” min.
York County Conservation District
Do not use silt fence in areas of concentrated flows (e.g. channels, swales, erosion gullies, across pipe
outfalls, as inlet protection, etc.).
Filter fabric should not be wrapped around the principal spillway
risers of sediment basins or traps.
Silt fence should not be used in areas where rock or rocky soils prevent the full and uniform anchoring
of the fence. Forested areas are not recommended unless tree roots can be severed during excavation
of the anchor trench.
At a minimum, the fabric should have the properties shown in Table 4.3:
TABLE 4.3
Fabric Properties for Silt Fence
Fabric Property
Minimum Acceptable Value
Test Method
Grab Tensile Strength (lb)
120
ASTM D1682
Elongation at Failure (%)
20% Max.
ASTM D1682
Mullen Burst Strength (psi)
200
ASTM D 3786
Trapezoidal Tear Strength (lb)
50
Puncture Strength (lb)
40
ASTM D 751 (modified)
Slurry Flow Rate (gal/min/sf)
0.3
ASTM 5141
Equivalent Opening Size
30
US Std. Sieve CW-02215
Ultraviolet Radiation Stability (%)
80
ASTM G-26
Adapted from New York DEC and PennDOT Pub 408
Silt fence should not be installed on uncompacted fills or in extremely loose soils (e.g. sandy loam),
since this will likely result in undermining of the fence.
Silt fence should be installed at existing level grade. Both ends of each fence section should be
extended at least 8 feet upslope across undisturbed ground at 45 degrees to the main fence alignment
to allow for pooling of water.
A 6” deep trench should be excavated, minimizing the disturbance on the downslope side. The bottom
of the trench should be at level grade.
NOTE
: Standard silt fence may be installed using the slicing

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 76
method provided manufacturer’s recommendations are followed. Where this method is chosen, show
all standard details and instructions provided by the manufacturer on the plan drawings.
Support stakes that are 2” X 2” (+ 3/8”) hardwood (minimum cross-sectional area of 3.0 square inches)
or equivalent steel (U or T weighing not less than 1.33 pound per linear foot) should be driven 18”
below the existing ground surface at 8-foot (max.) intervals (see Standard Construction Detail # 4-7).
The filter fabric should be stretched and fastened to the upslope side of the support stakes.
Wherever reinforced silt fence is installed, the reinforcement mesh should be fastened to the stakes
prior to the fabric (Standard Construction Detail # 4-8).
At fabric ends, both ends should be wrapped around the support stake and stapled. If the fabric comes
already attached to the stakes, the end stakes should be held together while the fabric is wrapped
around the stakes at least one revolution (360 degrees) prior to driving the stakes.
The bottom of the fence should be anchored by placing the fabric in the bottom of the trench, then
backfilling and compacting the fill material in the trench (an acceptable alternative is the use of a
machine which slices the soil to a depth of at least 6 inches and inserts the fabric in a continuous
operation.)
Guy wires should be attached to the support stakes of reinforced silt fence (Standard Construction
Detail # 4-8). An acceptable alternative to the guy wires is to stake a continuous row of straw bales on
the downslope side of the fence (Standard Construction Detail # 4-9).
Silt fence alignment should be at least 8’ from the toe of fill slopes.
The maximum slope length — in both existing and final grade — above standard (18"), reinforced (30")
or super silt fence should not exceed that shown in Table 4.4 or Figure 4.3. The slope length shown is
the distance from the fence to the drainage divide or the nearest upslope channel.
NOTE: Slope
length cannot be addressed by use of multiple rows of silt fence.
TABLE 4.4
Maximum Slope Length for Silt Fence
Slope - Percent
Maximum Slope Length (ft) Above Fence
Standard (18” High)
Silt Fence
Reinforced (30” High)
Silt Fence
Super Silt Fence
2 (or less)
150
500
1000
5
100
250
550
10
50
150
325
15
35
100
215
20
25
70
175
25
20
55
135
30
15
45
100
35
15
40
85
40
15
35
75
45
10
30
60
50
10
25
50
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 77
Wherever there is a break or change in slope above the silt fence, the maximum allowable slope length
should be determined by the following method:
(a) Determine the length and percent of the slope segment immediately above the fence.
(b) Subtract the length of this segment from the allowable slope length for that percent slope shown
in Table 4.4. If the result is positive, find the percentage of the allowable slope length that has
been used (slope length
÷
allowable slope length).
(c) Subtract the result from 1.00 to determine the unused percentage of allowable slope length.
(d) Determine the maximum allowable slope length for the percent slope of the remaining segment
from Table 4.4.
(e) Multiply this allowable slope length by the remainder from step (c) above.
(f)
Add the result from step (b) to that from step (e). This is the maximum allowable slope length for
the entire slope.
Silt fence should be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Needed repairs should be initiated
immediately after the inspection.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 78
FIGURE 4.3
Maximum Permissible Slope Length above Silt Fence and Straw Bale Barriers
Maximum Slope Length (ft)
Lebanon County Conservation District

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 79
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-7
Standard Silt Fence (18” High)
PA DEP
Fabric shall have the minimum properties as shown in Table 4.3.
Fabric width shall be 30” minimum. Stakes shall be hardwood or equivalent steel ( U or T )
stakes.
Silt fence shall be placed at level existing grade. Both ends of the fence shall be extended at
least 8 feet up slope at 45 degrees to the main fence alignment (see Figure 4.1).
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach half the aboveground height of the
fence.
Any section of silt fence which has been undermined or topped shall be immediately replaced
with a rock filter outlet (Standard Construction Detail # 4-6).
Fence shall be removed and properly disposed of when tributary area is permanently stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 80
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-8
Reinforced Silt Fence (30" High)
PA DEP
Fabric shall have the minimum properties as shown in Table 4.3.
Fabric width shall be 42” minimum. Stakes shall be hardwood or equivalent steel ( U or T )
stakes. An 18” support stake shall be driven 12” minimum into undisturbed ground.
Silt fence shall be installed at existing level grade. Both ends of each fence section shall be
extended at least 8 feet upslope at 45 degrees to the main fence alignment (Figure 4.1).
Sediment shall be removed where accumulations reach half the aboveground height of the
fence.
Any section of silt fence which has been undermined or topped shall be immediately replaced
with a rock filter outlet (Standard Construction Detail # 4-6).
Fence shall be removed and properly disposed of when tributary area is permanently stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 81
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-9
Silt Fence Reinforced by Staked Straw Bales
PA DEP
Fabric shall have the minimum properties as shown in Table 4.3.
This BMP is not suitable for projects lasting longer than 3 months unless bales are replaced
quarterly.
Fabric width shall be 42” minimum. Stakes shall be hardwood or equivalent steel ( U or T )
stakes.
Silt fence shall be installed at existing level grade. Both ends of each fence section shall be
extended at least 8 feet upslope at 45 degrees to the main fence alignment (Figure 4.1).
Sediment shall be removed where accumulations reach half the aboveground height of the
fence.
Any fence section which has been undermined or topped shall be immediately replaced with a
rock filter outlet (Standard Construction Detail # 4-6).
Fence shall be removed and properly disposed of when tributary area is permanently stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 82
SUPER SILT FENCE (SUPER FILTER FABRIC FENCE) -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW.
This device is not an ABACT for special protection watersheds. However, it may be used with
another BMP that is an ABACT (e.g. vegetated filter strip) to make it more effective.
Super silt
fence may be used to control runoff from some small disturbed areas where the maximum slope
lengths for reinforced silt fence cannot be met and sufficient room for construction of sediment traps or
basins does not exist.
PA DEP
Only those fabric types specified for use as silt fence by the manufacturer should be used.
The maximum slope length — in both existing and final grade — above any super silt fence should not
exceed that shown in Table 4.4 or Figure 4.3. The slope length shown is the distance from the fence to
the drainage divide or the nearest upslope channel.
NOTE: Slope length is not increased by use of
multiple rows of super silt fence.
Super silt fence should not be used in areas where rock or rocky soils prevent the full and uniform
anchoring of the fence or proper installation of the fence posts. It should be used only where access
exists or can be made for the construction equipment required to install and remove the chain link
fencing (e.g. trencher and posthole drill).
Super silt fence should be installed at level grade. Both ends of each fence section should be extended
at least 8 feet upslope at 45 degrees to the main fence alignment to allow for pooling of water (see
Figure 4.1).
Super silt fence should be installed according to the details shown in Standard Construction
Detail # 4-10.
An 8” deep trench should be excavated, minimizing the disturbance on the downslope side. The
bottom of the trench should be at level grade.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 83
A chain link fence should be installed in the downslope side of the trench with the fence on the upslope
side of the support poles. Poles should be 2 ½” diameter galvanized or aluminum posts set at 10’
maximum spacing. Poles should be installed a minimum 36” below the ground surface and extend a
minimum of 33” aboveground. A posthole drill is necessary to do this for most sites. Poles do not need
to be set in concrete. No. 7 gage tension wire should be installed horizontally through holes at top and
bottom of chain-link fence or attached with hog rings at 5’ (max.) centers.
Filter fabric should be stretched and securely fastened to the fence with wire fasteners, staples, or
preformed clips. The fabric should extend a minimum of 33” above the ground surface.
At fabric ends, both ends should be overlapped a minimum of 6”, folded, and secured to the fence
(Standard Construction Detail # 4-10). The fabric toe should be placed in the bottom of the trench,
backfilled, and compacted.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 84
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-10
Super Silt Fence
PA DEP
Fabric shall have the minimum properties as shown in Table 4.3.
Filter fabric width shall be 42” minimum.
Posts shall be installed using a posthole drill.
Chain link shall be galvanized No. 11.5 Ga. steel wire with 2 ¼” opening, No. 11 Ga. aluminum
coated steel wire in accordance with ASTM-A-491, or galvanized No. 9 Ga. steel wire top and
bottom with galvanized No. 11 Ga. steel intermediate wires. No. 7 gage tension wire to be
installed horizontally through holes at top and bottom of chain-link fence or attached with hog
rings at 5’ (max.) centers.
Silt fence shall be placed at existing level grade. Both ends of the fence shall be extended at
least 8 feet upslope at 45 degrees to main barrier alignment (Figure 4.1).
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach half the aboveground height of the
fence.
Fence shall be removed and properly disposed of when tributary area is permanently stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 85
SEDIMENT FILTER LOG (FIBER LOG) -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not
an ABACT for special protection watersheds. However, it may be used with other BMPs that are
ABACT to increase their effectiveness.
Sediment filter logs are tube-shaped devices filled with
straw, flax, rice, or coconut fiber and wrapped with UV-degradable polypropylene netting, burlap, jute,
or coir for longevity. They may be used to control runoff from small disturbed areas where silt fence
would normally be used as well as certain locations where silt fence is not typically effective (e.g. above
headwalls and endwalls). In general, 9-inch diameter logs may be used on individual lots of < 0.5 acres
that are tributary to a sediment basin or sediment trap. Logs that are 12-inch may be used on slopes
with lengths not exceeding those approved for standard silt fence (Table 4.4 or Figure 4.3). Logs that
are 20-inch may be used on slopes approved for reinforce silt fence. However, longer slope lengths
may be considered by the Department on a case-by-case basis. Standard Construction Detail # 4-11
should be used for sediment filter log installation and maintenance.
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 86
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-11
Sediment Filter Log (Fiber Log)
Adapted from PA Turnpike Commission
Sediment log placement area shall be prepared so that it is free of all debris, including rocks,
sticks, roots, etc. A 2” layer of compacted fill material shall be placed on the upslope side of
the log to prevent undercutting. Where more than one log is required to obtain specified length,
logs shall be tightly abutted and securely staked (or overlapped by 12” min.). A layer of
AASHTO #57 stone shall be placed where abutting logs come together (extending 2 ft. on both
sides of the log). A 6” thick layer of compost on the upslope side may be substituted for the
stone. Sediment filter logs shall be placed at existing level grade. Ends shall be extended
upslope at 45
O
to the main filter log alignment for a minimum of 8 feet (Figure 4.1).
Sediment filter logs shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Sediment deposits
shall be cleaned from the log when it reaches half the height of the log. Damaged filter logs
shall be replaced within 24 hours of inspection. A supply of filter logs shall be maintained on
site for this purpose.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 87
WOOD CHIP FILTER BERM -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: MODERATE. This device is an
ABACT for HQ but not for EV watersheds.
Wood chip berms may be used on wooded or rocky
slopes where staking and trenching of other BMPs is very difficult or impossible. Since they do not
require trenching, wood chip filter berms disturb less soil during installation than silt fence or straw bale
barriers. However, large obstructions such as tree limbs, boulders, etc. should be removed prior to
placement of the wood chips. Once the tributary drainage area is permanently stabilized, the wood
chip filter berm may either be leveled or left in place.
PA DEP
Wood chip filter berms should not be placed in areas of concentrated flow. They should be aligned
parallel to existing contours and located below all disturbed areas. It is recommended that this BMP be
used in conjunction with a vegetated filter strip as described later in this chapter. They are not
recommended for use within 50 feet of a receiving surface water.
The maximum slope length above a wood chip filter berm should not exceed those in Table 4.5.
Wood chip filter berms should be constructed as shown in Standard Construction Detail # 4-12.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 88
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-12
Wood Chip Filter Berm
Adapted from Lebanon County Conservation district Conservation district
Prior to placement of the berm, obstructions such as tree limbs, large rocks, etc. shall be
removed.
Wood chip filter berm shall be placed at existing level grade. Both ends of the berm shall be
extended at least 8 feet up slope at 45 degrees to the main berm alignment (Figure 4.1). Wood
chip berms shall not be located in areas of concentrated flow or used to construct sediment
traps or other impoundments.
A 6” thick layer of compost shall be added to the upslope side of any wood chip filter berm
located in an HQ watershed. This BMP shall not be routinely used in EV watersheds.
Berms shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Sediment shall be removed when
accumulations reach half the height of the berm. Damaged or deteriorated portions of the berm
shall be replaced immediately upon inspection.
Berms may be leveled when the tributary area has been permanently stabilized or left in place.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 89
STRAW BALE BARRIER -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an ABACT for
special protection watersheds.
Straw bale barriers may be used to control runoff from small
disturbed areas provided that runoff is in the form of sheet flow. Since straw bales tend to deteriorate
within a 3-month period, they should be considered as short-term control measures.
York County Conservation District
Straw bale barriers should not be used in areas of concentrated flows (e.g. channels, swales, erosion
gullies, across pipe outfalls, as inlet protection, etc.) or in areas where they cannot be properly staked
(e.g. paved areas).
The maximum slope length above any straw bale barrier should not exceed that shown in Table 4.5.
The slope length shown is the distance from the barrier to the drainage divide or the nearest upslope
channel.
NOTE: Slope length is not increased by use of multiple rows of straw bale barriers.
For non-uniform slopes use the method described following Table 4.4 to determine the slope length.
TABLE 4.5
Maximum Slope Length for Straw Bale Barriers and Wood Chip Filter Berms
Slope - Percent
Maximum Slope Length (ft)
Above Barrier
2 (or less)
150
5
100
10
50
15
35
20
25
25
20
30
15
35
15
40
15
45
10
50
10
> 50
Not Permitted
PA DEP

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 90
Straw bale barriers should not be used in areas where rock prevents full and uniform anchoring of the
bales.
Straw bale barriers should be installed according to Standard Construction Detail # 4-13.
Bales should be installed in an anchoring trench. When improperly placed and installed (such as
staking the bales directly to the ground with no soil seal or entrenchment), undercutting and other
failures typically occur.
Two support stakes should be driven through each bale to a depth 18” below the ground surface.
The excavated soil should be backfilled and compacted on the upslope side of the bales.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-13
Straw Bale Barrier
PA DEP
Straw bale barriers shall not be used for projects extending more than 3 months.
Straw bale barriers shall be placed at existing level grade with ends tightly abutting the adjacent
bales. First stake of each bale shall be angled toward adjacent bale to draw bales together.
Stakes shall be driven flush with the top of the bale (see Figure 4.4). Both ends of the barrier
shall be extended at least 8 feet up slope at 45 degrees to the main barrier alignment (see Figure
4.1).
Compacted backfill shall extend approximately 4 inches above ground level.
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach 1/3 the aboveground height of the
barrier. Damaged or deteriorated bales shall be replaced immediately upon inspection.
Any section of straw bale barrier which has been undermined or topped shall be immediately
replaced with a rock filter outlet (Standard Construction Detail # 4-6).
Bales shall be removed when the tributary area has been permanently stabilized.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 91
FIGURE 4.4
Straw Bale Barrier Installation
NRCS

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 92
ROCK FILTER -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an ABACT for special
protection watersheds. However, the efficiency may be raised to moderate (ABACT for HQ
watersheds) by anchoring a 6” layer of compost on the upgradient side.
Rock filters may be used
to control runoff within constructed channels — at the downstream end of the channel, during
construction — until the protective lining is installed or during a temporary disturbance within the
channel. They may also be used below construction work within an existing stream channel while flow
is being diverted past the work area (Figures 3.9 through 3.11). In such cases, the filter should be
located between the work area and the discharge from the bypass system.
York County Conservation District
Rock filters may not be used instead of appropriate channel linings. This practice often results in
overtopping of the channel during storm events, scouring of the channel bottom below the filter, or
erosion of the channel side slopes as sediment deposits build up behind the filter. Rock filters may not
be used in roadside ditches instead of a suitable temporary protective liner until vegetation is
established except at the inflows to ditch relief culverts on dirt or gravel roads or on temporary or
permanent access roads.
Rock filters may not be used instead of an adequate protective lining in sediment basin emergency
spillways. This can reduce the effective discharge capacity of the spillway and, in so doing, increase
the possibility of embankment failure.
Rock filters should be constructed according to the specifications shown in Standard Construction
Detail # 4-14.
Rock filters should be constructed with riprap sized as follows:
For channels with total depth > 3 feet, use R-4.
For channels with total depth between 2 and 3 feet, use R-3.
Rock filters should not be used in channels of less than 2 feet total depth.
The filter should be equal in height to
half
the total channel depth with a 6” depression in the center.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 93
A one foot thick layer of AASHTO #57 (or smaller) stone should be placed on the upstream side of the
filter. In special protection watersheds, a 6” layer of compost should be placed and anchored on top of
the filter stone. NOTE: Filter fabric and straw bales should not be used in rock filters!
Rock filters should be inspected weekly and after each runoff event.
Clogged filter stone (AASHTO # 57) should be replaced.
Needed repairs should be initiated immediately after the inspection.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-14
Rock Filter
PA DEP
FOR 3’ < D
USE R-4
FOR 2’ < D < 3’ USE R-3
NOT APPLICABLE FOR D < 2’
NOTE: This table is intentionally blank and should be filled in by the plan preparer.
ROCK
FILTER NO.
LOCATION
D (FT.)
RIPRAP
SIZE
Sediment shall be removed when accumulations reach 1/2 the height of the filter.
Immediately upon stabilization of each channel, installer shall remove accumulated
sediment, remove rock filter, and stabilize disturbed areas.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 94
VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIP -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: MODERATE when used in series
with another sediment removal BMP that does not result in a concentrated discharge onto the
vegetative filter strip. This device, when used in this way, is an ABACT for HQ but not for EV
watersheds.
A vegetative filter strip consists of a well-vegetated, grassy area below a disturbed area
that can be used to remove sediment from runoff prior to its reaching surface waters.
Lebanon County Conservation District
To be effective, runoff should be in the form of sheet flow, and the vegetative cover should be
established prior to the disturbance. Due to the time required to establish vegetation and the need to
control runoff from the areas disturbed while constructing filter strips, constructed vegetative filter strips
are not recommended. The suitability of natural vegetative filter strips should be either field verified by
the Department or conservation district or documented by photo(s) submitted by the applicant prior to
approval. Vegetative filter strips on neighboring properties should not be proposed unless permission to
use that area as a vegetative filter strip has been obtained from the owner of the property along with an
agreement to leave the filter strip area undisturbed for as long as it is needed. Where control of the
filter strip cannot be assured throughout its intended use, a substitute BMP that will be installed should
the filter strip no longer be available should be specified in the E&S Plan.
Vegetative filter strips may be used to remove sediment from project runoff that is directed to the strip
as sheet flow. The minimum filter strip width should be determined from Table 4.6.
Vegetation should be an existing, well-established, perennial grass. Wooded and brushy areas are not
acceptable for purposes of sediment removal.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 95
The total width of the filter strip should be at least half that of the disturbed area tributary to it. Minimum
width of the filter strip should be:
W
min
= 2S + 25 ft (50 ft min. or ½ that of the disturbed area tributary to it,
whichever is longer)
Where: W
min
= Minimum filter width in feet
S
= Average slope (in percent) of the filter strip
If at any time, the width of the vegetative filter strip has been reduced by sediment deposition to half its
original width, suitable alternative BMPs should be installed immediately. The E&S Plan should specify
what BMPs will be installed should this occur. Specifications, typical details, locations, etc. should be
included.
FIGURE 4.5
Vegetative Filter Strip
PA DEP
TABLE 4.6
Minimum Filter Strip Widths for Sediment Removal
Land Slope (%)*
Minimum Filter Strip Width (ft.)
< 10
50
20
65
30
85
40
105
50
125
60
145
70
165
* Land Slope is at location of filter strip.
Adapted from Professional Timber Harvesters Action Packet

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 96
STORM INLET PROTECTION
Storm sewer inlets should be protected from sediment pollution wherever the sewer system does not
discharge into a functioning sediment basin or sediment trap. (NOTE: Since detention ponds are not
typically designed to effectively remove sediment prior to discharging, storm sewers discharging to
detention ponds should be protected from sediment pollution.) Inlet protection may also be desirable in
cases where it would be difficult or expensive to clean accumulated sediment from sewer lines, or
where a temporary riser may have to be removed from a permanent basin prior to completion of all
earthmoving. Inlet protection should be maintained (i.e. kept in good repair and free from straw, grass
clippings, sediment, construction debris, litter, snow and ice) until all earthwork within the tributary
drainage area has been completed and stabilized. To minimize potential clogging problems,
consideration should be given to beehive grates for Type M inlets during construction. Inlet protection
is not recommended for catch basins located near the edges of fill slopes, because clogging of the inlet
could result in erosion of the fill slope. For these inlets, sediment removal BMPs should be provided at
the discharge end of the system.
Silt fence and straw bale barriers are not effective when used in areas of concentrated flow as is
common at storm sewer inlets. Typically, silt fence and straw bales fail, allowing unfiltered water to
enter the inlet. In those rare instances where the silt fence or straw bales do not fail, runoff usually
either bypasses the inlet, causing erosion and/or capacity problems down gradient, or backs up to the
point of creating flooding. This can create traffic hazards for inlets located along active roadways.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 97
INLET FILTER BAG -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: MODERATE. This device is an ABACT for
HQ but not EV watersheds.
Filter bags should be capable of trapping all particles not passing a
No.40 Sieve.
Northampton Conservation District
Wherever filter bags are used they should be installed according to the manufacturer’s specifications.
Typical installation details should be provided on the drawings. Standard Construction Details # 4-15
and # 4-16 are recommended. NOTE: Filter bags designed to fit over the inlet grate are not
recommended for most storm sewer inlets. Use of such filter bags could result in a severe reduction of
the inlet capacity resulting in flooding or runoff bypassing the inlet. Wherever such bags are used, they
should be located at topographic low points and limited to ¼ acre maximum drainage areas. Inlet filter
bags are not acceptable as the primary BMP to remove sediment from site runoff water.
Inlet filter bags should be inspected on a weekly basis and after each runoff event. Filter bags should
be cleaned and/or replaced when the bag is half full or when flow capacity has been reduced so as to
cause flooding or bypassing of the inlet. Accumulated sediment should be disposed in the approved
manner. Bags that will be reused should be rinsed at a location where the rinse water will enter a
sediment trap or sediment basin. Damaged filter bags should be replaced.
Needed repairs should be initiated immediately after the inspection.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 98
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-15
Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet
Adapted from PennDOT RC-70, 2008 Edition
Maximum drainage area = ½ acre.
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations.
Rolled earthen berm shall be maintained until roadway is stoned. Road subbase berm shall be
maintained until roadway is paved. Six inch minimum height asphalt berm shall be maintained
until roadway surface receives final coat.
At a minimum, the fabric shall have a minimum grab tensile strength of 120 lbs, a minimum
burst strength of 200 psi, and a minimum trapezoidal tear strength of 50 lbs. Filter bags shall be
capable of trapping all particles not passing a No. 40 Sieve.
Inlet filter bags shall be inspected on a weekly basis and after each runoff event. Bags shall be
emptied and rinsed or replaced when half full or when flow capacity has been reduced so as to
cause flooding or bypassing of the inlet. Damaged or clogged bags shall be replaced. A supply
shall be maintained on site for replacement of bags. All needed repairs shall be initiated
immediately after the inspection. Dispose of accumulated sediment as well as all used bags
according to the plan notes.
DO NOT USE ON MAJOR PAVED ROADWAYS WHERE PONDING MAY CAUSE TRAFFIC
HAZARDS.
EXTEND BERM OVER
CURB IF RUNOFF IS
BYPASSING INLET
ON LANDWARD SIDE

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 99
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-16
Filter Bag Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet
Adapted from PennDOT RC-70, 2008 Edition
Maximum drainage area =½ acre.
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations.
Rolled earthen berm in roadway shall be maintained until roadway is stoned. Road subbase
berm on roadway shall be maintained until roadway is paved. Earthen berm in channel shall be
maintained until permanent stabilization is completed or remain permanently.
At a minimum, the fabric shall have a minimum grab tensile strength of 120 lbs., a minimum
burst strength of 200 psi, and a minimum trapezoidal tear strength of 50 lbs. Filter bags shall be
capable of trapping all particles not passing a No. 40 sieve.
Inlet filter bags shall be inspected on a weekly basis and after each runoff event. Bags shall be
emptied and rinsed or replaced when half full or when flow capacity has been reduced so as to
cause flooding or bypassing of the inlet. Damaged or clogged bags shall be replaced. A supply
shall be maintained on site for replacement of bags. All needed repairs shall be initiated
immediately after the inspection. Dispose accumulated sediment as well as all used bags
according to the plan notes.
DO NOT USE ON MAJOR PAVED ROADWAYS WHERE PONDING MAY CAUSE TRAFFIC
HAZARDS.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 100
STONE INLET PROTECTION -
Sediment Removal Efficiency: LOW. This device is not an
ABACT for special protection watersheds. However, the efficiency may be raised to moderate
(ABACT for HQ watersheds) by anchoring a 6” layer of compost around the outside of the
stone.
Wherever stone and concrete block inlet protection is proposed, it should be installed according
to the details shown in Standard Construction Details # 4-17 or # 4-18. This type of inlet protection
should not be used where ponding of water would cause a traffic hazard.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-17
Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection - Type C Inlet
Adapted from VA SWCC
Maximum drainage area = 1 acre.
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations.
Rolled earthen berm shall be provided and maintained immediately down gradient of the
protected inlet until roadway is stoned. Road subbase berm shall be maintained until roadway
is paved. Six inch minimum height asphalt berm shall be maintained until roadway surface
receives final coat.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone.
DO NOT USE ON MAJOR PAVED ROADWAYS WHERE PONDING MAY CAUSE TRAFFIC
HAZARDS.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 101
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-18
Stone and Concrete Block Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet
Adapted from Maine DEP
Maximum drainage area =1 acre.
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations not located at a low point.
Rolled earthen berm in roadway shall be provided and maintained immediately down gradient of
the protected inlet until roadway is stoned. Road subbase berm on roadway shall be
maintained until roadway is paved. Earthen berm in channel shall be maintained until
permanent stabilization is completed or to remain permanently.
Top of block shall be at least 6 inches below adjacent roads if ponded water would pose a
safety hazard to traffic.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in
Table 4.2.
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-19

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 102
Stone Inlet Protection and Berm - Type C Inlet
PA DEP
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations.
Rolled earthen berm shall be provided and maintained immediately down gradient of the
protected inlet until roadway is stoned. Road subbase berm shall be maintained until roadway
is paved. A 6” minimum height asphalt berm shall be maintained until roadway surface receives
final coat.
Stone inlet protection and berm for a Type C inlet can be used in one acre maximum drainage
area with 15” overflow pipe and 4” head. A perforated plate welded to a metal riser may not be
substituted for the wire mesh. A slotted plate welded to the riser may be used in conjunction
with the wire mesh if calculations are provided to show sufficient capacity of the inlet to accept
the peak runoff for a 2-year storm event from the tributary drainage area.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6” thick compost layer shall be securely
anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in Table 4.2.
DO NOT USE ON MAJOR PAVED ROADWAYS WHERE PONDING MAY CAUSE TRAFFIC
HAZARDS.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 103
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-20
Stone Inlet Protection and Berm - Type M Inlet
PA DEP
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations not located at a low point.
Rolled earthen berm in roadway shall be provided and maintained immediately down gradient of
the protected inlet until roadway is stoned. Road subbase berm on roadway shall be
maintained until roadway is paved. Earthen berm in channel shall be maintained until
permanent stabilization is completed or to remain permanently
Stone inlet protection and berm for a Type M Inlet can be used in one acre maximum drainage
area with 15” overflow pipe and 4” head. A perforated plate welded to a metal riser may not be
substituted for the wire mesh. A slotted plate welded to the riser may be used in conjunction
with the wire mesh if calculations are provided to show sufficient capacity of the inlet to accept
the peak runoff for a 2-year storm event from the tributary drainage area. Top of pipe shall be at
least 6 inches below adjacent roadway if ponded water would pose a safety hazard to traffic.
Earthen berm shall be rolled.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately. For systems discharging to HQ or EV
surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be securely anchored on outside and over top
of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in Table 4.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 104
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-21
Alternate Stone Inlet Protection for Type M Inlet - at Grade
PA DEP
Stone protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sedimentation basins and sediment
traps
Should include openings of ¼” maximum for wire or plastic mesh.
Holes may be drilled in concrete box.
Earthen berm in roadway shall not be required.
Alternate stone inlet protection for Type M inlet can be used on one acre maximum drainage
area with 15” overflow pipe and 4” head.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in
Table 4.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 105
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-22
Alternate Type C Inlet Protection - Not at Grade
PA DEP
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlets tributary to sediment basins or sediment traps.
Alternate Type C inlet protection can be used on one acre maximum drainage area with 15”
overflow pipe and 4” head.
Berms shall be required for all installations not located at low points. Earthen berms shall be
stabilized with vegetation and maintained until roadway is stoned or tributary area is
permanently vegetated. Road subbase berms shall be maintained until roadway is paved.
Inlets shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Accumulated sediment shall be
removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged installations shall be repaired
or replaced within 24 hours of inspection.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in
Table 4.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 106
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-23
Alternate Type M Inlet Protection - Not at Grade
PA DEP
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlets tributary to sediment basins or sediment traps.
Alternate Type M inlet protection can be used on one acre maximum drainage area with 15”
overflow pipe and 4” head.
Berms shall be required for all installations not located at low points. Earthen berms shall be
stabilized with vegetation and maintained until roadway is stoned or tributary area is
permanently vegetated. Road subbase berms shall be maintained until roadway is paved.
Inlets shall be inspected weekly and after each runoff event. Accumulated sediment shall be
removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged installations shall be repaired
or replaced within 24 hours of inspection.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in
Table 4.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 107
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION DETAIL # 4-24
Alternate Stone Inlet Protection - Type M Inlet Above Grade
PA DEP
Maximum drainage area =1 acre.
Inlet protection shall not be required for inlet tributary to sediment basin or trap. Berms shall be
required for all installations not located at a low point.
Should contain openings ¼” maximum for wire or plastic mesh.
Holes may be drilled in concrete box.
Earthen berm in roadway is not required.
Sediment shall be removed when it reaches half the height of the stone. Damaged or clogged
installations shall be repaired or replaced immediately.
For systems discharging to HQ or EV surface water, a 6 inch thick compost layer shall be
securely anchored on outside and over top of stone. Compost shall meet the standards in
Table 4.2.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 108
CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF CALCULATIONS
Numerous methods are available to determine required channel capacity. Two methods, the SCS (now
NRCS) Technical Release 55 - Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds and the Rational Equation are
mentioned in this handbook because of their popularity and simplicity. Other methods are also
acceptable.
SCS TR-55 Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds - Technical Release 55 (TR-55) presents simplified
procedures to calculate stormwater runoff volume, peak rate of discharge, hydrographs, and storage
volumes required for floodwater reservoirs. These procedures are applicable in small watersheds
(2,000 acres or less), especially urbanizing watersheds, in the United States. Limits: NRCS type
distributions, 24-hour duration rainfall, 10 subwatersheds maximum, minimum 0.1 hour and maximum
10-hour time of concentration.
Designers are referred to
http://www.hydrocad.net/tr-55.htm
to download the text version or the
computer version of TR-55.
Updated rainfall data may be obtained from the National Weather Service’s website
http://hdsc.nws.noaa.gov/hdsc/pfds/orb/pa_pfds.html
either by clicking the location of the site on the
website map or by entering the site’s latitude and longitude. Data from this website were used to
develop Table 5.1.
(Note: Table 5.1 is useful for obtaining a quick initial estimate of rainfall data.
However, since these data are not updated, they may not be used for the final design of PCSM
BMPs, nor may they be used to determine rainfall intensity “I” for the rational equation.)
Due to the irregular topography, the maximum sheet flow length to be used for unpaved areas in
Pennsylvania is 150 feet with a most likely maximum length of 50-100 feet. The theoretical maximum
length of 300 feet is achieved only in unique situations such as uniformly sloped paved parking lots.
The maximum flow path length (L) for any disturbed area is 50 feet. It is unlikely that any sheet flow
occurs in areas where active earthmoving is taking place, as well as previously disturbed areas that
were not restored to approximate original contour. Therefore, the sheet flow equation should not be
used for newly graded fill or cut slopes. Runoff from these areas should be considered shallow
concentrated flow.
Whenever TR-55 is used to calculate runoff, Worksheets 2, 3, and 4 from TR-55 should be completed
and included in the narrative portion of the plan submittal. If computer programs are used which do not
provide printouts of these worksheets, the program used as well as the input data should be provided
along with the output pages.
Weather Bureau Technical Paper 40, U.S. Department of Commerce, Hershfield, D.M. - Rainfall
frequency atlas of the United States for durations from 30 minutes to 24 hours and return periods from
1 to 100 years. T.P. 40 is out of print. However, it is the basis for the maps in TR-55 described above.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 109
TABLE 5.1
Pennsylvania Rainfall by County
(For Use with Technical Release 55 - Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds)
NOT TO BE USED WITH THE RATIONAL EQUATION
COUNTY
24 HR RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS FREQUENCIES
COUNTY
24 HR RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS FREQUENCIES
1 yr.
2 yr.
5 yr.
10 yr.
25 yr.
50 yr.
100 yr.
1 yr.
2 yr.
5 yr.
10 yr.
25 yr.
50 yr.
100 yr.
Adams
2.52 3.02
3.77
4.43
5.48
6.45
7.59
Lackawanna
2.12
2.55
3.15
3.69
4.55
5.35
6.30
Allegheny
1.97 2.35 2.88
3.30
3.90
4.40
4.92
Lancaster
2.51 3.02
3.85
4.56
5.63
6.56
7.59
Armstrong
2.03 2.42
2.95
3.40
4.01
4.53
5.06
Lawrence
1.99 2.37
2.90
3.33
3.94
4.44
4.96
Beaver
1.97 2.35
2.87
3.30
3.90
4.40
4.91
Lebanon
2.50 3.02
3.84
4.55
5.64
6.59
7.67
Bedford
2.19 2.62 3.27
3.81
4.60
5.27
5.99
Lehigh
2.69 3.24
4.05
4.73
5.75
6.63
7.60
Berks
2.65 3.19 4.00
4.68
5.67
6.50
7.41
Luzerne
2.37 2.84
3.53
4.13
5.08
5.96
6.99
Blair
2.23 2.68 3.33
3.87
4.63
5.28
5.96
Lycoming
2.38 2.85
3.53
4.12
5.04
5.88
6.87
Bradford
2.05 2.44 2.98
3.41
3.99
4.45
4.93
McKean
2.08 2.48
3.03
3.48
4.13
4.66
5.21
Bucks
2.71 3.26
4.10
4.80
5.81
6.67
7.59
Mercer
2.05 2.44
2.99
3.43
4.07
4.58
5.13
Butler
2.02 2.40 2.93
3.37
3.98
4.49
5.02
Mifflin
2.36 2.83
3.52
4.10
4.95
5.68
6.49
Cambria
2.17 2.59 3.18
3.68
4.39
4.97
5.59
Monroe
2.63 3.16
3.92
4.60
5.68
6.70
7.91
Cameron
2.11 2.53 3.10
3.60
4.35
5.02
5.80
Montgomery
2.67 3.21
4.03
4.70
5.68
6.50
7.38
Carbon
2.74 3.29 4.09
4.79
5.92
6.96
8.20
Montour
2.35 2.82
3.50
4.09
5.05
5.94
6.99
Centre
2.20 2.64 3.29
3.82
4.58
5.22
5.91
Northampton
2.64 3.16
3.95
4.61
5.60
6.45
7.41
Chester
2.70 3.25 4.07
4.75
5.73
6.55
7.44
Northumberland 2.32 2.78
3.45
4.04
4.96
5.82
6.83
Clarion
2.09 2.49 3.05
3.50
4.14
4.67
5.22
Perry
2.34 2.81
3.49
4.08
5.03
5.90
6.92
Clearfield
2.13 2.54 3.12
3.60
4.28
4.85
5.44
Philadelphia
2.72 3.28
4.12
4.83
5.85
6.72
7.68
Clinton
2.18 2.61 3.19
3.67
4.34
4.89
5.47
Pike
2.45 2.94
3.64
4.26
5.23
6.13
7.20
Columbia
2.38 2.85 3.54
4.14
5.10
5.99
7.04
Potter
2.01 2.40
2.96
3.44
4.21
4.91
5.74
Crawford
2.08 2.49 3.04
3.50
4.14
4.67
5.23
Schuylkill
2.77 3.33
4.14
4.85
5.96
6.97
8.17
Cumberland
2.35 2.82 3.50
4.11
5.08
5.97
7.02
Snyder
2.60 3.12
3.88
4.55
5.59
6.56
7.71
Dauphin
2.50 3.01 3.78
4.45
5.50
6.44
7.52
Somerset
2.06 2.46
3.08
3.61
4.44
5.16
5.97
Delaware
2.69 3.25 4.10
4.82
5.87
6.75
7.72
Sullivan
2.54 3.04
3.73
4.30
5.12
5.82
6.58
Elk
2.08 2.48 3.02
3.48
4.12
4.65
5.21
Susquehanna
2.23 2.67
3.26
3.74
4.41
4.96
5.55
Erie
2.13 2.56 3.19
3.71
4.46
5.09
5.76
Tioga
1.96 2.34
2.88
3.35
4.07
4.73
5.49
Fayette
2.08 2.47
3.02
3.46
4.08
4.60
5.13
Union
2.41 2.89
3.58
4.19
5.13
6.01
7.04
Forest
2.06 2.46 3.00
3.45
4.08
4.59
5.14
Venango
2.05 2.45
2.99
3.44
4.07
4.58
5.12
Franklin
2.44 2.94 3.65
4.26
5.17
5.97
6.86
Warren
2.07 2.47
3.01
3.47
4.11
4.63
5.19
Fulton
2.27 2.73 3.39
3.93
4.73
5.40
6.13
Washington
1.99 2.38
2.91
3.35
3.96
4.46
4.99
Greene
2.01 2.40 2.92
3.36
3.96
4.45
4.96
Wayne
2.38 2.86
3.53
4.12
5.03
5.86
6.83
Huntingdon
2.21 2.65 3.29
3.83
4.60
5.25
5.94
Westmoreland
2.05 2.45
2.99
3.43
4.06
4.57
5.11
Indiana
2.15 2.57 3.14
3.62
4.29
4.85
5.44
Wyoming
2.16 2.58
3.18
3.69
4.46
5.14
5.91
Jefferson
2.09 2.50 3.05
3.50
4.14
4.67
5.23
York
2.45 2.96
3.80
4.53
5.65
6.64
7.76
Juniata
2.36 2.83 3.52
4.11
5.02
5.84
6.79
NWS - NOAA Atlas 14, Sept 25-29, 2008
NOTE: Data from this table may not be used for final design of E&S or PCSM BMPs.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 110
THE RATIONAL EQUATION is a method for estimating
peak flow rates
in small watersheds
(200 acres or less). This method uses or incorporates the following assumptions:
(1) That rainfall occurs uniformly over the drainage area and that the design average rainfall intensity
occurs over a period of time equal to the time of concentration of the drainage area.
(2)
That the drainage area’s time of concentration is the travel time for water to flow from the
furthermost point (hydraulically) of the watershed to the downstream point of interest.
(3) That the frequency of runoff equals the frequency of rainfall used in the equation:
Q = C I A
Where:
Q = Peak runoff rate in cubic feet per second (cfs)
C = C
w
= Runoff coefficient (dimensionless)
(See following steps for explanation of C
w
)
I = Rainfall intensity (inches/hour)
*
A = Drainage area (acres)
* NOTE: DO NOT USE TABLE 5.1 TO DETERMINE RAINFALL INTENSITY “I” FOR THE
RATIONAL EQUATION
PROCEDURE (Use Standard E&S Worksheets 9 and 10 for organizing and documenting the
parameters used):
Runoff Coefficient (C): Select an appropriate runoff coefficient “C” from Table 5.2. The coefficient
chosen should represent the maximum runoff conditions during site construction — not
necessarily the pre- or post-construction conditions. For drainage areas with mixed land uses,
compute the weighted runoff coefficient (C
w
) using the following equation:
(C
1
A
1
) + (C
2
A
2
) +….(C
n
A
n
)
C
w
= ----------------------------------------------------
A (total)
Where:
C
w
= weighted runoff coefficient
C
n
= runoff coefficient for the n
th
subarea
A
n
= area (acres) of the n
th
subarea

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 111
TABLE 5.2
Runoff Coefficients for the Rational Equation*
LAND USE
A Soils
1
B Soils
1
C Soils
1
D Soils
1
< 2%
2 -
6%
>6%
< 2%
2 -
6%
>6%
< 2%
2 -
6%
>6%
< 2%
2 -
6%
>6%
Cultivated
land
0.08
0.13
0.16
0.11
0.15
0.21
0.14
0.19
0.26
0.18
0.23
0.31
Pasture
0.12 0.20 0.30 0.18 0.28 0.37 0.24 0.34 0.44 0.30 0.40 0.50
Meadow
0.10 0.16 0.25 0.14 0.22 0.30 0.20 0.28 0.36 0.24 0.30 0.40
Forest
0.05 0.08 0.11 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.12 0.16 0.20
Residential
lot size 1/8
acre
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.27
0.30
0.35
0.30
0.33
0.38
0.33
0.36
0.42
Residential
lot size 1/4
acre
0.22
0.26
0.29
0.24
0.29
0.33
0.27
0.31
0.36
0.30
0.34
0.40
Residential
lot size 1/3
acre
0.19
0.23
0.26
0.22
0.26
0.30
0.25
0.29
0.34
0.28
0.32
0.39
Residential
lot size 1/2
acre
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.19
0.23
0.28
0.22
0.27
0.32
0.26
0.30
0.37
Residential
lot size 1
acre
0.14
0.19
0.22
0.17
0.21
0.26
0.20
0.25
0.31
0.24
0.29
0.35
Industrial
0.67 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.70
Commercial 0.71 0.71 0.72 0.71 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72
Streets
0.70 0.71 0.72 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.72 0.73 0.76 0.73 0.75 0.78
Open Space 0.05 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.13 0.19 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.15 0.21 0.28
Parking
0.85 0.86 0.87 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.85 0.86 0.87 0.85 0.86 0.87
Construction
Sites - Bare
packed soil,
smooth
0.30
0.35
.040
0.35
.040
0.45
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.50
0.55
0.60
Construction
Sites - Bare
packed soil,
rough
.020
0.25
0.30
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.40
0.45
0.50
* Runoff Coefficients for storm recurrence intervals less than 25 years
Adapted from McCuen, R.H., Hydrologic Analysis and Design (2004)
1. According to the USDA NRCS Hydrologic Soils Classification System

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 112
Rainfall Intensity (I):
Step 1: Calculate Time of Concentration — travel time for the hydraulically longest watershed
flow path.
Sheet Flow (Overland Flow)
Travel time for sheet flow, up to a maximum of 150 feet, may be estimated by the
use of the formula:
.4673
0
.5
0
)
(
3
)
(
2
S
n
L
T
c sheet flow
Where:
T
c
= Time of concentration (minutes)
L = Length of flow path (ft)
S = Surface slope (ft/ft)
n = Roughness coefficient (See Table 5.3)
NOTE:
The maximum flow path length (L) for any disturbed area is 50 feet. Do not
use the sheet flow equation for newly graded fills or cut slopes. Runoff from these
areas should be considered shallow concentrated flow.
TABLE 5.3
Roughness Coefficient for Sheet Flow T
c
Computations
n
Type of Cover
0.02
Smooth pavement
0.1
Bare parched soil
0.3
Poor grass cover
0.4
Average grass cover
0.8
Dense grass cover

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 113
Shallow Concentrated Flow
That portion of the flow path which is not channelized and cannot be considered
sheet flow is considered shallow concentrated flow. The average velocity for shallow
concentrated flow may be determined from Figure 5.1, in which average velocity is a
function of slope and type of watercourse.
Note:
There is no maximum length for
shallow concentrated flow in Pennsylvania.
FIGURE 5.1
Nomograph to Determine Shallow Concentrated Flow Velocity
T R - 55

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 114
Channel Flow
For open channels, calculate flow velocities by use of Manning’s equation. Assume
full bank flow conditions.
Time of Concentration
Add all flow times (sheet, shallow concentrated, and channel flows) to determine
time of concentration (T
c
) in minutes.
Step 2. Once the time of concentration has been calculated, the rainfall intensity for a 2-year
frequency storm can be determined from the following equation
1
:
17
106
c
T
I
For a 5- year storm the equation is:
19
135
c
T
I
For a 10- year storm the equation is:
23
170
c
T
I
An acceptable alternative to the above equations is the use of Tables 5.4 through 5.9 with
Figures 5.2 through 5.12. For this method, determine the appropriate rainfall region map from
Table 5.4 using the calculated time of concentration and the design storm event. Locate the
project site on the appropriate rainfall region map and identify the rainfall region. Using the
rainfall intensity chart for that region and the time of concentration, obtain the rainfall intensity.
TABLE 5.4
Appropriate Rainfall Region Map for Various Times of Concentration and Frequencies
Time of
Concentration
Storm Return Frequency (ARI)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
C
C
C
C
B
B
B
-
10 min
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
-
15 min
A
A
A
A
C
C
C
-
30 min
A
A
A
A
A
C
C
-
60 min
A
A
A
A
A
C
C
-
2 hr
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
-
3 hr
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
-
6 hr
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
-
12 hr
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
-
24 hr
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
1. Adapted from Lindeberg (2001).

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 115
Figure 5.2 - RAINFALL REGION MAP A
15-, 30- and 60-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of
1-, 2-, 5-, 10-years and 30- and 60-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of 25-years
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.3 - RAINFALL REGION MAP B
5-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of 25-, 50- and 100-years
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 116
Figure 5.4 - RAINFALL REGION MAP C
5- and 10-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of 1-, 2-, 5-,
and 10-years, 10- and 15-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of 25-years
and 10-, 15-, 30-, 60-minute durations for storms occurring with an ARI of 50- and 100-years
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.5 - RAINFALL REGION MAP D
6-hour durations for storms occurring with an ARI of
1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-years
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 117
Figure 5.6 - RAINFALL REGION MAP E
2- and 3-hour durations for storms occurring with an ARI of
1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50- and 100-years
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.7 RAINFALL REGION MAP F
12- and 24-hour durations for storms occurring with an average
recurrence interval (ARI) of 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-years and the 24-hour duration
for the 500-year frequency storm
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 118
TABLE 5.5
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 1
Time of
Concentration
Rainfall Depth (in)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
0.28
0.33
0.39
0.45
0.51
0.55
0.58
-
10 min
0.43
0.51
0.61
0.69
0.78
0.83
0.87
-
15 min
0.53
0.63
0.75
0.85
0.96
1.03
1.09
-
30 min
0.70
0.84
1.03
1.18
1.36
1.47
1.57
-
60 min
0.85
1.03
1.30
1.50
1.76
1.94
2.10
-
2 hr
0.99
1.19
1.49
1.74
20.8
2.35
2.62
-
3 hr
1.09
1.31
1.63
1.90
2.28
2.58
2.89
-
6 hr
1.37
1.64
2.04
2.37
2.84
3.19
3.56
-
12 hr
1.69
2.02
2.49
2.91
3.52
3.97
4.46
-
24 hr
2.04
2.44
2.99
3.44
4.09
4.65
5.24
6.74
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.8
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 1
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 119
TABLE 5.6
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 2
Time of
Concentration
Rainfall Depth (in)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
0.30
0.36
0.43
0.48
0.55
0.60
0.64
-
10 min
0.47
0.56
0.66
0.74
0.84
0.91
0.97
-
15 min
0.57
0.68
0.81
0.91
1.04
1.13
1.20
-
30 min
0.76
0.92
1.12
1.27
1.47
1.61
1.74
-
60 min
0.93
1.13
1.42
1.63
1.92
2.13
2.33
-
2 hr
1.09
1.32
1.65
1.92
2.29
2.60
2.94
-
3 hr
1.20
1.45
1.81
2.10
2.52
2.87
3.25
-
6 hr
1.51
1.81
2.26
2.63
3.16
3.57
4.00
-
12 hr
1.86
2.23
2.76
3.23
3.92
4.47
5.06
-
24 hr
2.24
2.68
3.30
3.82
4.60
5.27
6.03
8.15
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.9
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 2
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 120
TABLE 5.7
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 3
Time of
Concentration
Rainfall Depth (in)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
0.32
0.39
0.46
0.51
0.59
0.65
0.71
-
10 min
0.50
0.60
0.71
0.80
0.91
0.99
1.06
-
15 min
0.62
0.74
0.88
0.98
1.12
1.22
1.32
-
30 min
0.82
0.99
1.20
1.37
1.59
1.75
1.92
-
60 min
1.01
1.23
1.53
1.77
20.8
2.32
2.57
-
2 hr
1.19
1.44
1.81
2.10
2.51
2.85
3.26
-
3 hr
1.31
1.58
1.98
2.30
2.77
3.16
3.62
-
6 hr
1.64
1.98
2.48
2.89
3.48
3.95
4.45
-
12 hr
2.03
2.44
3.03
3.55
4.33
4.97
5.66
-
24 hr
2.44
2.92
3.61
4.20
5.10
5.90
6.83
9.57
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.10
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 3
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 121
TABLE 5.8
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 4
Time of
Concentration
Rainfall Depth (in)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
0.35
0.42
0.49
0.55
0.63
0.70
0.77
-
10 min
0.54
0.65
0.76
0.85
0.97
1.07
1.16
-
15 min
0.67
0.79
0.94
1.05
1.21
1.32
1.44
-
30 min
0.88
1.07
1.29
1.47
1.71
1.90
2.09
-
60 min
1.09
1.32
1.65
1.90
2.23
2.51
2.80
-
2 hr
1.29
1.57
1.96
2.28
2.72
3.09
3.58
-
3 hr
1.42
1.72
2.16
2.51
3.01
3.45
3.98
-
6 hr
1.77
2.14
2.70
3.15
3.80
4.33
4.89
-
12 hr
2.20
2.65
3.29
3.87
4.74
5.46
6.26
-
24 hr
2.64
3.16
3.91
4.57
5.60
6.53
7.63
10.98
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.11
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 4
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 122
TABLE 5.9
5-Minute through 24-Hour Rainfall Depths for Region 5
Time of
Concentration
Rainfall Depth (in)
1 year
2 year
5 year
10 year
25 year
50 year
100
year
500
year
5 min
0.37
0.45
0.52
0.58
0.68
0.75
0.83
-
10 min
0.58
0.69
0.81
0.90
1.04
1.15
1.26
-
15 min
0.71
0.85
1.00
1.11
1.29
1.42
1.56
-
30 min
0.94
1.14
1.37
1.56
1.82
2.04
2.27
-
60 min
1.17
1.42
1.76
2.03
2.39
2.69
3.04
-
2 hr
1.39
1.69
2.12
2.46
2.93
3.34
3.90
-
3 hr
1.53
1.86
2.33
2.71
3.25
3.75
4.34
-
6 hr
1.91
2.31
2.91
3.40
4.12
4.70
5.34
-
12 hr
2.37
2.86
3.56
4.20
5.15
5.96
6.86
-
24 hr
2.83
3.40
4.22
4.95
6.10
7.16
8.43
12.40
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)
Figure 5.12
Rainfall Intensity for 1-year through 100-year Storms for Region 5
Adapted from Appendix A of PennDOT Publication 584 (2008 Edition)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 123
Drainage Area (A) - Determine the drainage area in acres. Since drainage areas often change during
grading operations, the area to be used is the maximum area tributary to the facility in question during
construction. This will not necessarily be either the pre- or post-grading drainage areas.
Perform the calculations to determine the peak flow rate (cfs) for each desired frequency storm.
SAMPLE COMPUTATION
In this example, the peak runoff from a ten-acre watershed (3.5 acres wooded and 6.5 acres in
meadow) above a proposed temporary diversion channel will be calculated for a site at State College,
PA. From the NRCS soil map, it is determined that the site is located in soils belonging to the
Opequon-Hagerstown complex (Hydrologic soil group C). The channel is 1,000 feet long, and the
longest flow path above the channel is 435 feet (285 feet through meadow and 150 feet through
woods). The slope immediately above the channel is 8% and wooded, while the meadow portion has a
3% slope. The proposed channel is trapezoidal, 2 feet deep and 2 feet wide at the bottom with 2H:1V
side slopes. The channel has a uniform bed slope of 0.01 ft/ft; a grass lining with a temporary liner is
provided. The 2-yr, 1-hour rainfall is 1.15 inches.
Determine the Weighted Runoff Coefficient (C
w
).
The forest is mature, so ground litter is light. Therefore, a value of 0.40 is chosen for the wooded area.
The meadow is native grasses, so a value of 0.15 is chosen.
Using the equation for a weighted runoff coefficient:
(C
1
A
1
) + (C
2
A
2
)
(.40 X 3.5) + (.15 X 6.5)
1.4 + .98
C
w
= -------------------------------- = -------------------------------- = ------------ = .24
A (total)
(3.5 + 6.5)
10
Calculate the Time of Concentration (T
c
).
Sheet Flow - The maximum sheet flow length is 150 feet. From the soils map, it is determined that a
significant component of this soil type is poorly drained. Therefore, a flow length less than the
maximum is appropriate; 100 feet is selected. A value of 0.8 is chosen for the “n” value of the meadow
(Table 5.3). By plugging this figure into the Overland Flow equation, we can calculate a travel time of
14.55 minutes.
Shallow Concentrated Flow - Since only 100 feet of the 435’ flow path is sheet flow, the remainder
(335’) is considered shallow concentrated. 185 feet of that is still in meadow, while 150 feet is through
a wooded area. On Figure 5.1, the watercourse slope of 0.03 ft/ft (3%) is located along the left hand
side. Following a horizontal line to the intersection with the “Fallow or Minimum Tillage Cultivation” line,
the average velocity (0.8 fps) is read along the bottom. This is the average velocity of the runoff for the
remainder of the meadow flow path. The travel time for shallow concentrated flow though meadow is
(185/0.8) 60 seconds per minute = 3.85 minutes. Similarly, the 150’ flow path through the woods (8%
slope) has an average velocity of 0.70 ft/sec for a travel time of 3.57 minutes.
Channel Flow - In this portion of the calculation, the proposed channel dimensions are used to estimate
the travel time within the temporary channel. Using Manning’s equation, the flow velocity within the
channel is calculated to be 3.95 fps. By dividing the length of the channel (1,000 ft) by the average
velocity, the travel time for this segment is determined to be 4.22 minutes (1,000/3.95 60 seconds per
minute).
Total Time of Concentration (T
c
) is the sum of the sheet flow, shallow concentrated, and channel flow
(14.55 + 3.85 + 3.57 + 4.22 = 26.19 minutes).

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 124
Determine Rainfall Intensity (I)
hr
in
T
I
c
/
.45
2
.19
45
106
17
.19
26
106
17
106
Calculate the peak runoff rate for a 2-year frequency storm using the Rational Equation:
Q = C I A
Q = .24 x 2.45 X 10 = 5.9 cfs
If this had been proposed as a permanent channel, the ten-year frequency rainfall depth would be
required.
hr
in
T
I
c
/
.26
3
.19
52
170
26
.19
26
170
23
170
Q = .24 X 3.26 X 10 = 7.8 cfs
If Tables 5.4 through 5.9 and Figures 5.2 through 5.12 are used, the appropriate rainfall region map
would be Map A (Figure 5.2). State College is located in Region 3 on Map A. Therefore, using Figure
5.10, an intensity of 2.2 in/hr would be determined for the 2-year frequency storm, while the 10-year
storm intensity would be 3.1 inches. Obviously these figures would result in peak runoffs slightly less
than those calculated using the equations. However, the differences should not result in significant
changes to any channels designed to convey those flows.

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 125
Determination of Time of Concentration (T
c
) Using Standard E&S Worksheet # 9
NOTE: These tables are intentionally blank and should by filled in by the plan preparer.
OVERLAND FLOW
PATH
NUMBER
LENGTH
L
(ft)
“n” VALUE
AVERAGE
SLOPE
S (ft/ft)
TIME - T
of
(minutes)
DC-1
100
0.8
0.08
14.55
SHALLOW CONCENTRATED FLOW:
PATH
NUMBER
LENGTH
(ft)
TYPE OF
COVER
AVERAGE
SLOPE
(ft/ft)
V
(ft/sec)
TIME - T
sc
(minutes)
DC-1
185
Meadow
0.03
0.80
3.85
150
Woods
0.08
0.70
3.57
CHANNEL FLOW:
PATH
NUMBER
LENGTH
(ft)
AREA
(sq. ft.)
AVERAGE
SLOPE
(ft/ft)
WETTED
PERIMETER
(ft)
HYDRAULIC
RADIUS
(ft)
MANNING’S
n
V
(ft/sec)
CHANNEL
TIME-T
ch
(minutes)
T
c
*
(minutes)
DC-1
1,000
12
0.01
10.9
1.1
0.04
3.95
4.22
26.19
CHANNEL DIMENSIONS:
PATH
NUMBER
BOTTOM
WIDTH
(ft)
LEFT SIDE
SLOPE
(H:V)
RIGHT SIDE
SLOPE
(H:V)
TOTAL
DEPTH
(ft)
TOP WIDTH
(ft)
DC-1
2.0
2:1
2:1
2.0
10.0
* T
c
= Overland Flow Time + Shallow Concentrated Flow Time + Channel Flow Time
.4673
0
.5
0
)
(
3
)
(
2
S
n
L
T
c sheet flow
0.02 smooth pavement
0.1 bare parched soil
0.3 poor grass cover
0.4 average grass cover
0.8 dense grass cover
(L = 150’ maximum)

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 126
Determination of Peak Runoff (Q) Using the Rational Formula
and Standard Worksheet E&S # 10
NOTE: These tables are intentionally blank and should by filled in by the plan preparer.
DETERMINE WATERSHED “C” VALUES
CHANNEL
NUMBER
DRAINAGE
AREA
NUMBER
TYPE OF
COVER
C VALUE
AREA
(acres)
(C X A)
C
W
DC-1
A
Woods
0.13
3.5
0.46
.28
B
Meadow
0.36
6.5
2.34
Total
10.0
2.80
DETERMINE RAINFALL INTENSITY:
CHANNEL
NUMBER
T
c
Rainfall
Depth
R
2
R
5
R
10
Rainfall
Intensity
I
2
I
5
I
10
DC-1
26.19
2.6
2.7
DETERMINE PEAK RUNOFF RATES (Q = C x I x A)
CHANNEL
NUMBER
C
W
I
(inches/hr)
A
(acres)
Q
2
(cfs)
Q
5
(cfs)
Q
10
(cfs)
DC-1
0.28
2.7
10
7.6

363-2134-008 / March 31, 2012 / Page 127
CHAPTER 6 - RUNOFF CONVEYANCE BMPs
The purpose of this chapter is to provide plan preparers with methods and procedures, examples, work
forms and references to other commonly applied methods for the design of channels, berms, slope
pipes, and other structures used to convey runoff around a work area or to a sediment removal facility.
Methods listed or referenced in this chapter are generally considered to be the most commonly used
methods and procedures in the field of erosion and sediment control. However, the listed or referenced
materials are not all inclusive and the Department will, on a case-by-case basis, accept other methods
and procedures that are correctly selected and applied by persons qualified and/or licensed to perform
such computations. The Department encourages the use of methods and procedures listed or
referenced in this manual. Such use will facilitate review of E&S plans by the Department or a
conservation district.
In general, runoff conveyance BMPs have little, if any, potential for sediment removal and are
not ABACT BMPs for special protection watersheds
.
However, they may be used to make other
BMPs that are ABACT work more effectively.
CHANNELS
Channels are used for several purposes. Collector channels are used to collect runoff from disturbed
areas and convey it to a sediment removal facility prior to discharge into receiving surface waters.
Diversion channels are used to divert runoff from undisturbed upslope areas and convey it around
areas of earth disturbance. Conveyance channels are used to convey discharges from sediment
removal facilities or stormwater outfalls to receiving surface waters. (NOTE: Berms, whether used as
diversions or collectors, should be designed and stabilized in the same manner as channels.) In steep