1. 7.9 References

Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
Chapter 7
to confined areas. Larger, commercial buildings may have internal drainage systems, which can
still be disconnected into larger stormwater elements such as cisterns, planters, or vertical
storage.
Disconnect from storm sewers -
Disconnecting from existing storm sewers can be
accomplished by either adding another inlet slightly up-gradient from the existing inlet to intercept
the runoff and redirect it into a storm water feature, or closing off the existing inlet and regrading
the area to drain into a stormwater feature, such as an infiltration bed.
Street Sweeping -
Streets, roads, and highways constitute large percentages of urban areas,
and pollutant loadings are usually greatest from these areas. Runoff from streets may end up at
a treatment plant, but is more typically discharged directly to a body of water. Actively sweeping
or vacuuming these surfaces can greatly reduce the amount of pollutants entering inlets, and
possibly reduce the need for other (usually more costly) water quality measures.
Rooftop Runoff Capture & Reuse
Rain barrels can be used to capture runoff originally coming
from roof leaders, and they are small enough to fit in yards often found in urban residential
neighborhoods. Cisterns and vertical storage units can be placed in corners of structured parking
lots, inside buildings, on the outside walls of buildings, in adjacent alleys, alongside elevator
shafts, and other locations deemed feasible by the designer. Vertical storage is very applicable in
urban areas where space is at a premium; the shape and location of this BMP requires very little
horizontal land area.
Vegetated Roof
: A vegetated roof is one of the most effective (both cost and stormwater –
wise) methods to manage stormwater in an urban environment. Many buildings in urban areas
have large flat roofs that can be converted into vegetated roofs
Water Quality Filter
- Filters can be used at the end of a drainage area, or at a “hot spot” to treat
pollutant filled runoff. They have urban area relevance because of their size – filters can provide
substantial water quality treatment in a relatively small container. They are typically used at the
end of a drainage area (before it discharges into a body of water) that did not have room up
gradient for other water quality measures.
Water Quality Insert
- These manufactured devices can be placed in urban area inlets to
address water quality. They’re appropriate where stormwater is discharged without other
treatment and where removing pollutants before they enter the conveyance system is crucial.
They are not appropriate for areas with combined sewers
Use of Parking lots and rooftops, as special detention areas -
Detaining runoff on impervious
surfaces does not have any volume benefit, but does reduce CSO impacts by temporarily holding
the runoff and slowly releasing it so that the treatment plant can properly treat it. Surface storage
can also help reduce the peak rates of a drainage area by increasing the time of concentration for
that specific area. This can be useful in areas that require peak rate reductions, or are subject to
downstream flooding.
7.9
References
AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Design Task Force for Environmental Design, 1991.
A
Guide for Transportation Landscape and Environmental Design
. American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials. Washington, D.C.
363-0300-002 / December 30,
2006
Page 25 of 28

Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
Chapter 7
Backstrom M. 2000. “Ground Temperature in Porous Pavement during Freezing and Thawing.”
Journal of Transportation Engineering – ASCE
126(5) (September –October): 375-381.
Bannerman, R.; D. Owens; R. Dodds and N. Hornewer. 1993. "Sources of Pollutants in
Wisconsin Stormwater."
Water Science and Technology
. 28(3-5): 241-259
Barrett, M.E. et al., 1995.
An Evaluation of the Use and Effectiveness of Temporary Sediment
Controls, CRWR Online Report 95-6
. Center for Research in Water Resources, Bureau of
Engineering Research, The University of Texas at Austin, TX
Barrett, et al,
Water Quality and Quantity Impacts of Highway Construction and Operation:
Summary and Conclusions
,
Center for Research in Water Resources, Bureau of Engineering
Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, November 1995
Blankenship, K., 1998. “Better maintenance of dirt roads will pave the way to cleaner streams.”
Bay Journal, Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, 8(9)
Covington III, M.B.
Ditchline Sand Filter Design (Roadway Stormwater Management)
. Carroll
County, MD
Crawford, N.C., 1989.
The Karst Landscape of Warren County
, Technical Report for the City
County Planning Commission of Warren County (KY).
FHWA, 1999. “Is Highway Runoff a Serious Problem?” Federal Highway Administration
Environmental Technology Brief, U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of
Infrastructure R&D, McLean, VA
FHWA, 1999.
Stormwater Best Management Practices in an Ultra-Urban Setting: Selection and
Monitoring
. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation.
Fujita, S., 1997.
Measures to Promote Stormwater Infiltration
. Water Science and
Technology 36(8-9):289-293.
Forman, R.T.T., D. Sperling, et al., 2003.
Road Ecology: Science and Solutions
. Washington,
D.C.
Galli, F. 1990.
Thermal Impacts Associated with Urbanization and Stormwater Best Management
Practices. Metropolitan Council of Governments
. Prepared for: Maryland Department of
the Environment. Baltimore, MD.
Hogland, W. and Wahlman T., (1990).
The Unit Superstructure – Effects on Hydrology and Road
Construction
. Report R90:1990, Swedish Council for Building Research. ISBN 91-540-
5264-5.
Hughes, R. E., 2005. Personal Communication, to D. Stum, PADEP, March 15, 2005.
Knight, F.J., 1971, “Geologic problems of urban growth in limestone terrains of Pennsylvania”,
Association of Engineering Geologists Bulletin, v.8, no. 1, p. 91-101.
363-0300-002 / December 30,
2006
Page 26 of 28

Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
Chapter 7
Kochanov, William E., 1999.
Sinkholes in Pennsylvania,
Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4
th
ser., Educational Series 11.
Kochanov, W.E., 1995a, Storm-water management and sinkhole occurrence in the Palmyra area,
Lebanon County, Pennsylvania: in
Beck, B.F. (ed.),
Karst Geohazards, Engineering and
Environmental Problems in Karst Terrane
, Proceedings, 5th Multidisciplinary Conference on
Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, Gatlinburg, TN, April 2-5,
1995, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, p. 285-290.
Legret, M. & Colandini, V. 1999, 'Effects of a porous pavement with reservoir structure on runoff
water: water quality and fate of heavy metals', Water Science and Technology, vol. 39, no.
2, 111-117.
McCann, Molly S., and James L. Smoot, 1999. “A Review of Stormwater Best Management
Practices for Karst Areas”, In
Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst
,
Beck, Pettit & Herring (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam.pp. 395-398.
Memon, Bashir A., et al., 1999. “Site Selection and Design Considerations for Construction in
Karst Terrain / Sinkhole-Prone Area”, In
Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes
and Karst
, Beck, Pettit & Herring (eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam. pp. 107-110.
Natural Resources Defense Council, 1999.
End of the Road: The Adverse Ecological Impacts of
Roads and Logging: A Compilation of Independently Reviewed Research
.
Newton, J.G., 1987.
Development of Sinkholes Resulting From Man’s Activities in the Eastern
United States
, U.S. Geological Survey Circular 968.
Oberts, G. 1997.
Lake McCarrons Wetland Treatment System – Phase III Study Report
.
Metropolitan Council Environmental Services. St. Paul, MN.
PADEP, 1998. Pennsylvania’s Comprehensive Plan for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, Bureau
of Abandoned Mine Reclamation, PADEP, June, 1998.
PADEP, 1999. A Model Plan for Watershed Restoration, by PADEP, USACOE, NRCS, OSM,
PADCNR, Jan., 1999.
PADEP, 2005. The Science of Acid Mine Drainage and Passive Treatment, PADEP, Bureau of
Abandoned Mine Reclamation.
Penn State Center for Dirt and Gravel Road Studies. <www.dirtandgravelroads.org/>
PennDOT. “Dirt and Gravel Road Program.” Pennsylvania Deparment of Transportation.
http://www.dot.state.pa.us/penndot/bureaus/bms.nsf/infoDirtGravel?OpenForm
PennDOT, 2004.
Guidelines for Design of Erosion, Sediment, and Stormwater Controls DRAFT
.
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design.
PennDOT, 2004.
Specifications and Standards for Roadway Construction 70M Series DRAFT
.
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Design.
363-0300-002 / December 30,
2006
Page 27 of 28

Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
Chapter 7
363-0300-002 / December 30, 2006
Page 28 of 28
Pitt, R., 2001. “Stormwater Management for Highway Projects.” Presented at: Symposium on
the Pollution of Water Sources form Road Run-Off, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Pluhowski. E.J. 1970.
Urbanization and its Effects on the Temperature of the Streams in Long
Island, New York
. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 627-D. U.S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D.C.
Ralston, Mark R. and I.S. Oweis, “Geotechnical Engineering Considerations for Stormwater
Management in Karst Terrain”, From 1999 Southeastern Pennsylvania Stormwater
Management Symposium – Implementing Best Management Practices. October 20-21, 1999,
Villanova University.
Schueler, T. 1995. Nitrate leaching potential from lawns and turfgrass. Raleigh.
Tech. Note 56. Watershed Protection Technol. 2:276–278.
Sowers, George F., 1996.
Building on Sinkholes: Design and Construction of Foundations in
Karst Terrain
. ASCE Press.
SWRCB, 2002.
Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program
. State Water Resources Control
Board, North Coast Regional Board, California Environmental Protection Agency.
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR).
Hydrologic Modeling and Design in
Karst
, Virginia DCR Technical Bulletin No. 2. Available at http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/sw/
docs/swm/tecbltn2.PDF.
Walker, H., 2002. “Here's the dirt on rural roads: low-tech solutions often are best for assuring your
country road or driveway's long, healthy life – homesteading.” Mother Earth News.
Walsh, P.M. et al., 1997.
Use of Vegetative Controls for Treatment of Highway Runoff, CRWR
Online Report 97-5
. Center for Research in Water Resources, Bureau of Engineering
Research, The University of Texas at Austin, TX
White, E.L., Aron, G., and White, W.B., 1986, “The influence of urbanization on sinkhole
development in central Pennsylvania”, Environmental Geology and Water Sciences, v. 8, no.
1&2, p. 91-97.
White, W.B., 1988,
Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains
. Oxford University Press,
New York, 464 p.
Wilshusen, J.P. and Kochanov, W.E., 1999, “Land Subsidence: Carbonate Terrane” in Shultz,
C.H., ed.,
The Geology of Pennsylvania
, Pittsburgh Geological Society and Pennsylvania
Geological Survey, Chapter 49, Part A, p. 714-723.
Young et. al., 1996.
Evaluation and Management of Highway Runoff Water Quality (Water Quality
Synthesis)
.

Back to top