1. 7.9 References

Pennsylvania Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual
Chapter 7
to confined areas. Larger, commercial buildings may have internal drainage systems, which can
still be disconnected into larger stormwater elements such as cisterns, planters, or vertical
Disconnect from storm sewers -
Disconnecting from existing storm sewers can be
accomplished by either adding another inlet slightly up-gradient from the existing inlet to intercept
the runoff and redirect it into a storm water feature, or closing off the existing inlet and regrading
the area to drain into a stormwater feature, such as an infiltration bed.
Street Sweeping -
Streets, roads, and highways constitute large percentages of urban areas,
and pollutant loadings are usually greatest from these areas. Runoff from streets may end up at
a treatment plant, but is more typically discharged directly to a body of water. Actively sweeping
or vacuuming these surfaces can greatly reduce the amount of pollutants entering inlets, and
possibly reduce the need for other (usually more costly) water quality measures.
Rooftop Runoff Capture & Reuse
Rain barrels can be used to capture runoff originally coming
from roof leaders, and they are small enough to fit in yards often found in urban residential
neighborhoods. Cisterns and vertical storage units can be placed in corners of structured parking
lots, inside buildings, on the outside walls of buildings, in adjacent alleys, alongside elevator
shafts, and other locations deemed feasible by the designer. Vertical storage is very applicable in
urban areas where space is at a premium; the shape and location of this BMP requires very little
horizontal land area.
Vegetated Roof
: A vegetated roof is one of the most effective (both cost and stormwater –
wise) methods to manage stormwater in an urban environment. Many buildings in urban areas
have large flat roofs that can be converted into vegetated roofs
Water Quality Filter
- Filters can be used at the end of a drainage area, or at a “hot spot” to treat
pollutant filled runoff. They have urban area relevance because of their size – filters can provide
substantial water quality treatment in a relatively small container. They are typically used at the
end of a drainage area (before it discharges into a body of water) that did not have room up
gradient for other water quality measures.
Water Quality Insert
- These manufactured devices can be placed in urban area inlets to
address water quality. They’re appropriate where stormwater is discharged without other
treatment and where removing pollutants before they enter the conveyance system is crucial.
They are not appropriate for areas with combined sewers
Use of Parking lots and rooftops, as special detention areas -
Detaining runoff on impervious
surfaces does not have any volume benefit, but does reduce CSO impacts by temporarily holding
the runoff and slowly releasing it so that the treatment plant can properly treat it. Surface storage
can also help reduce the peak rates of a drainage area by increasing the time of concentration for
that specific area. This can be useful in areas that require peak rate reductions, or are subject to
downstream flooding.
AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Design Task Force for Environmental Design, 1991.
Guide for Transportation Landscape and Environmental Design
. American Association of
State Highway and Transportation Officials. Washington, D.C.
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Backstrom M. 2000. “Ground Temperature in Porous Pavement during Freezing and Thawing.”
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126(5) (September –October): 375-381.
Bannerman, R.; D. Owens; R. Dodds and N. Hornewer. 1993. "Sources of Pollutants in
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Barrett, M.E. et al., 1995.
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Blankenship, K., 1998. “Better maintenance of dirt roads will pave the way to cleaner streams.”
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Hogland, W. and Wahlman T., (1990).
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Hughes, R. E., 2005. Personal Communication, to D. Stum, PADEP, March 15, 2005.
Knight, F.J., 1971, “Geologic problems of urban growth in limestone terrains of Pennsylvania”,
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Kochanov, William E., 1999.
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Kochanov, W.E., 1995a, Storm-water management and sinkhole occurrence in the Palmyra area,
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Evaluation and Management of Highway Runoff Water Quality (Water Quality

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