Pennsylvania Stormwater
    Best Management Practices
    Manual
    Appendix B – Pennsylvania Native Plant List
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    Appendix B – Pennsylvania Native Plant List
    The BMP Plant List contains information about plant species native to Pennsylvania that are suitable for
    use in any number of BMPs. The list is sorted by plant type and then by scientific name. The table
    also contains information helpful for designing a planting plan for a successful BMP.
    Plant Type
    Herbaceous plants are broken down into the following categories; ferns, grasses, grass-like plants, and
    forbs. Woody plants are broken down into the following categories; shrubs, trees, and trees (small).
    Small trees are under story and ornamental trees. These trees are useful when a canopy tree is
    impractical or an aesthetic impact needs to be made.
    Hardiness Zone
    Ideal hardiness zone ranges are given for the plants. These zone numbers correspond to the “USDA
    Plant Hardiness Zone Map”. Pennsylvania is mainly in zones five (5) and six (6). There is a small area
    of zone four (4) located in the northwestern part of the state and a small area of zone seven (7) located
    in the southeast. The map is available on line through the USDA.
    http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/index.html
    Commercial Availability
    Care was taken to develop a list of plants that would be both successful and obtainable. It is still
    important to plan ahead and locate plant materials in advance of planting. Plant materials should be
    located at least six (6) months in advance of planting. This gives enough time to locate approved
    substitutions in the case that some species are unavailable
    Wildlife Value
    Attracting beneficial wildlife increases the function and value of a BMP. Wildlife pollinates plants,
    distributes seed, and enhances the ecological value of the wetland. Note that some wildlife, such as
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    Appendix B
    Canada goose and muskrat can be problematic and will destroy new plantings unless exclusion fencing
    is provided.
    Wetland Indicator Status
    The wetland indicator status is from the National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands:
    Northeast (Region 1) compiled by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This list indicates the likelihood
    that a plant will be found in a wetland. A “+” after the indicator symbol shows that the species is more
    often found in wetlands than other species with the same indicator symbol. Conversely, a “-“ after the
    indicator symbol shows that the species is less often found in wetlands than other species with the
    same indicator symbol.
    Since wetland indicator status is generalized and does not represent information about depth or
    frequency of inundation, the “Inundation Tolerance” “Hydrologic Zone” and fields are also included in
    this plant list to assist the designer in selecting the appropriate plant species.
    Inundation Tolerance
    Inundation Tolerance gives information about frequency and depth of inundation that plant species can
    tolerate during the growing season. A “no” indicates plants that do not survive saturated soils or
    standing water during the growing season. These are typically upland plants. “Saturated” indicates
    plants that survive inundation and saturated soils, typically during greater than 50% of the growing
    season. “Seasonal” indicates that the plant is able to withstand occasional inundation and saturated
    soils, typically during less than 50% of the growing season. Available information on water depths
    tolerated by aquatic plants are provided where available. It is difficult to give the exact hydrologic
    requirements of plants in a general list such as this. As such, we suggest that further research be
    performed to confirm the requirements of particular species.
    Hydrologic Zone
    Zone 1: Open Water: Permanent Pool (12 inches to 6 feet)
    Open water and permanent pools range from 12 inches to 6 feet in depth and are best colonized by
    submergent plants, if at all. This deep-water zone is not routinely planted for several reasons. There
    are a limited number of plant species that typically survive and grow in this zone, and many are not
    commercially available; open water areas, free of vegetation, provide unique habitat; and, deep water
    aquatic plants can clog the stormwater facility outlet structure. In many cases, plants such as
    duckweed (
    Lemna minor
    ), a floating plant, will naturally colonize open water via transport of plant
    fragments from upstream or on wildlife. If submerged plant material becomes more commercially
    available and clogging concerns are addressed, this area can be planted. If the designer chooses to
    vegetate a deep-water area, then the function of vegetated deep water areas is to absorb nutrients in
    the water column, enhance sediment deposition, improve oxidation and create additional aquatic
    habitat.
    Select plants that can:
    • Withstand constant inundation of water of 1 foot or greater in depth;
    • Withstand being submerged partially or entirely;
    • Enhance pollutant uptake; and
    • Provide food and cover for waterfowl, fish, amphibians, desirable insects, and other aquatic life.
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    Suggested emergent or submergent species include, but are not limited to: water lily (Nymphaea
    odorata), wild celery (Vallisneria americana), sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), and redhead
    grass (Potamogeton perfoliatus).
    Zone 2: Shallow Water Terrace / Aquatic Bench (6 inches to 12 inches)
    Zone 2 includes all areas that are inundated by the normal pool to a depth of 1 foot. Zone 2 coincides
    with the aquatic bench or shelf found in many BMP’s. This zone offers ideal conditions for the growth
    of wide variety of emergent wetland species. These areas will typically fringe the pond or can be
    developed on shallow water shelves constructed within the pond. When planted, Zone 2 provides
    important habitat for many aquatic animals, which will naturally regulate mosquito populations,
    eliminating the need for insecticide applications. In order to create a natural setting, emergent plants
    are typically planted in groups or clusters of like species. As this zone matures, some species will
    dominate portions of the site and some species may be eliminated. Local conditions will determine
    which species adapt most readily. Some species will migrate upslope into saturated soils and others
    will spread to colonize slightly deeper water.
    Select plants that can:
    • Withstand constant inundation of water to depths between six inches and 1 foot deep;
    • Be partially submerged;
    • Enhance pollutant uptake and transformation; and
    • Provide food and cover for waterfowl, desirable insects, and other aquatic life.
    Emergent herbaceous plants will stabilize the bottom and edge of the pond, slow water velocities,
    absorb wave energy, and reduce erosion when the water level fluctuates. Plants can also soften the
    engineered contours of the pond and conceal drawdowns during dry weather.
    Appropriate herbaceous species include: water plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica), common three
    square (Scirpus pungens), managrasses (Glyceria spp.), blue flag iris (Iris versicolor), soft rush (Juncus
    effusus), arrow arum (Peltandra virginica), smartweeds (Polygonum spp.), pickerelweed (Pontederia
    cordata), duck potato (Saggitaria latifolia), lizard tail (Saururus cernuus), soft stem bulrush (Scirpus
    tabernaemontanii), giant bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum) and American bur-reed (Sparganium
    americanum). There are few trees or shrubs, such as buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and
    black willow (Salix nigra), that will become established or survive within Zone 2.
    Zone 3: BMP Fringe: Low Marsh (0-6 inches regular inundation)
    Zone 3 encompasses the waterward shoreline of a pond or wetland and its width will be determined by
    the design slope. This zone will be permanently inundated by the design elevation of any control
    structures. However, this zone is likely to become dryer during periods of drought. This zone provides
    the interface between the permanently inundated zone and the seasonally saturated. This zone can be
    planted with FACW- or FAC plants as identified in the attached BMP Plant List, as plants must be able
    to withstand periods of inundation as well as drought during the growing season. Zone 3 should be
    heavily planted to ensure vigorous cover to protect the shoreline. This zone provides opportunities for
    a number of herbaceous plants, shrubs and trees.
    Select plants that can:
    • Stabilize the shoreline to minimize erosion caused by wave and wind action or water fluctuation;
    • Withstand regular inundation of water, as plants will be partially submerged at times;
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    Appendix B
    •Provide shade along the southern exposure to help reduce temperature of open waters;
    • enhance pollutant uptake;
    • Provide food and cover for waterfowl, songbirds, and wildlife (large plants can be selected and located
    to control overpopulation of waterfowl);
    • Be located to reduce human access to potential hazards without blocking maintenance access;
    • Have little or no maintenance requirements because they may be difficult or impossible to reach; and,
    Herbaceous species that do well in Zone 3 include: blue flag iris (Iris versicolor), sweet flag (Acorus
    calamus), swamp milkweed (Asclepsis incarnata), redtop (Agrostis spp.), switchgrass (Panicum
    virgatum), Canada bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis), many bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), and spike
    rushes (Eleocharis spp.). If shading is needed along the shoreline, the following woody species are
    suggested: smooth or speckled alder (Alnus spp.), pussy willow (Salix discolor), swamp rose (Rosa
    palustris), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), red
    osier/silky dogwood (Cornus stolonifera/amomum), gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa), arrowood
    (Viburnum dentatum), spicebush (Lindera Benzoin), sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia), winterberry
    (Ilex verticillata), inkberry holly (Ilex glabra), serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.), river birch (Betula nigra),
    red maple (Acer rubrum), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica),
    sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), sweet bay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana), black gum (Nyssa
    sylvatica), American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) willow oak (Quercus phellos), swamp white oak
    (Quercus bicolor), pin oak (Quercus palustris) and black willow (Salix nigra).
    Zone 4: BMP Fringe: High Marsh (periodic inundation, saturated soils)
    Zone 4 extends upslope from Zone 3 and encompasses the area that may be subject to periodic
    inundation after storms. The width of this zone will depend on the design slope. This zone will include
    the majority of the temporary extended detention area. The soil substrate will be periodically saturated.
    Select plants that can:
    • Withstand periodic inundation of water after storms, as well as significant drought during the warm
    summer months;
    • Stabilize the ground from erosion caused by run-off;
    • Provide shade along the southern exposure to help reduce temperature of open waters;
    • Enhance pollutant uptake;
    • Be very low maintenance, as they may be difficult or impossible to access;
    • provide food and cover for waterfowl, songbirds, and wildlife (plants may also be selected and located
    to control overpopulation of waterfowl); and
    • be located to create a natural barrier to the deeper pools.
    many species available for planting in this zone also include aesthetic qualities.
    Native plants are preferred because they are low-maintenance and disease-resistant.
    Frequently used plant species in Zone 4 include: asters (Aster spp.) and goldenrods (Solidago spp.),
    beebalm (Monarda didyma), bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), ironweed (Vernonia noveboracensis), blue
    vervain (Verbena hastata), spotted and purple Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium spp.), swamp milkweed
    (Asclepias incarnata), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), shrub dogwoods (Cornus spp.), swamp rose
    (Rosa palustris), inkberry (Ilex glabra), arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum), sweet pepperbush (Clethra
    alnifolia), bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica), elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), serviceberry
    (Amelanchier arborea), sweetbay magnolia (Magnolia virginiana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica),
    river birch (Betula nigra), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), Ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana), eastern
    red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), and red maple (Acer rubrum).
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    Appendix B
    Zone 5: Floodplain Terrace (infrequent inundation, temporarily saturated soils)
    Zone 5 is infrequently inundated by floodwaters that quickly recede in a day or less. Key landscaping
    objectives for Zone 5 are to stabilize the slopes characteristic of this zone and establish low
    maintenance natural vegetation.
    Select plants that can:
    • Withstand infrequent but brief inundation during storms and, between storms, typical moisture
    conditions that may be moist, slightly wet, or even swinging entirely to drought conditions during the dry
    weather period;
    • Stabilize the basin slopes from erosion;
    • Be very low maintenance as ground cover since they may be difficult to access on steep slopes or
    mowing frequency may be limited (a dense tree cover may help reduce maintenance and discourage
    resident geese); and
    • Provide food and cover for waterfowl, songbirds, and wildlife.
    Some commonly planted species in Zone 5 include:
    black eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), warm season grasses
    such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), and little bluestem
    (Schizacyrium scoparium), many viburnums (Viburnum spp.), Virginia rose (Rosa virginiana), Ironwood
    (Carpinus caroliniana), cherries (Prunus spp.), red oak (Quercus rubra), scarlet oak (Quercus
    coccinea), willow oak (Quercus phellos), hickories (Carya spp.), eastern red cedar (Juniperus
    virginiana), hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) and witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana).
    Zone 6: Upland (never inundated)
    This zone extends above the maximum design water surface elevation and often includes the
    outermost buffer of a pond or wetland. Plant selections should be made based on soil condition, light,
    and function within the landscape because little or no water inundation will occur. Ground covers
    should require infrequent mowing to reduce the cost of maintaining this landscape. Placement of plants
    in Zone 6 is important since they are often used to create a visual focal point, frame a desirable view,
    screen undesirable views, serve as a buffer, or provide shade to allow a greater variety of plant
    materials. Particular attention should be paid to seasonal color and texture of these plantings.
    Some frequently used plant species in Zone 6 include:
    Large growing trees such as basswood (Tilia americana), white oak (Quercus alba), scarlet oak
    (Quercus coccinea), Black oak (Quercus velutina), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white ash
    (Fraxinus americana), Tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) and white pine (Pinus strobus); and small
    ornamental trees such as Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and redbud (Cercis canadensis). The
    herbaceous layer should be seeded or planted with a mix of warm season grasses and upland
    wildflowers.
    Notes
    This column contains helpful details about the plant species.
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    Appendix B
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    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Fern, hay-scented
    Dennstaedtia
    punctilobula
    Fern
    NI
    4,5,6
    No
    4-8
    Plants
    Tolerate Deer Browsing
    .
    Shade to partial sun.
    Fern, marginal shield
    Dryopteris marginalis
    Fern
    FACU-
    4,5,6
    No
    5-8
    Plants
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Evergreen.
    Fern, sensitive
    Onoclea sensibilis
    Fern
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Saturated
    4-9
    Plants
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals
    Full to partial sun. Shade tolerant
    Fern, cinnamon
    Osmunda cinnamomea
    Fern
    FACW
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated
    4-8
    Plants
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Young
    "fiddle heads"
    Fern, royal
    Osmunda regalis
    Fern
    OBL
    2,
    [3,4]
    Saturated
    4-9
    Plants
    Moderate. Small mammals.
    Full to
    partial sun, Shade
    Fern, New York
    Thelypteris noveboracensis
    Fern
    FAC
    [3,4],5
    Saturated
    2-8
    Plants
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Drought
    tolerant.
    Sweetflag
    Acorus americanus
    Forb
    OBL
    3,4
    Seasonal
    Plants, Rhizomes
    Low food. Good cover.
    Tolerant of dry periods. Not a
    rapid colonizer. Tolerates acidic
    conditions.
    Plantain, water
    Alisma plantago-aquatica
    (subcordatum)
    Forb
    OBL
    3-7
    Columbine, wild
    Aquilegia canadensis
    Forb
    FAC
    [4,5],6
    No
    3-8
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, hummingbirds,
    and beneficial insects.
    Full sun to full shade. Spreads
    by
    seed. Early spring flowers.
    Milkweed, swamp
    Asclepias incarnata
    Forb
    OBL
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated, 0-6"
    3-8
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, small mammals,
    and beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Drought
    tolerant. Not eaten by wildlife.
    Attractive flowers.
    Milkweed, common
    Asclepias syriaca
    Forb
    NI
    5,6
    No
    4-9
    Plants, Seed
    High. Food for butterflies (esp.
    Monarch)
    and beneficial insects.
    Full sun. Drought tolerant.
    Butterflyweed
    Asclepias tuberosa
    Forb
    NI
    5,6
    No
    4-10
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies and beneficial
    insects.
    Full to partial sun. Attractive
    orange
    flower.
    Aster, white wood
    Aster divercatus
    Forb
    NI
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-8
    Plants
    Low. Butterflies and beneficial insects.
    Very shade tolerant. Long lasting
    white flowers.
    Aster, New England
    Aster novae-angliae
    Forb
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Plants, Seed
    Cover for birds and mammals.
    Attractive purple flowers.
    Tolerates dry
    soils.
    Aster, New York
    Aster novibelgil
    Forb
    FACW+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed Low. Butterflies and beneficial insects.
    Pale purple flowers. Tolerates
    dry
    soils.
    Trumpetweed
    Eupatorium fistulosum
    Forb
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full to partials sun. Tall plant
    with
    pink-purple flowers.
    Joe-pye-weed, spotted
    Eupatorium maculatum
    Forb
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Tall plant with
    pale purple flowers.
    Boneset
    Eupatorium perfoliatum
    Forb
    FACW+
    [2,3],4
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Long
    lasting white
    Joe-pye-weed, purple
    Eupatorium purpureum
    Forb
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Tall with
    showy
    flower.
    Hibiscus, marsh
    Hibiscus moscheutos
    Forb
    OBL
    2,3
    0-12"
    5-11
    Plants
    Low. Hummingbirds.
    Full to partial sun. Persistent
    during winter. Drought tolerant.
    Very
    showy pink to white flowers.
    Iris, blue flag
    Iris versicolor
    Forb
    OBL
    2,[3,4]
    0-6"
    2-7
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Food muskrat and wildfowl.
    Cover, marshbirds. Persists under
    heavy grazing.
    Slow growth. Full sun to partial
    shade. Tolerates clay. Fresh to
    moderately brackish water.
    Attractive blue flower.
    Cardinal flower
    Lobelia cardinalis
    Forb
    FACW+
    3,4
    Saturated
    2-8
    Plants, Seed
    High. Nectar for hummingbird, oriole,
    butterflies.
    Tolerates Partial shade. Does
    not
    persist well. Blood red flower.
    Blue lobelia
    Lobelia siphilitica
    Forb
    FACW+
    3,4
    Saturated
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, hummingbirds,
    songbirds
    , and beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Attractive blue flower.
    Monkey-flower
    Mimulus ringens
    Forb
    OBL
    3,4
    Saturated
    4-10
    Plants, Seed
    Low.
    Full to partial sun. Interesting
    flower.
    BMP PLANT LIST

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Beebalm, oswego-tea
    Monarda didyma
    Forb
    FAC+
    [4,5],6
    No
    4-9
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, humminbirds,
    and beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Showy red
    flowers and fragrant
    leaves.
    Beebalm, wild bergamot
    Monarda fistulosa
    Forb
    UPL
    5,6
    No
    Plants, Seeds
    Moderate. Butterflies, hummingbirds,
    and beneficial insects.
    Sunny, well drained soils.
    Performs well from seed.
    Lavender flower.
    Waterlily, white
    Nyphaea odorata
    Forb
    OBL
    1
    1-3'
    Plants
    Moderate. Good cover for fish.
    Full sun to partial shade.
    Floating
    leaf with white flower.
    Arrow arum
    Peltandra virginica
    Forb
    OBL
    [1,2],3
    0-1'
    5-9
    Plants, Bulb, See High. Berries are eaten by wood ducks.
    Full sun to partial shade. NOT
    eaten by
    geese or muskrats.
    Smartweed, Pennsylvania
    Polygonum pensylvanicum
    Forb
    FACW
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated, 0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    High. Good annual seed crop.
    Annual, non-persistent.
    Pickerelweed
    Pontederia cordata
    Forb
    OBL
    1,[2,3]
    0-1'
    4-11
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Ducks. Nectar for
    butterflies.
    Full sun to partial shade.
    Attractive
    purple flower spikes.
    Pondweed, long-leaf
    Potamogeton nodosus
    Forb
    OBL
    1
    1' min - 6'
    Plants
    High. Food (seeds, roots) waterfowl,
    aquatic furbearers, deer, moose.
    Habitat for fish.
    Rapid spread. Flowers float on
    surface, Aug.-Sept. Deep water
    plant. Turbidity affects rooting
    depth.
    Pondweed, sago
    Potamogeton pectinatus
    Forb
    OBL
    1
    1' min - 24'
    Plants
    Extremely high. Waterfowl, marsh and
    shorebirds.
    Removes heavy metals. Deep
    water plant. Turbidity affects
    rooting
    depth.
    Black-eyed susan
    Rudbeckia hirta
    Forb
    FACU-
    4,[5,6]
    No
    3-7
    Plugs, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Flowers form
    seed in the first
    year.
    Arrowhead, duck potato
    Sagittaria latifolia
    Forb
    OBL
    [1,2],3
    0-2'
    3-11
    nts, Bare-root, S
    Moderate. Tubers and seeds eaten by
    ducks.
    Aggressive colonizer. Shown to
    have good nutrient uptake
    properties.
    Lizards tail
    Saururus cernuus
    Forb
    OBL
    [2,3],4
    0-1'
    4-11
    Plants
    Low, except wood ducks.
    Aggressive colonizer. Shade
    tolerant. Interesting white flower
    spike
    .
    Goldenrod, silverrod
    Solidago bicolor
    Forb
    NI
    5,6
    No
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Grows well in
    infertile soils. Silvery white
    bloom.
    Goldenrod, roughleaf
    Solidago patula
    Forb
    OBL
    3,4
    Saturated
    Seed, Plants
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Attractive
    yellow blooms.
    Goldenrod, stiff
    Solidago rigida
    Forb
    UPL
    5,6
    No
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Attractive
    yellow blooms.
    Goldenrod, wrinkleleaf
    Solidago rugosa
    Forb
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    No
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, small
    mammals
    , and beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Attractive
    yellow blooms.
    Celery, wild
    Vallisneria americana
    Forb
    OBL
    1
    1' min
    Plants, Seed
    High. Food for waterfowl. Habitat for
    fish and invertebrates.
    Tolerant of murky water and high
    nutrient loads. Turbidity affects
    rooting
    depth.
    Vervain, blue
    Verbena hastata
    Forb
    FACW-
    3,4
    Saturated
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds,
    waterfowl
    , and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Performs well
    from seed.
    Ironweed, New York
    Vernonia noveboracensis
    Forb
    FACW+
    3,4
    Saturated
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate for butterflies.
    Full to partial sun. Tall plant with
    attractive
    purple flowers.
    Coneflower, eastern purple
    Echinacea pupurea
    Forp
    NI
    4,[5,6]
    No
    Plants, Seed
    High. Butterlies and birds.
    Full sun to partial shade. Long
    summer bloom with showy rose-
    purple flowers.
    Bluestem, big
    Andropogon gerardii
    Grass
    FAC
    [4,5],6
    No
    3-9
    Seed, Plants
    High. Seeds for songbirds. Food for
    deer.
    Requires full sun.
    Broomsedge
    Andropogon virginicus
    Grass
    FACU-
    5,6
    No
    2-7
    Seed, Plants
    High. Songbirds and browsers. Winter
    food and cover.
    Tolerant of fluctuation water
    levels and
    partial shade.
    Grass, redtop
    Argostis gigantea
    Grass
    FACW
    2,[3,4]
    Seasonal
    Seed, Plants
    Cover and food for small mammals.
    Quick cover for erosion prone
    areas.
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
    Page 7 of 11

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type
    Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Reedgrass
    , bluejoint
    Calamagrostis
    canadensis
    Grass
    FACW+
    2,[3,4]
    0-6", saturated
    Seed, Plants
    Managrass,
    fowl
    Glyceria
    striata
    Grass
    OBL
    [2,3],4
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    Fowl mannagrass
    Glyceria striata
    Grass
    OBL
    [2,3],4
    Seasonal
    Plants, Seed
    High. Food for waterfowl, muskrat, and
    deer.
    Partial to full shade.
    Cutgrass, rice
    Leersia oryzoides
    Grass
    OBL
    [2,3],4
    0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    High. Food and cover.
    Full sun although tolerant of
    shade. Shoreline stabilization.
    Switchgrass
    Panicum virgatum
    Grass
    FAC
    [4,5],6
    Seasonal
    4-9
    Seed and Plants
    High. Seeds, cover for waterfowl,
    songbirds
    .
    Tolerates wet/dry conditions.
    Indiangrass
    Sorghastrum
    nutans
    Grass
    UPL
    5,6
    No
    3-9
    Seed, Plants
    High. Good food and cover.
    Full sun. Grows 4-6 feet tall.
    Bluestem, little
    Schizachyrium scoparium
    Grass
    FACU-
    6
    No
    3-9
    Seed, Plants
    Full sun. Tolerates poor soils
    and drought
    .
    Sedge, fringed
    Carex crinita
    Grass-like
    OBL
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Songbirds and waterfowl.
    Good food and cover.
    Full to partial sun.
    Sedge,
    Pennsylvania
    Carex
    pennsylvanica
    Grass-like
    NI
    5,6
    Yes
    4-8
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Songbirds and waterfowl.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Sedge, broom
    Carex scoparia
    Grass-like
    FACW
    3,[4],5
    Sat, 0-6"
    Plants, Seed Moderate. Good food and wildlife cover. Tolerates moist to dry conditions.
    Sedge
    , tussock
    Carex stricta
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,[2,3],4
    Sat. 0-6"
    5-9
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Songbirds.
    Full sun. Persists during winter.
    Sedge, fox
    Carex volpinoidea
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,2,[3],4
    Sat. 0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    High. Songbirds and waterfowl.
    Full to partial sun. Prefers
    fluctuating
    water levels.
    Rush, Canada
    Juncus canadensis
    Grass-like
    OBL
    2,[3,4]
    Sat. 0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Songbirds, waterfowl, and
    small mammals
    Full to partial sun. Shown to
    have
    good nutrient uptake
    Rush, soft
    Juncus effusus
    Grass-like
    FACW+
    [2,3],4
    0-1'
    3-8
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate
    Tolerates occasional dry
    conditions. Full to partial sun.
    Shown to have good nutrient
    uptake properties.
    Bulrush, hard-stem
    Scirpus acutus
    Grass-like
    OBL
    [1,2],3
    0-3'
    Plants, Seed
    High. Cover, food (achenes, rhizomes)
    ducks, geese, muskrat, fish. Nesting for
    bluegill and bass.
    Quick to establish, fresh to
    brackish. Good for sediment
    stabilization and erosion control.
    Shown to have good nutrient
    uptake.
    Woolgrass
    Scirpus cyperinus
    Grass-like
    FACW
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated
    4-8
    Plants, Seed
    Moderate. Cover, food.
    Requires full sun. Can tolerate
    acidic soils, drought. Colonizes
    disturbed areas, moderate
    growth. Shown to have good
    nutrient uptake
    Bulrush, three-square
    Scirpus pungens
    Grass-like
    FACW+
    [2,3],4
    Saturated, 0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    High. Seeds, cover. Waterfowl and
    fish.
    Shown to have good nutrient
    uptake. High metal removal.
    Drought
    tolerant.
    Bulrush, softstem
    Scirpus tabermontanii
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,[2,3]
    0-1'
    Plants, Seed
    High. Good cover and food.
    Full sun. Aggressive colonizer.
    High
    pollutant removal.
    Bur-reed, American
    Sparganium americanum
    Grass-like
    OBL
    [2,3],4
    Saturated, 0-6"
    Plants, Seed
    Good food and cover.
    Spreads rapidly. Tolerates partial
    shade.
    Bur-reed, giant
    Sparganium eurycarpum
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,[2,3]
    0-12"
    Plants, Seed
    High. Food (seeds, plant) waterfowl,
    beaver and other mammals. Cover for
    marshbirds
    , waterfowl.
    Rapid spreading. Tolerates
    partial sun. Good for shoreline
    stabilization. Salinity <0.5 ppt.
    Cattail, narrowleaf
    Typha angustifolia
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,[2,3]
    0-1'
    3-11
    Plants
    Low food. Good nesting and cover.
    Spreads rapidly, can be invasive.
    Shown to have good nutrient
    uptake
    properties.
    Cattail, broadleaf
    Typha latifolia
    Grass-like
    OBL
    1,[2,3]
    0-1'
    3-9
    Plants
    Low food. Good nesting and cover.
    Spreads rapidly, can be invasive.
    Shown to have good nutrient
    uptake
    properties.
    Alder, speckled
    Alnus Rugosa
    Shrub
    FACW+
    2,3
    Saturated
    Yes
    High. Cover, browse for deer, seeds for
    birds.
    Rapid growth. Stabilizes
    streambanks. Roots fix N2.
    Alder, smooth
    Alnus serrulata
    Shrub
    OBL
    [1,2],3
    Saturated, 0-3"
    Yes
    High. Food, cover.
    Rapid growth. Stabilizes
    streambanks. Roots fix N2.
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
    Page 8 of 11

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Choke Berry, Red
    Aronia arbutifolia
    Shrub
    FACW
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds.
    Bank stabilizer. Partial sun.
    White flowers with red fruit.
    Choke Berry, Black
    Aronia melanocarpa
    Shrub
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds.
    Partial sun. White flowers with
    black fruit.
    Bottonbush, common
    Cephalanthus occidentalis
    Shrub
    OBL
    [1,2],3
    0-3'
    5-10
    Yes
    High. Ducks and shorebirds. Seeds,
    nectar and nesting.
    Full sun to partial shade. Will
    grow in dry areas. Interesting
    flowers and seed.
    Pepper-bush, sweet
    Clethra alnifolia
    Shrub
    FAC+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds,
    waterfowl, small mammals, and
    beneficial insects.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Attractive white flower spikes.
    Dogwood, silky
    Cornus amomum
    Shrub
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    5-8
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and mammals.
    Shade and drought tolerant.
    Good bank stabilizer. White
    flowers with blue fruit. Stems
    have good winter color.
    Dogwood, gray
    Cornus racemosa
    Shrub
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Drought tolerant. White
    flowers and fruit.
    Dogwood, redtwig
    Cornus sericia
    Shrub
    FACW+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Drought tolerant. Good
    streambank stabilizer. White
    flowers and fruit.
    Hazel-nut, American
    Corylus americana
    Shrub
    FACU-
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals
    Partial sun to shade. Inhabits dry
    woodlands. Edible nuts. Wood
    used for divining
    rods.
    Witch-hazel, American
    Hamamelis virginiana
    Shrub
    FAC-
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    Low. Food for squirrels, deer, and
    ruffed
    grouse.
    Prefers shade. Ornamental.
    Unusual flowers in Nov. - Dec.
    Inkberry
    Ilex glabra
    Shrub
    FACW-
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Evergreen.
    Avoided by
    Winterberry, common
    Ilex verticillata
    Shrub
    FACW+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Cover and fruit for birds. Holds
    berries into winter.
    Full sun to partial shade.
    Seasonally flooded areas. Red
    fruits
    persist through winter.
    Spice Bush
    Lindera benzoin
    Shrub
    FACW-
    3,4,5
    seasonal
    5-9
    Yes
    Very high. Songbirds.
    Shade and rich soils. Tolerates
    acidic soils. Good understory
    species
    . Red berries.
    Bayberry, northern
    Myrica pennsylvanica
    Shrub
    FAC
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Yes
    High. Nesting, food, cover. Berries last
    into winter.
    Coastal Plain species. Roots fix
    N2. Drought
    tolerant.
    Azalea, swamp
    Rhododendron viscosum
    Shrub
    OBL
    [3,4],5
    Saturated
    3-9
    Yes
    Low. Waterfowl and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Susceptible to
    damage form disease and
    insects. Showy pink and white
    flowers.
    Sumac, smooth
    Rhus glabra
    Shrub
    NI
    4,[5,6]
    No
    3-8
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, small mammals, and
    beneficial insects.
    Full sun. Drought resistant.
    Rose,
    pasture
    Rosa carolina
    Shrub
    NI
    5,6
    No
    5-9
    Yes
    High.
    Songbirds, and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun.
    Rose, swamp
    Rosa palustris
    Shrub
    OBL
    2,[3,4]
    Saturated
    5-8
    Yes
    High. Food (hips) for birds including
    turkey, ruffed grouse and mammals.
    Fox cover.
    Prefers full sun. Easy to
    establish. Low salt tolerance.
    Avoided by
    deer.
    Rose, Virginia
    Rosa virginiana
    Shrub
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    3-8
    Yes
    High.
    Songbirds, and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun.
    Blackberry, common
    Rubus allegheniensis
    Shrub
    FACU-
    4,5,6
    No
    Yes
    High Butterflies, songbirds, small
    mammals
    , and beneficial insects.
    Full to partial sun. Edible fruit.
    Willow, pussy
    Salix discolor
    Shrub
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Yes
    4-8
    Yes
    Low. Buds eaten by grouse.
    Furry catkins are a harbinger of
    spring. Good streambank
    stabilizer. Roots easily from
    cuttings.
    Elderberry
    Sambucus canadensis
    Shrub
    FACW-
    3,4,5,6
    Yes
    3-9
    Yes
    Extremely high. Food and cover, birds
    and mammals.
    Full sun to partial shade.
    Drought tolerant. Bears fruit
    when four
    years old.
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
    Page 9 of 11

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Blueberry, highbush
    Vaccinium corymbosum
    Shrub
    FACW-
    [3,4],5,6
    Seasonal
    3-8
    Yes
    High. Butterflies, songbirds, waterfowl,
    and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Prefers acid soils.
    Attractive
    plant year round.
    Arrow-wood, southern
    Viburnum dentatum
    Shrub
    FAC
    3,[4,5],6
    Seasonal
    4-8
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and mammals.
    Grows best in sun to partial
    shade. Drought
    tolerant.
    Black-haw
    Viburnum prunifolia
    Shrub
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    3-9
    Yes
    High.
    Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    Box-elder
    Acer negundo
    Tree
    FAC+
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    2-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Forms
    thickets. Wood can be brittle.
    Maple, red
    Acer rubrurn
    Tree
    FAC
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Seeds and browse.
    Rapid growth. Tolerates acidic
    soil.
    Maple, silver
    Acer saccharinum
    Tree
    FACW
    3,[4,5]
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds and small
    mammals. Excellent for cavity nesting
    wildlife.
    Full to partial sun.
    Birch, river
    Betula nigra
    Tree
    FACW
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    4-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds.
    Bank erosion control. Full sun.
    Nice ornamental.
    Birch, gray
    Betula populifolia
    Tree
    FAC
    [4,5],6
    Seasonal
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds.
    Short lived tree (30-50 years).
    Early
    successional species.
    Ironwood
    Carpinus caroliniana
    Tree
    FAC
    3,[4,5],6
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds, waterfowl, and
    small mammals.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Small understory tree. Smooth
    gray bark.
    Hickory, sweet pignut
    Carya glabra
    Tree
    FACU-
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-9
    No
    Moderate. Songbirds, waterfowl, and
    small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Hardy and
    slow
    growing.
    Hickory, shag-bark
    Carya ovata
    Tree
    FACU-
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-8
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds, waterfowl, and
    small mammals.
    Full sun. Distinctive peeling bark.
    Cedar, Atlantic white
    Chamaecyparis thyoides
    Tree
    OBL
    [1,2],3,4
    Saturated
    4-8
    Yes
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Edible nuts, prolific seed
    production. Usually found in
    areas with fluctuating water
    tables Evergreen
    Beech, American
    Fagus grandifolia
    Tree
    FACU
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Good nut crop
    every 2-3 years. Smooth gray
    bark.
    Ash, white
    Fraxinus americana
    Tree
    FACU
    4,[5,6]
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    High. Food.
    All sunlight conditions. Well
    drained soils. Grows to 100' tall.
    Ash, black
    Fraxinus nigra
    Tree
    FACW
    3,4,5
    Saturated
    Yes
    Moderate.
    Rapid
    growth.
    Ash, green
    Fraxinus pennsylvanica
    Tree
    FACW
    3,4,5
    Seasonal
    2-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds. Prolific seeder.
    Rapid growing streambank
    stabilizer. Full sun to partial
    shade. Small tree 30-50' tall.
    Holly, American
    Ilex opaca
    Tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    5-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Songbirds.
    Full to partial sun. Shade
    tolerant. Evergreen. Attractive
    red fruits
    persist through winter.
    Cedar, eastern red
    Juniperus virginiana
    tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    2-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full sun. Good wind break or
    screening plant. Early
    successional species.
    Evergreen
    Tuliptree
    Liriodendron tulipifera
    Tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Seeds and nest sites.
    Full sun to partial shade. Well
    drained soils. Rapid growth.
    Grows to 120' tall.
    Blackgum
    Nyssa sylvatica
    Tree
    FACW+
    2,[3,4],5
    Seasonal
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, egrets, herons,
    raccoons, owls.
    Can be difficult to transplant.
    Prefers sun to partial shade.
    Nice ornamental with deep red
    fall color.
    Pine, pitch
    Pinus rigida
    Tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    4-7
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full sun.
    Old trees are fire
    resistant due to their thick bark.
    Grows well on poor sites.
    Evergreen.
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
    Page 10 of 11

    Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
    Appendix B
    363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
    Page 11 of 11
    Common
    Scientific
    Plant
    Wetland Hydrologic Inundation
    Hardiness Commercial
    Wildlife
    Notes
    Name
    Name
    Type
    Indicator
    Zone
    Tolerance
    Zone
    Availability
    Value
    Pine, eastern white
    Pinus strobus
    Tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    3-8
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full sun. Rapid growth. Large
    and long
    lived tree. Evergreen.
    Sycamore, American
    Platanus occidentalis
    Tree
    FACW-
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    4-9
    Yes
    Low. Food, cavities for nesting.
    Rapid growth. Common in
    floodplains and alluvial
    woodlands. Drought
    tolerant.
    Cotton-wood, eastern
    Populus deltoides
    Tree
    FAC
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    2-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Cover, food.
    Shallow rooted, subject to
    windthrow. Invasive roots. Will
    grow on dry sites. Weak
    wooded. Rapid growth.
    Aspen, big-tooth
    Populus grandidentata
    Tree
    FACU
    [4,5,6]
    No
    Yes
    Moderate. Ruffed Grouse eats buds
    and catkins.
    Rapid growing and short lived (40-
    50 years).
    Aspen,
    quaking
    Populus tremuloides
    Tree
    FACU
    [4,5],6
    Seasonal
    1-7
    Yes
    Moderate. Buds and some nesting
    .
    Nice fall color. Short lived tree.
    Cherry, black
    Prunus serotina
    Tree
    FACU
    [4,5],6
    No
    2-8
    Yes
    High. Food.
    Moist soils or wet bottomland
    areas. Excellent fruit production.
    Early
    successional species.
    Oak, white
    Quercus alba
    Tree
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Slow growing.
    Longest lived tree in the
    northeast.
    Oak, swamp white
    Quercus bicolor
    Tree
    FACW+
    2,[3,4],5
    Seasonal
    4-8
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl and small
    mammals.
    Full sun to partial shade. Good
    bottomland tree. Drought
    tolerant. Nice ornamental.
    Oak, scarlet
    Quercus coccinea
    Tree
    NI
    5,6
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds and small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Rapid growing
    and long
    lived. Nice fall color.
    Oak,
    pin
    Quercus
    palustris
    Tree
    FACW
    [3],4,5,6
    Seasonal
    4-8
    Yes
    High.
    Songbirds and small mammals.
    Gypsy moth target.
    Oak, willow
    Quercus phellos
    Tree
    FAC+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    5-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals.
    Full to partial sun.
    Oak, red
    Quercus rubra
    Tree
    FACU-
    5,6
    No
    3-8
    Yes
    High. Small mammals.
    Full to partial sun. Rapid growing
    and long lived. Valuable timber
    tree.
    Willow, black
    Salix nigra
    Tree
    FACW+
    [2,3],4
    Seasonal
    Yes
    High. Browsing and cavity nesters.
    Rapid growth, stabilizes
    streambanks. Full sun. Roots
    easily
    from cuttings.
    Bald Cypress
    Taxodium distichum
    Tree
    OBL
    1,[2,3],4 Saturated, 0-2'
    4-9
    Yes
    Little food value, but good perching site
    for waterfowl.
    Tolerates drought.
    Basswood, American
    Tilia americana
    Tree
    FACU
    [4,5],6
    No
    2-8
    Yes
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, small
    mammals, and beneficial insects.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Important pollen source for honey
    bees.
    Serviceberry, downy
    Amelanchier arborea
    Tree (small)
    FAC-
    3,[4,5],6
    Seasonal
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. songbirds and small
    mammals.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant. Very
    early spring flowers. Handsome
    tree.
    Serviceberry, shadbush
    Amelanchier canadensis
    Tree (small)
    FAC
    4,5,6
    Seasonal
    4-7
    Yes
    High. Nesting, cover, food. Birds and
    mammals.
    Prefers partial shade. Common
    in forested wetlands and upland
    woods. Very
    early spring flowers.
    Hackberry, common
    Celtis occidentalis
    Tree (small)
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Food and cover.
    Full sun to partial shade. Small
    tree 30-50' tall. Fruit persists into
    winter.
    Redbud, eastern
    Cercis canadensis
    Tree (small)
    FACU-
    4,5,6
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    small mammals.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Nitrogen
    fixer. Nice ornamental.
    Hackberry, common
    Celtis occidentalis
    Tree (small)
    FACU
    4,5,6
    No
    3-9
    Yes
    High. Food and cover.
    Full sun to partial shade. Small
    tree 30-50' tall. Fruit persists into
    winter.
    Redbud, eastern
    Cercis canadensis
    Tree (small)
    FACU-
    4,5,6
    No
    4-9
    Yes
    Moderate. Butterflies, songbirds, and
    small mammals.
    Partial sun. Shade tolerant.
    Nitrogen
    fixer. Nice ornamental.
    Dogwood, flowering
    Cornus florida
    Tree (small)
    FACU-
    4,5,6
    No
    5-9
    Yes
    High. Songbirds, waterfowl, and small
    mammals. Fruits eaten by >100
    species
    of bird.
    Partial sun to shade. Understory
    plant in hardwood forests. Nice
    ornamental.
    Magnolia, sweetbay
    Magnolia virginiana
    Tree (small) FACW+
    [3,4],5
    Seasonal
    Yes
    Moderate. Seeds.
    Southeast part of state. Shade
    and drought tolerant. Attractive
    and fragrant
    flowers.

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