1. Public
    2. Water Supply
    3. Manual
      1. _
        1. _
          1. _
    4. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
      1. Part I - Summaries of Key Requirements
      2. Part II - Community System Design Standards
      3. Part IV - Noncommunity System Design Standards
      4. Part V - Operations and Maintenance
      5. Part VI - Emergency Response
      6. Part VII - Cross-Connection Control/Backflow Prevention
        1. PART ISUMMARIES OF KEY REQUIREMENTS
        2. PART IICOMMUNITY SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS
        3. PART IIIBOTTLED WATER, BULK WATER HAULING, WATER VENDING MACHINES AND RETAIL WATER FACILITIES
        4. PART IVNONCOMMUNITY SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS
        5. PART VOPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE (SECTIONS I & II)
        6. PART VIEMERGENCY RESPONSE
        7. PART VIICROSS-CONNECTION CONTROL/BACKFLOW PREVENTION
        8. INTRODUCTION1
        9. I.APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS2
        10. V.RETAIL WATER FACILITIES54
        11. I.OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BOTTLED WATER
        12. OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR VENDED WATER
        13. III.OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BULK WATER
        14. HAULERS
        15. IV.OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR RETAIL WATER
          1. _
        16. Minor Modifications
        17. Minor Modifications
    5. Time Since Pumping Started
    6. Time Between Measurements
      1. _
        1. A.General
          1. _
        2. II.OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR VENDED WATER SYSTEMS
          1. _

 
Public
Water Supply
Manual
PART III
BOTTLED WATER, BULK WATER HAULING,
WATER VENDING MACHINES
& RETAIL WATER FACILITIES
383-2126-303
COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA
Department of Environmental Protection
For more information, visit DEP’s Web site at
www.depweb.state.pa.us
, Keyword: “Drinking Water.”

 
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Bureau of Water Standards and Facility Regulation
DOCUMENT NUMBER:
383-2126-303
TITLE:
Public Water Supply Manual - Part III
Bottled Water, Bulk Water Hauling, Water Vending Machines and Retail
Water Facilities
EFFECTIVE DATE:
Upon notice of final publication in the
Pennsylvania Bulletin
AUTHORITY:
Pennsylvania’s Safe Drinking Water Act (35 P.S. §721.1
et seq.
) and
regulations at Title 25 Pa. Code Chapter 109
POLICY:
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) staff will generally adhere
to the design standards and application procedures outlined herein, in
processing permit applications for bottled water, bulk water hauling, water
vending machines and retail water facilities.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this document is to establish a rational and reasonable
basis for staff decisions, which will promote quality, timely and consistent
service to the public and regulated community.
APPLICABILITY:
This guidance will apply to public water suppliers involved in any of the
above activities.
DISCLAIMER:
The policies and procedures outlined in this guidance are intended to
supplement existing requirements. Nothing in the policies or procedures
shall affect regulatory requirements.
The policies and procedures herein are not an adjudication or a regulation.
There is no intent on the part of DEP to give the rules in these policies that
weight or deference. This document establishes the framework within
which DEP will exercise its administrative discretion in the future. DEP
reserves the discretion to deviate from this policy statement if
circumstances warrant.
PAGE LENGTH:
106 pages
LOCATION:
Volume 17, Tab 8
DEFINITIONS:
See Title 25 Pa. Code Chapter 109
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page i

Acronyms and Abbreviations Used in this Manual
ACI
Alloy Casting Institute
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute
ANSI
American National Standard Institute
API
American Petroleum Institute
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
AWWA
American Water Works Association
BVRB
Bottled Water and Vended Water Systems, Retail Water Facilities and Bulk Water
Hauling Systems
CHD
County Health Department
CFR
Code of Federal Regulation
CWS
Community Water Systems
DEP
Department of Environmental Protection
DI
De-ionized
FDA
Food and Drug Administration
GUDI
Groundwater Under the Direct Influence of Surface Water
IBWA
International Bottled Water Association
ID
Identification
IOC
Inorganic Compound
MCL
Maximum Contaminant Level
MPA
Microscopic Particulate Analysis
NAMA
National Automatic Merchandizing Association
NSF
National Sanitation Foundation
NTNCWS
Non-transient Non-community Water System
O & M
Operation and Maintenance
PNDI
Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory
PVC
Polyvinyl Chloride
PWS
Public Water System
RO
Reverse Osmosis
SDR
Standard Dimension Ratio
SOC
Synthetic Organic Chemical
SWIP
Surface Water Identification Protocol
TDS
Total Dissolved Solids
TSS
Total Suspended Solids
USGS
United States Geological Survey
UV
Ultraviolet
VOC
Volatile Organic Chemical
WVM
Water Vending Machine
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page ii

 
PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY MANUAL
USER’S GUIDE
The Public Water Supply Manual is a comprehensive publication designed to provide necessary, useful
information to public water suppliers concerning Pennsylvania’s Safe Drinking Water Program
administered by DEP. The manual contains essentially everything the public water supplier will need to
know about the Safe Drinking Water Program including: design and construction standards; water
quality standards; monitoring, reporting and operating requirements; emergency measures; and
information on government agency programs and contacts.
Technical guidance documents are available on DEP’s Web site at www.depweb.state.pa.us
.
DEP encourages the use of the internet to view guidance documents. When this option is not available,
persons can order a bound paper copy of the latest inventory or an unbound paper copy of any of the
final documents listed on the inventory by calling DEP at 717-787-5017.
The following is a summary of the Public Water Supply Manual Parts. Following the summary is a
Table of Contents for each part in the Public Water Supply Manual.
Part I - Summaries of Key Requirements
Part I is no longer published as a compilation of all the summaries of key requirements. The summaries
of key requirements are available as individual documents. Additional summaries are added as new
rules and regulations are adopted.
Part II - Community System Design Standards
Part II provides detailed design and construction standards for all community water systems except
bottled water systems, bulk water haulers, vended water systems and retail water facilities. Part II also
contains instructions for submitting a public water system permit application.
Part III - Bottled Water, Bulk Water Hauling, Water Vending Machines and Retail Water
Facilities
Part III provides detailed design and construction standards for bottled water systems, bulk water
haulers, vended water systems and retail water facilities including information on submitting a public
water system permit application.
Part IV - Noncommunity System Design Standards
Part IV provides detailed design and construction standards for noncommunity water systems, including
information on the procedures to be followed to obtain DEP approval.
Part V - Operations and Maintenance
Part V provides the needed information to develop an Operations and Maintenance Plan as required
under Section 109.702 of DEP Safe Drinking Water Regulations. This is a comprehensive guidance
document covering all aspects of public water system operations including operations and maintenance
standards.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page iii

 
Part V has been developed as two separate documents. Each is designed for specific type systems:
Sections I and II is for surface water systems and the larger groundwater systems.
Appendix A, Operations and Maintenance for Small Groundwater Systems, is a condensed
version containing information needed by small groundwater systems having limited treatment
(disinfection and corrosion control).
Part VI - Emergency Response
Part VI discusses the measures, which a water supplier should take to prepare for emergency
circumstances and explains how to prepare an emergency response plan.
Part VII - Cross-Connection Control/Backflow Prevention
Part VII provides the basic information needed by a public water supplier to establish an effective cross-
connection control program.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page iv

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
SUMMARIES OF KEY REQUIREMENTS
Community Water Systems
Nontransient Noncommunity Water Systems
Transient Noncommunity Water Systems
Bottled Water Systems
Vended Water Systems, Retail Water Facilities, and Bulk Water Hauling Systems
Lead and Copper Rule
Phase II and Phase V/Wellhead Protection Rule
Surface Water Filtration Rule
Surface Water Identification Protocol
Total Coliform Rule
Consecutive Water Systems
PART II
COMMUNITY SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS
Applications for Permits
Preliminary Design Considerations
Source Development and Construction
Treatment
Chemicals and Chemical Handling
Pumping Facilities
Finished Water Storage
Distribution Systems
PART III
BOTTLED WATER, BULK WATER HAULING, WATER VENDING
MACHINES AND RETAIL WATER FACILITIES
Applications for Permits
Bottled Water Systems
Bulk Water Hauling Systems
Vended Water Systems
Retail Water Facilities
Operations and Maintenance Standards
PART IV
NONCOMMUNITY SYSTEM DESIGN STANDARDS
Applications for Permits
Sources
Treatment
Chemical Handling and Feeding
Finished Water Storage
Pumping Equipment
Distribution Systems
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page v

 
PART V
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE (SECTIONS I & II)
SECTION I PREPARATION OF O&M PLAN
Description of Facilities
Start-up and Normal Operating Procedures
Planned Maintenance Program
Records and Reporting System
Sampling and Analysis Program and Compliance Monitoring
Public Notification
Staffing and Training
Sanitary Survey Program
Safety Program
Emergency Plan and Operating Procedures
SECTION II OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
Sources of Supply
Treatment
Distribution
Laboratory Equipment Maintenance
Operations and Maintenance for Small Groundwater Systems
PART VI
EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Characteristics of Emergency Conditions and General Protection Measures
Hazard Analysis and Vulnerability Assessment
Developing Emergency Response Plans
Example Emergency Response Plan
PART VII
CROSS-CONNECTION CONTROL/BACKFLOW PREVENTION
Definitions
Cross-connection Control Program
Recommended Cross-connection Control and Backflow Prevention Devices
Model of an Ordinance for the Control of Backflow and Cross-Connections
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page vi

 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION
......................................................................................................................................1
I.
APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS
...............................................................................................2
A.
General.................................................................................................................................2
B.
Permit Requirements............................................................................................................2
1.
Coverage ..................................................................................................................2
2.
Application Fees ......................................................................................................3
3.
Construction and Operation Permits........................................................................3
4.
Revisions to Approved Plans ...................................................................................3
5.
DEP’s Review and Permit Coordination .................................................................4
6.
Chemicals and Materials..........................................................................................4
C.
Source Development and Construction ...............................................................................4
1.
Sampling and Analysis of Proposed Sources...........................................................4
a.
Surface Water Sources.................................................................................5
b.
Groundwater Sources...................................................................................5
c.
Spring Sources, Infiltration Galleries, Ranney Wells..................................5
d.
Karst Source.................................................................................................5
e.
Finished Water Sources ...............................................................................6
f.
Sample Collection........................................................................................6
g.
Sample Analysis...........................................................................................6
2.
Surface Water Sources.............................................................................................6
a.
Source Quantity ...........................................................................................7
b.
Source Quality .............................................................................................7
c.
Structures .....................................................................................................7
(1)
Intakes..............................................................................................7
(2)
Raw Water Pumping Wells..............................................................8
d.
Impoundments and Reservoirs.....................................................................9
(1)
Site Selection ...................................................................................9
e.
Site Preparation............................................................................................9
f.
Site Construction..........................................................................................9
3.
Groundwater Sources...............................................................................................9
a.
Aquifer Testing ............................................................................................9
(1)
Purpose.............................................................................................9
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page vii

(2)
Design ............................................................................................10
(3)
Observation Points.........................................................................10
(4)
Testing Procedures.........................................................................11
b.
Analysis and Interpretation ........................................................................14
c.
Hydrogeologic Report................................................................................15
d.
General Well Construction ........................................................................18
(1)
Plumbness and Alignment .............................................................18
(2)
Minimum Protected Depths ...........................................................19
(3)
Temporary Casings ........................................................................19
(4)
Well Casing Material .....................................................................19
e.
Packers .......................................................................................................21
f.
Screens .......................................................................................................21
g.
Chemical Conditioning ..............................................................................21
h.
Grouting .....................................................................................................22
(1)
Application.....................................................................................22
(2)
Guides ............................................................................................22
i.
Upper Terminal Well Construction ...........................................................22
j.
Well Development .....................................................................................22
k.
Capping ......................................................................................................23
l.
Well Abandonment ....................................................................................23
4.
Special Construction Methods ...............................................................................23
a.
Radial Water Collectors.............................................................................23
b.
Infiltration Galleries...................................................................................23
c.
Dug Wells ..................................................................................................24
d.
Artesian Wells............................................................................................24
5.
Well Pumps, Discharge Piping and Appurtenances ..............................................24
a.
Line Shaft Pumps.......................................................................................24
b.
Submersible Pumps....................................................................................24
c.
Discharge Piping........................................................................................25
d.
Pitless Well Units.......................................................................................25
e.
Casing Vents ..............................................................................................26
f.
Water Level Management..........................................................................27
g.
Observation Points.....................................................................................27
h.
Wellhead Security......................................................................................27
D.
Treatment ...........................................................................................................................27
1.
Required Treatment ...............................................................................................28
a.
Surface Water Sources...............................................................................28
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page viii

b.
Groundwater Sources.................................................................................28
E.
Procedures for Obtaining a Permit.....................................................................................28
1.
Licensed Professional Engineer and Licensed Professional Geologist .................29
2.
Preliminary Conference .........................................................................................29
a.
Scope..........................................................................................................29
b.
Preliminary Plans .......................................................................................29
c.
Preliminary Report.....................................................................................29
d.
Preliminary Hydrogeologic Information....................................................29
e.
DEP Advice ...............................................................................................33
3.
Submission of Application.....................................................................................33
a.
Engineer’s Report ......................................................................................34
b.
Detailed Plans ............................................................................................35
c.
Specifications.............................................................................................36
d.
Water Quality Analyses .............................................................................37
F.
Special Permit-By-Rule Requirement................................................................................37
1.
Bottled Water Systems...........................................................................................37
2.
Vended Water Systems ..........................................................................................38
II.
BOTTLED WATER SYSTEMS
................................................................................................40
A.
General...............................................................................................................................40
B.
Sources of Supply ..............................................................................................................40
C.
Buildings and Facilities......................................................................................................40
1.
Siting......................................................................................................................40
2.
Plant Design and Construction...............................................................................40
a.
General.......................................................................................................40
b.
Bottling Room............................................................................................41
c.
Bottle Washing Area..................................................................................41
d.
Bottle Storage and Chemical Storage ........................................................41
(1)
Bottles ............................................................................................41
(2)
Chemicals.......................................................................................41
e.
Dressing and Locker Rooms......................................................................41
f.
Ventilation..................................................................................................42
g.
Lighting......................................................................................................42
h.
Sanitary Facilities.......................................................................................42
D.
Treatment ...........................................................................................................................42
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page ix

E.
Equipment ..........................................................................................................................43
1.
Materials of Construction ......................................................................................43
2.
Storage Tanks.........................................................................................................43
3.
Sanitizing Systems .................................................................................................43
a.
Steam in an Enclosed System ....................................................................43
b.
Hot Water in an Enclosed System .............................................................43
c.
Chemical Sanitizers ...................................................................................44
4.
Rinse Facilities.......................................................................................................44
F.
Containers and Closures ....................................................................................................44
1.
Containers ..............................................................................................................44
a.
Single Service ............................................................................................44
b.
Multiservice ...............................................................................................44
2.
Closures..................................................................................................................44
G.
Tanker Trucks ....................................................................................................................45
H.
Laboratory Equipment .......................................................................................................45
III.
BULK WATER HAULING SYSTEMS
....................................................................................46
A.
General...............................................................................................................................46
B.
Sources...............................................................................................................................46
C.
Tank Trucks .......................................................................................................................46
1.
Construction Materials...........................................................................................46
a.
Tanks..........................................................................................................46
b.
Noncontact Surfaces ..................................................................................46
c.
Gaskets and Seals.......................................................................................46
2.
Fabrication .............................................................................................................47
a.
Outer Shell .................................................................................................47
b.
Outlets........................................................................................................47
c.
Manhole Opening and Covers ...................................................................47
d.
Baffles ........................................................................................................47
e.
Cabinets......................................................................................................47
D.
Water Loading Stations......................................................................................................47
E.
Transfer Tubing .................................................................................................................48
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page x

 
IV.
VENDED WATER SYSTEMS
...................................................................................................49
A.
General...............................................................................................................................49
B.
Coverage ............................................................................................................................49
C.
Sources...............................................................................................................................49
D.
Vending Machine Design ..................................................................................................49
1.
Exterior ..................................................................................................................49
a.
Materials ....................................................................................................50
b.
Surfaces......................................................................................................50
c.
Doors and Covers.......................................................................................50
d.
Ventilation Openings .................................................................................50
e.
Water Vending Openings...........................................................................50
f.
Service Connections...................................................................................50
2.
Interior....................................................................................................................50
a.
Materials ....................................................................................................50
b.
Accessibility...............................................................................................51
c.
Water Reservoirs........................................................................................51
d.
Water Supply System.................................................................................51
e.
Waste Containers .......................................................................................51
f.
Protection of Source Water Supply............................................................51
g.
Drains.........................................................................................................51
h.
Drainage to Sewers ....................................................................................52
E.
Treatment ...........................................................................................................................52
1.
Filters .....................................................................................................................52
2.
Activated Carbon ...................................................................................................52
3.
Disinfection............................................................................................................52
a.
Ultraviolet Radiation..................................................................................52
b.
Ozone .........................................................................................................52
F.
Machine Location ..............................................................................................................53
G.
Machine Markings .............................................................................................................53
V.
RETAIL WATER FACILITIES
................................................................................................54
A.
General...............................................................................................................................54
B.
Coverage ............................................................................................................................54
C.
Sources of Supply ..............................................................................................................54
D.
Buildings and Facilities......................................................................................................54
1.
Siting......................................................................................................................54
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xi

2.
Facility Design and Construction...........................................................................54
a.
General.......................................................................................................54
b.
Bottle Washing Area..................................................................................55
c.
Container Storage and Chemical Storage ..................................................55
(1)
Retail Containers............................................................................55
(2)
Chemicals.......................................................................................55
d.
Ventilation..................................................................................................55
e.
Lighting......................................................................................................56
f.
Sanitary Facilities.......................................................................................56
E.
Treatment ...........................................................................................................................56
F.
Equipment ..........................................................................................................................57
1.
Materials of Construction ......................................................................................57
2.
Storage Tanks.........................................................................................................57
3.
Sanitizing Systems .................................................................................................57
a.
Steam in an Enclosed System ....................................................................57
b.
Hot Water in an Enclosed System ............................................................57
c.
Chemical Sanitizers ...................................................................................57
4.
Rinse Facilities.......................................................................................................58
G.
Containers and Closures ....................................................................................................58
1.
Containers ..............................................................................................................58
2.
Closures..................................................................................................................58
H.
Tanker Trucks ....................................................................................................................58
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xii

TABLES
Table III-I.1 Frequency of water-level measurements for the production well and
observation points during an aquifer test ......................................................13
Table III-I.2 DEP Regional Offices ...................................................................................39
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xiii

 
APPENDIX A: OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
I.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BOTTLED WATER
Page
A.
General...............................................................................................................................59
B.
Records ..............................................................................................................................59
1.
Plant and Equipment ..............................................................................................59
2.
Operation................................................................................................................59
3.
Chemicals...............................................................................................................60
4.
Personnel................................................................................................................60
5.
Emergency Response .............................................................................................60
C.
Buildings and Grounds ......................................................................................................60
1.
Buildings................................................................................................................60
2.
Grounds..................................................................................................................61
D.
Sanitary Operations............................................................................................................62
E.
Processes and Controls ......................................................................................................62
1.
Treatment of Product Water...................................................................................62
a.
Distillation..................................................................................................62
b.
Ion Exchange
(1)
Cation Unit.....................................................................................63
(2)
Anion Unit .....................................................................................63
c.
Maintenance of Filters ...............................................................................64
d.
Maintenance of UV Systems .....................................................................64
e.
Maintenance of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Units ...........................................64
(1)
Fouling of Membrane ....................................................................64
(2)
Temperature of Feed Water ...........................................................65
(3)
Pressures ........................................................................................65
(4)
Monitoring RO Systems ................................................................65
2.
Equipment Maintenance ........................................................................................65
3.
Containers ..............................................................................................................65
4.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Solutions.........................................................................66
5.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Bottling Room ................................................................66
6.
Sanitizing Operations.............................................................................................67
a.
Sanitizing Bottles .......................................................................................67
b.
Sanitizing Capper, Bottle Shield and Filler Spout .....................................67
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xiv

 
c.
Sanitizing Floor of Bottling Room ............................................................68
(1)
Materials ........................................................................................68
(2)
Procedure .......................................................................................68
7.
Filling, Capping, or Sealing ...................................................................................68
8.
Quality Assurance Procedures ...............................................................................69
9.
Packaging Processes ..............................................................................................69
10.
Storage Facilities....................................................................................................69
F.
Personnel............................................................................................................................70
1.
Cleanliness .............................................................................................................70
2.
Disease Control......................................................................................................71
3.
Education and Training..........................................................................................71
4.
Supervision ............................................................................................................71
5.
Activities................................................................................................................71
6.
Sanitizing Hands ....................................................................................................71
II.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR VENDED WATER
SYSTEMS
A.
General...............................................................................................................................72
B.
Machine Location ..............................................................................................................72
C.
Employee Training.............................................................................................................72
D.
Operations and Maintenance Plan .....................................................................................72
E.
Service and Maintenance ...................................................................................................73
1.
Maintenance Schedule ...........................................................................................73
a.
General Internal Cleaning ..........................................................................73
b.
Check Operational Parameters...................................................................73
c.
General External Cleaning.........................................................................74
F.
Sampling ............................................................................................................................74
III.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BULK WATER
HAULERS
A.
General...............................................................................................................................76
B.
Operations..........................................................................................................................76
C.
Records ..............................................................................................................................76
D.
Storage Tanks.....................................................................................................................76
1.
Storage Tanks.........................................................................................................76
2.
Maintaining Tanks .................................................................................................77
3.
Cleaning/Sanitizing Tanks .....................................................................................77
4.
Cleaning Tank Air Vent Filters..............................................................................78
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xv

 
E.
Bulk Transport and Transfer Procedures ...........................................................................78
1.
Sanitation ...............................................................................................................78
2.
Fluid Transfer.........................................................................................................79
IV.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR RETAIL WATER
FACILITIES
A.
General...............................................................................................................................80
B.
Records ..............................................................................................................................80
1.
Facility and Equipment ..........................................................................................80
2.
Operation................................................................................................................80
3.
Chemicals...............................................................................................................80
4.
Personnel................................................................................................................81
5.
Emergency Response .............................................................................................81
C.
Buildings and Grounds ......................................................................................................81
1.
Buildings................................................................................................................81
2.
Grounds..................................................................................................................82
D.
Sanitary Operations............................................................................................................82
E.
Processes and Controls ......................................................................................................82
1.
Treatment of Product Water...................................................................................82
2.
Equipment Maintenance ........................................................................................82
3.
Containers and Washing Equipment......................................................................83
4.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Solutions.........................................................................83
5.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Bottling Area ..................................................................83
6.
Sanitizing Operations.............................................................................................83
a.
Sanitizing Containers .................................................................................83
b.
Sanitizing Capper, Bottle Shield and Filler Spout .....................................84
c.
Sanitizing Floor of Filling Area.................................................................84
(1)
Materials ........................................................................................84
(2)
Procedure .......................................................................................84
7.
Filling, Capping, or Sealing ...................................................................................84
8.
Quality Assurance Procedures ...............................................................................85
9.
Packaging...............................................................................................................85
10.
Storage Facilities....................................................................................................86
F.
Personnel............................................................................................................................86
1.
Cleanliness .............................................................................................................86
2.
Disease Control......................................................................................................87
3.
Education and Training..........................................................................................87
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xvi

4.
Sanitizing Hands ....................................................................................................87
G.
Operations and Maintenance Plan .....................................................................................87
H.
Service and Maintenance ...................................................................................................88
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page xvii

INTRODUCTION
DEP Rules and Regulations at Title 25 Pa. Code Chapter 109, Safe Drinking Water, include definitions
for bottled water systems, bulk water hauling systems, vended water systems and retail water facilities.
Subchapter J of Chapter 109 contains regulations, which apply specifically to these systems. Because
many drinking water standards are established based on the consumption of 2 liters of water per day,
DEP intends to regulate as bottled water systems only those systems, which provide water in one-half
gallon (1.9 liter) or larger containers. Smaller containers generally are used to market beverages or
pharmaceuticals and are regulated under other state and federal food and drug laws. Vending machines
are not exempt under this interpretation due to the lack of control over the volume of drinking water
obtained by the customer.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 1

 
I.
APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to outline the design requirements and permit application
procedures which are to be followed when applying for bottled water and vended water
systems, retail water facilities and bulk water hauling systems (BVRB) permits. Design
and construction standards which DEP considers to be acceptable for these systems have
been provided in the subsequent chapters of Part III. Other designs will be considered
where the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of DEP that the alternative design
will be capable of providing drinking water that consistently meets DEP standards.
B.
Permit Requirements
Under the provisions of Subchapter J, Section 109.1005 of the Safe Drinking Water
regulations, a person may not construct or operate a BVRB without first obtaining a
permit from DEP. Furthermore, no person may substantially modify a BVRB operated
under a public water system permit without first obtaining a permit amendment from
DEP.
1.
Coverage
The following projects must be submitted to DEP for review and approval:
a.
All facilities of any new BVRB
b.
Any addition to or modification of an existing BVRB which will or may
affect the quality and/or quantity of the supply. The following major
modifications require the submission of a complete permit application as
outlined in Section I.E. Minor modifications must be discussed with the
appropriate regional water supply engineer to determine the extent of the
information, which must be submitted to obtain DEP approval
Major Modifications
Minor Modifications
New sources
Changes in treatment chemicals
New types of product or product lines
Interconnections for bulk water
Additions or deletions of treatment
techniques or processes
Replacement of storage tank or reservoir
linings/coatings
Addition of vending machines not certified
by the National Automatic Merchandising
Association (NAMA)
Addition or modification of bulk carrier
vehicles and standpipes
Pumping stations (except for well pumps)
Construction of prefabricated storage
tanks
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Major Modifications
Minor Modifications
Storage reservoirs
Transmission mains
Permit transfers
Repair of water vending machines and
addition of a new NAMA certified
machine
c.
Persons proposing to install National Automatic Merchandising
Association (NAMA) certified water vending machines on an existing
community water system source shall obtain a separate and distinct
permit-by-rule for each DEP region in which the water vending machines
will be located. Refer to Section I.F.
2.
Application Fees
Applications for a permit or for a major modification as outlined in Section I.B.1.
must be accompanied by a check in the amount of $750, payable to the
“Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.”
A system purchasing finished water, as its
only source of water, from an approved community water system, shall submit a
fee of $300. Out-of-state bottled water systems submitting proof of out-of-state
approval must submit a fee of $100.
3.
Construction and Operation Permits
In administering the permit requirements of DEP Safe Drinking Water
regulations, the Bureau of Water Standards and Facility Regulation have
implemented a two-part approval process. Upon approval of the plans, modules
and other design documents, a construction permit will be issued approving the
construction or modification in accordance with the approved plans. Upon
completion, the public water supplier is required to submit a certificate of
construction completion to DEP stating that construction or modification was
completed in accordance with approved plans. This statement must be signed by
the professional engineer or other person responsible for the work. Upon receipt
of the certification, DEP will inspect the facility and issue an operations permit
when the construction has been satisfactorily completed.
4.
Revisions to Approved Plans
Any deviations from approved plans or specifications affecting capacity,
hydraulic conditions, operating units, the functioning of water treatment
processes, or the quality of finished water must be approved by DEP before such
changes are made. Revised plans or specifications should be submitted in time to
allow the review and approval of such plans or specifications before any
construction work, which will be affected by such changes, is begun.
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5.
DEP’s Review and Permit Coordination
Under the requirements of the DEP Money Back Guarantee permitting program,
DEP will issue PWS permits within 180 days of receipt of an application. This
time limit includes 20 days for the administrative completeness review, 80 days
for the first technical review, 50 days for the second technical review (if needed),
and 30 days for the permit issuance. The time limits will be consecutive calendar
days, which will include weekends and holidays. These time limits will not
include applicant’s response times for any deficiencies. If DEP does not have a
permit issued to an acceptable applicant within the maximum time limit of
180 days, then DEP will refund the application fee. As other department, state or
inter-state environmental agencies may require approvals, applicants and their
consultant engineers are advised to hold a preliminary engineering conference
with the regional water supply engineer to identify and coordinate these
approvals. Failure to satisfy any permit coordination requirements could result in
the refusal of an application or the denial of a permit. Delays due to coordination
will not be included in the DEP’s 180-day schedule.
6.
Chemicals and Materials
Under the requirements of Section 109.606 of the Safe Drinking Water
regulations, all chemicals or materials (i.e., paints, coatings, liners, etc.) which
may come in contact with the raw or finished drinking water must be acceptable
to DEP. Chemicals used by a public water supplier which may come in contact
with or affect the quality of the water and which are certified for conformance
with ANSI/NSF Standard 60 (Drinking Water Treatment Components, Health
Effects, National Sanitation Foundation) are acceptable.
Materials to be used in construction or modification of a public water system,
including waterline extensions, which may come in contact with or affect the
quality of the water and which are certified for conformance with ANSI/NSF
Standard 61 (Drinking Water System Components, Health Effects, National
Sanitation Foundation) are acceptable.
C.
Source Development and Construction
It is DEP policy to require the use of the best available source(s) of supply, taking into
consideration the current technology in water treatment needed, to provide safe and
potable water for human consumption. In selecting the source or sources of water to be
developed, the designing engineer and licensed professional geologist, where appropriate,
must prove to the satisfaction of DEP, that the water which is to be delivered to the
consumers will consistently meet the drinking water standards of DEP.
1.
Sampling and Analysis of Proposed Sources
One of the prerequisites for achieving a sound water supply system is a thorough
water quality monitoring program. This includes collecting and analyzing a
sufficient number of water samples to be able to predict the source water quality
under various flow and weather conditions.
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a.
Surface Water Sources
Three sets of samples shall be taken for each parameter listed in the New
Source Sampling Requirements for Surface Water Sources. Sample
collection should be spaced such that high, average, and low stream flows
will be evaluated. Samples shall be taken over a minimum time interval of
six months and preferably one year.
b.
Groundwater Sources
At least one set of samples shall be collected at the termination of the
aquifer test for the parameters listed in
New Source Sampling
Requirements for Groundwater Sources for Community and Nontransient
Noncommunity Water Systems,
DEP ID: 383-3130-208, available on
DEP’s Web site at www.depweb.state.pa.us
.
Applicants or their
consultant must notify their regional Water Supply Management’s
Technical Services Section at least two weeks prior to starting the aquifer
test. Applicants are further advised to contact their respective river basin
commission to verify the length of the aquifer test.
c.
Spring Sources, Infiltration Galleries, Ranney Wells
Sampling shall be spaced over a minimum of one year, and include the
following:
(1)
Testing for all required water quality parameters for groundwater.
Two sets of samples must be taken, and include both high flow and
low flow periods.
(2)
Daily spring discharge (in gallons per day) and daily precipitation
(to tenths of an inch) for one year.
(3)
A minimum of six months of monitoring according to
Surface
Water Identification Protocol (SWIP)
, DEP ID: 383-3500-112,
available on DEP’s Web site. A monitoring plan must be approved
before data collection.
(4)
Additional testing may be required.
d.
Karst Sources
If the groundwater source draws from a Karst aquifer, dry trace studies
may be required since they are the most appropriate method for
determining hydrogeologic characteristics.
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e.
Finished Water Sources
For radionuclides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Synthetic
Organic Chemicals (SOCs) and Inorganic Compounds (IOCs), the
applicant may submit the most recent results of analyses obtained from the
selling water system, provided the analyses were conducted within the
appropriate monitoring schedule and conducted by a DEP-certified
laboratory. However, the applicant must provide for their own sampling
and analysis of turbidity, total coliforms, and total trihalomethanes.
f.
Sample Collection
In order to achieve reliable results, proper collection, preparation and
storage of the water samples and use of proper sample collecting
equipment and techniques is critical. For this reason, water samples shall
be collected by a person properly trained by a laboratory certified by DEP
for the parameters being tested. For example, the person collecting the
VOC sample would require proper training from the lab performing the
VOC sample.
g.
Sample Analysis
Contact the Bureau of Water Standards and Facility Regulation,
P. O. Box 8467, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8467 or your regional office (see
Table III-I.2) for the current list of DEP’s Maximum Contaminant Levels.
Other parameters which a sanitary survey may determine as having a
potentially adverse impact on the quality of raw water also should be
included in the analyses.
All analyses must be performed by a laboratory certified by DEP, except
for those that may be performed by a person meeting the requirements of
§109.304(c) of Chapter 109.
2.
Surface Water Sources
Surface water sources are defined as all water open to the atmosphere or subject
to surface runoff, or sources which are directly influenced by surface water which
may include springs, infiltration galleries, cribs or wells. The term excludes
finished water.
Direct influence by surface water is determined on a case-by-case basis. Direct
influence may be indicated by:
Significant and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics, such as
turbidity, temperature, conductivity, or pH (which also may change in
groundwater, but at a much slower rate) which closely correlate to
climatological or surface water conditions.
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The presence of insects or other microorganisms, algae, organic debris, or
large-diameter pathogens such as
Giardia lamblia
as determined by a
microscopic particulate analysis.
a.
Source Quantity
The quantity of water at the source shall:
(1)
Be adequate to provide ample water for other legal users of the
source.
(2)
Where water is drawn from an impounding reservoir or lake, the
yield of the reservoir or lake should exceed the estimated future
average daily demands for the critical duration of a drought having
a recurrence interval of 50 years. Allowances should be made for
required water releases, evaporation, seepage and siltation losses.
b.
Source Quality
A sanitary survey and study shall be made of the factors, both natural and
manmade, which will affect the quality of the water at the source. The
results of the sanitary survey shall be submitted to DEP. Such survey and
study shall include, but not be limited to:
(1)
Obtaining samples over a sufficient period of time to assess the
bacteriological, physical, chemical and radiological characteristics
of the water.
(2)
Determining future uses and effects of impoundments or
reservoirs.
(3)
Determining the degree of control over the watershed that can be
exercised by the owner.
(4)
Assessing the degree of hazard or vulnerability to the supply by
agricultural, recreational, and residential activities in the
watershed, and by accidental or deliberate spillage of materials that
may be toxic, harmful or detrimental to treatment processes.
c.
Structures
(1)
Intakes
Intake structures shall:
(a)
Be designed to handle the maximum anticipated daily
demand with due consideration to operation under
minimum head conditions throughout the design period.
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(b)
Intakes at pumping stations shall be protected by at least
two sets of removable, stationary screens, or by a traveling
screen. Screen openings shall be small enough to exclude
all matter which will clog.
(c)
Have protection against clogging by sediment, debris or
ice, and against damage due to wave action and flotation.
(d)
Have a velocity of flow through the inlet structure such that
frazil ice will be held to a minimum, generally not to
exceed 0.5 feet per second.
(e)
Have inspection manholes every 1,000 feet for pipe sizes
large enough to have visual inspections.
(f)
Be able to withdraw water from more than one level if
quality varies with depth.
(g)
Have separate facilities for release of less desirable water
held in storage.
(h)
Be accessible during adverse weather conditions.
(2)
Raw Water Pumping Wells
Raw water pumping well intakes shall:
(a)
Have motors and electrical controls located above grade
and preferably above the 100-year flood level.
(b)
Be accessible during all adverse weather conditions.
(c)
Be designed against flotation.
(d)
Be equipped with removable or traveling screens before
pump suction well.
(e)
Provide for introduction of chlorine or other chemicals in
the raw water transmission main if necessary for quality
control.
(f)
Have intake valves and provisions for backflushing or
cleaning by a mechanical device and testing for leaks
where practical.
(g)
Have provisions for withstanding surges where necessary.
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d.
Impoundments and Reservoirs
(1)
Site Selection
Site selection shall give consideration to:
(a)
Topography and geology.
(b)
Storage capacity required.
(c)
Safety.
(d)
Water rights.
(e)
Raw water characteristics.
(f)
Proximity to sources of pollution.
(g)
Accessibility during adverse weather conditions.
e.
Site Preparation
Site preparation shall provide:
(1)
Removal of brush and trees to a level of ten feet above the
anticipated high water elevation.
(2)
Protection from floods during construction.
f.
Site Construction
Where earth disturbance will occur, an Erosion Control Plan must be
developed and retained at the construction site for the duration of the
earthmoving activities.
3.
Groundwater Sources
Groundwater includes all water from dug, drilled, bored, jetted or driven wells;
infiltration galleries; or springs. Groundwater sources that are directly influenced
by surface water are classified as surface sources and will require treatment as a
surface source.
a.
Aquifer Testing
(1)
Purpose
A properly designed constant-rate (also referred to as constant-
discharge) aquifer test shall be conducted on any well proposed as
a new BVRB source in order to adequately define the hydraulic
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characteristics of the aquifer and well. Data from the test shall be
subject to appropriate analysis to demonstrate the suitability of the
well as a long-term source of public drinking water including,
when necessary, the evaluation of significant potential impacts
from the groundwater withdrawal. The analysis and interpretation
of the test shall be performed by a licensed professional geologist
licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a component of
the hydrogeologic report described in Section I.C.3.c. The results
derived from properly conducted and analyzed aquifer tests will
also provide water suppliers with the data necessary to support
informed decision-making on water supply management and
planning issues.
As provided in the regulations, these procedures may be altered at
the discretion of the DEP for wells or wellfields that will be
pumping less than 100,000 gallons per day. For water supply
systems proposing to withdraw greater than 10,000 gallons per
day, appropriate River Basin Commission regulations may also
apply.
(2)
Design
Proper design implies that sufficient planning is undertaken to
ensure that the test will provide acceptable results for the
anticipated site conditions. A conceptual understanding of the
hydrogeologic setting of the site is required to design and interpret
aquifer test results. Information necessary to develop a conceptual
model includes the lithology, depth, thickness, position, extent and
structural trends of the water-bearing formations and confining
strata; the nature and location of hydrologic boundaries; and the
regional hydrogeologic framework. Evaluation of impacts on
other water resources from the proposed withdrawal must also be
factored into the design of the test.
(3)
Observation Points
In order to allow data analysis by time-drawdown and distance-
drawdown methods, the use of appropriate observation wells is
required for aquifer tests. An observation point may be an existing
well with appropriate construction that is not being pumped during
the aquifer test or a well constructed for the sole purpose of
obtaining water-level measurements.
At least two observation points are required although it is strongly
recommended that a minimum of three be used as this will
generally provide a more representative test and result in a better
final analysis. Situations involving vertical leakage, hydrogeologic
boundaries or withdrawal impacts may warrant the use of more.
The observation points should generally have screened or open
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intervals similar to the production well. If hydraulic connection
between different formations is a concern, there should also be
observation points that are screened above or below the producing
aquifer as appropriate.
Observation points should be located at increasing distances from
the pumping well so that at least one logarithmic cycle of distance-
drawdown data is provided. A typical spacing would be
approximately 100, 400 and 1,000 feet from the production well.
Alignment will generally vary depending on the location of
boundaries and type of aquifer. Actual distances and orientation of
observation points relative to the production well may be
constrained by topographic limitations or land availability. In
anisotropic aquifers, no two observation points should be radially
aligned with the pumping well.
The effect of withdrawal on nearby wells, springs, wetlands,
streams or other surface or subsurface water features should also
be monitored. As appropriate, water levels in wells should be
monitored and any available information (owner, construction
details, depth, diameter, geology etc.) should be included. Surface-
water bodies with no outflow such as ponds and wetlands should
be monitored via staff gages or piezometers. A piezometer may be
installed adjacent to the surface water body being monitored, if the
screened interval is representative of the material underlying the
surface water body. Surface-water bodies with outflow such as
streams, ponds or wetlands should be monitored in both the
upstream and downstream directions via weirs, flumes, stilling
wells and/or piezometers. Spring flow or stage should be
monitored utilizing weirs, flumes, and piezometers to characterize
the hydrogeologic effect of withdrawal.
(4)
Testing Procedures
A successful aquifer test requires knowledge of the antecedent
water-level trend, a carefully controlled constant pumping rate and
accurate measurements of water levels in the production well and
observation points at appropriate time intervals during both
drawdown and recovery periods.
The test should be scheduled to avoid heavy rain events or
subsequent rapid changes in water table elevation. Two-week
advance notification must be given to the DEP to allow the
scheduling of water-quality samples and a microscopic particulate
analysis at the termination of the test.
Adequate planning and design shall allow for the constant-rate
aquifer test to be conducted on a properly constructed and
developed production well according to these procedures:
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(a)
Prior to the test, background water-level measurements
shall be taken from the production well, all observation
points and other water resources of concern at 3-hour
intervals over at least a 72-hour period to establish natural
water-level trends. If possible, the effects from other
pumping wells in the area should be controlled by having
them turned off or by maintaining the pumping at a
constant rate during the test. Especially for confined
aquifers, antecedent barometric pressure should also be
recorded preferably on site at the same frequency as the
water levels.
(b)
A step-drawdown test and analysis shall be performed to
determine a sustainable pumping rate for the aquifer test.
There should be at least three successive equal stages of
increased pumping. At each step, the pumping rate is held
constant generally for one hour to assess drawdown
response. The pumping rate is increased at a constant
fraction (e.g., increments of one-third for three steps) with
the last step having a rate equal to the desired production
rate. Drawdown in the pumping well should be recorded
every five minutes during each step. When a step-
drawdown test is performed prior to the aquifer test, water
levels must be allowed to recover to at least 90 percent of
the original pre-pumping level. The constant-rate aquifer
test may not be a continuation of the last step of the step-
drawdown test.
(c)
The production well shall be pumped at the rate indicated
by the step-drawdown test and discharge must be kept
within five percent of the constant rate. The well will not
be permitted for a pumping rate greater than the sustainable
constant rate. The discharge rate must be checked
frequently at the beginning of the test and periodically
throughout the test. Significant variations in pumping rates
may be grounds for rejecting the results of an aquifer test.
The discharge must be conveyed away from the pumping
well, observation wells and other monitoring points to
prevent artificial recharge of the aquifer. Proper erosion
and sedimentation controls shall be utilized and any
necessary discharge approvals shall be obtained prior to
pumping.
(d)
Barometric pressure and any precipitation amounts should
be recorded on-site at a frequency of every three hours
beginning 72 hours before the test and throughout the test
and recovery period. Any changes in these measurements
should be factored into the aquifer drawdown data analysis.
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(e)
Water levels in the production well and all observation
points shall be accurately measured to the nearest 0.01 foot.
Drawdown shall be reported in decimal feet. More
frequent measurements are critical during the early part of
the test as water levels generally decline rapidly. A sample
48-Hour
Constant-Rate Aquifer Test Form
(3800-FM-WSFR0087) and
Aquifer Test Recovery Data
Form
(3800-FM-WSFR0088) should be used to provide the
raw data from the test. These forms are available on DEP’s
Web site. If automated recording devices are used, manual
measurements should be performed occasionally as a check
and to provide back-up measurements in the event of
equipment malfunctions. Loss of data from recording
system malfunctions and no back-up measurements may be
grounds for rejecting the results of an aquifer test. For
other water resources of concern such as wetlands, ponds
and streams, water levels or flows shall be recorded at least
every three hours throughout the test or as pre-approved by
DEP.
Table III-I.1. Frequency of water-level measurements for the
production well and observation points during an aquifer test
Time Since Pumping Started
Time Between Measurements
0-10 minutes
1 minute
10-30 minutes
5 minutes
30 minutes-1 hour
10 minutes
1-6 hours
30 minutes
6-24 hours
1 hour
24 hours-termination
2 hours
(f)
The duration of the aquifer test for confined aquifers shall
be a minimum of 48 hours if sufficient information is
available prior to the test to demonstrate the aquifer is
confined. Boundary conditions may require additional
monitoring. For unconfined aquifers (such as most
fractured-bedrock aquifers), the length of the aquifer test
will be a minimum of 48 hours. A longer test may be
required to evaluate aquifer boundary conditions and well
capabilities, as well as potential impacts to existing water
supplies and the environment. All tests should be
continued until drawdown has relatively stabilized.
(g)
At the conclusion of the aquifer test, water samples shall be
collected from the production well for chemical analysis in
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accordance with DEP’s
New Source Sampling
Requirements for Groundwater Sources for Community and
Nontransient Noncommunity Water Systems,
DEP ID: 383-3130-208. Also, a Microscopic Particulate
Analysis (MPA) may be required if Surface Water
Identification Protocol criteria is met.
(h)
After termination of the test, water-level recovery in the
production well and observation points shall be recorded on
the
Aquifer Test Recovery Data Form
, using the same
frequency for drawdown measurements, with the time that
pumping stops as the starting time. For other water
resources of concern, water levels or flows shall be
recorded every three hours. The recovery period must be
monitored for at least 24 hours or until water levels have
recovered by 90 percent, whichever is longer.
b.
Analysis and Interpretation
Various methods for the analysis of aquifer tests are available and are
discussed in numerous textbooks and other publications. The selection of
a method to analyze the data and subsequently interpret the results
requires an understanding of the hydrogeologic system and the underlying
assumptions of the analytical method. A licensed professional geologist
licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania shall perform the analysis
and interpretation of an aquifer test. The components of the
hydrogeologic report are described in Section I.C.3.c. The analysis and
interpretation of aquifer test data shall include:
(1)
All data collected during the aquifer test. Include pre-test,
drawdown and recovery phases for the production well and all
observation points. As appropriate, drawdown and recovery data
should be corrected to compensate for any significant external
influences (barometric pressure, tides, etc.).
(2)
Plots of step test-drawdown (semi-log), time-drawdown (log-log
and semi-log), distance-drawdown (semi-log), time-recovery
(semi-log) and any other relevant plots including a copy of any
type curves and match points that are used in the analysis. Log-
log plots utilizing dimensionless drawdown and time [W(u) and
1/u] must also be plotted in terms of time and drawdown.
(3)
Determination of aquifer transmissivity and storage coefficient
using a method best suited for the conceptual model of the site.
Evaluation of the data using several methods may be necessary.
The analysis should include method selected, justification of the
method and how well the assumptions implicit to that method
apply. Apparent boundary effects should also be identified and
discussed. Equations used (including units) and calculations must
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be provided. Analysis of recovery data should not be overlooked
as it can provide a check on the results obtained from the pumping
data.
(4)
Determination of the hydraulic conductivity, specific capacity and
estimation of the zone of influence (horizontal extent of the cone
of depression). Various analytical methods are available to
calculate the radius of influence based on certain aquifer
assumptions. The Jacobs distance-drawdown method is one
example.
(5)
Determination of a dependable yield for the well by considering
the drawdown at observation points, available drawdown for the
production well, natural recharge/discharge, any well interference
effects, impacts on other water resources and the hydraulic
characteristics of the aquifer system. The analysis shall include
the effects of 180 days of pumping with no recharge as a severe
drought scenario. For complex situations involving potential
impacts on other water resources, groundwater modeling should
be considered.
(6)
If impacts are noted at observation points, discuss the extent of
impact and how these impacts will be mitigated or remediated.
c.
Hydrogeologic Report
A hydrogeologic report, signed and sealed by a professional geologist
licensed in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, should contain the
following information on each proposed source:
(1)
The geologic setting or conceptual model of the project area with
emphasis on hydrogeologic aspects. Supply appropriate citations
if taken from published literature.
(2)
Stratigraphic log for each well drilled, identifying the following:
(a)
Lithology, color, minerals, grain size and shape, sorting,
nature of contact, fractures and other structural
features, etc.
(b)
All formation changes
(c)
All water bearing zones and associated yields
(d)
Static water level
(3)
As-built cross section for each well, that shows:
(a)
Type, size, weight and depth of all casing(s).
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(b)
Drive shoes and casing centralizers.
(c)
Amount, type and depth of grout.
(d)
Screened intervals/gravel pack.
(e)
Static water level and date measured.
(f)
Depth of production pump setting.
(g)
All water-bearing zones and associated yields.
(4)
A copy of the completed Water Well Inventory Report.
(5)
An Aquifer Test.
The length of the aquifer test will be a minimum of 48 hours. A
longer test may be required to evaluate aquifer and well
capabilities, as well as potential impacts to existing water supplies
and the environment. Aquifer characteristics should be determined
using time and distance-drawdown methods, along with
appropriate justification and discussion. Include:
(a)
Pre-pumping static water level.
(b)
Depth of test pump setting.
(c)
Starting and ending time of test cycle.
(d)
Pumping rate.
(e)
Step-drawdown data and graph.
(f)
Time-drawdown curves for production well and
observation points.
(g)
Time-recovery curves for production well and observation
points.
(h)
Residual drawdown vs. t/t’ recovery analysis.
(i)
Raw drawdown and recovery data from the production well
and all observation points. Include time since pumping
began (in minutes), water elevations (from below ground
level), drawdown (in feet and tenths), and discharge (in
gpm).
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(j)
Distance-drawdown curves using data from a minimum of
two observation points.
(k)
Precipitation events noted on each curve.
(l)
Identification and explanation of irregularities, abrupt slope
changes, etc., in graphs.
(6)
Aquifer characteristics - show equations used and calculations.
(a)
Hydraulic conductivity
(b)
Transmissivity
(c)
Storage coefficient
(d)
Specific capacity
(7)
Dependable source yield with justification.
(8)
Any other information that describes the hydraulic characteristics
of the aquifer and demonstrates the suitability of the proposed
source.
(9)
Proof of the supplier’s ability to control the Zone I wellhead
protection area.
(10)
The following information is required for springs:
(a)
Geological information
1)
Results of discharge and sampling studies
2)
Topographic map of contributing watershed
3)
Description of the vertical and horizontal extent of
the source aquifer
4)
Formation name
5)
Spring type (i.e., diffuse vs. conduit flow; seepage,
fracture, tubular, ebbing and flowing) including
justification/observations
6)
Physical characteristics of spring and immediate
surroundings
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 17

(b)
Construction details should include:
1)
Interception and collection systems.
2)
Diversion structures at spring discharge.
3)
Construction materials and their placement.
4)
Overflow piping.
5)
Surface water diversion structures.
6)
Cleanout drain.
7)
Access to collection system.
8)
Surface catchment and intake structures.
(11)
Include the following sampling results:
(a)
New source sampling for each production source
(b)
Microscopic Particulate Analysis, if applicable
(c)
Any other additional sampling, such as dye trace results,
stream monitoring, SWIP monitoring, etc.
(12)
Discussion of other applicable permits or approvals which may be
required. Include proof of resolution of Pennsylvania Natural
Diversity Inventory conflicts.
(13)
Describe potential impacts that using the new source will, or could
have, on adjacent wetlands, surface water bodies, private or public
wells, springs or other adjacent surface and subsurface water
features. Discuss how the new source is hydraulically connected
to the impacted feature, the anticipated extent of impact, and any
proposed remediation or mitigation. The discussion must meet the
requirements of
Screening Criteria on Water Quality/Quantity
Impacts for Drinking Water Permits
, DEP ID: 383-2131-001,
available on DEP’s Web site.
d.
General Well Construction
(1)
Plumbness and Alignment
Every well shall be tested for plumbness and alignment in
accordance with AWWA’s Standard A100 for Water Wells. The
test method and allowable tolerances shall be clearly stated in the
specifications.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 18

As a minimum, a 40-foot section of pipe or rigid dummy of the
same length, having an outside diameter of not more than ½ inch
less than the inside diameter of the well casing or hole being
tested, should move freely throughout the length of the well casing
or hole to the lowest anticipated pump setting.
(2)
Minimum Protected Depths
All drinking water supply wells and observation wells shall be
constructed to be watertight to such depths as may be necessary to
exclude pollution from surface runoff and from polluted aquifers
above the aquifer being used as a source of supply. In
consolidated rock formations, if steel casing is used, the casing
shall be equipped with a drive shoe and seated by driving it into
the surface of the consolidated formation until a seal is obtained.
If non-ferrous casing is used, it must be seated into the rock for a
length of at least five feet (1.5 meters), and must be cemented in
place. In unconsolidated formations, the permanent casing and
grout shall extend at least 50 feet below original or final ground
elevation, whichever is lower.
(3)
Temporary Casings
Temporary casings used for construction shall be capable of
withstanding the structural load imposed during its installation and
removal.
(4)
Well Casing Material
Protective casing of wrought iron or steel shall have minimum
weights and thickness as specified in AWWA’s Standard A100 for
Water Wells. Well casing material other than wrought iron or steel
must be resistant to the corrosiveness of the water and to the
stresses to which it will be subjected during installation, grouting
and operation. Casing and grouting materials must be compatible.
In general, the criteria established in AWWA’s Standard A100 for
Water Wells should be followed.
(a)
Ferrous casings shall:
1)
Be new pipe meeting American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) or American Petroleum
Institute (API) specifications for water well
construction.
2)
Have additional thickness and weight if minimum
thickness is not considered sufficient to assure
reasonable life expectancy of the well.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 19

3)
Be capable of withstanding forces to which it is
subjected.
4)
Be equipped with a drive shoe when driven.
5)
Have full circumferential welds or threaded pipe
joints.
(b)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) well casing
DEP may approve the use of PVC casing for all or for
limited applications. Where approved, PVC casing, as a
minimum shall:
1)
Be new pipe meeting ASTM F480 and ANSI/NSF
Standard 61 and be appropriately marked.
2)
Have a minimum wall thickness equivalent to SDR
21. Diameters of 8 inches or greater may require
greater thickness to meet collapse strength
requirements.
3)
Not be used at sites where permeation by
hydrocarbons or degradation may occur.
4)
Be properly stored in a clean area free from
exposure to direct sunlight.
5)
Be assembled using couplings or solvent welded
joints. All couplings and solvents shall meet
ANSI/NSF Standard 14, ASTM F480, or similar
requirements.
6)
Not be driven.
(c)
Other nonferrous casing shall meet appropriate
ANSI/ASTM or NSF Standards for well casing
applications as outlined in AWWA’s Standard A100 for
Water Wells. Nonferrous casing materials shall not impart
taste, odor or toxic substances to the well water.
Nonferrous casing, if used, shall not be driven. The casing
shall be placed a minimum of five feet into the consolidated
formation with a minimum annular opening of three inches
larger than the outside diameter of the casing so that grout
can be placed in accordance with Section I.C.3.h.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 20

e.
Packers
Packers shall be of materials that will not impart taste, odor, toxic
substances or bacterial contamination to the well water.
f.
Screens
Well screens, when used, should:
(1)
Provide the maximum amount of open area while still maintaining
structural strength.
(2)
Have the size of openings in the screen based on a sieve analysis of
the material contained in the surrounding geological formation or
gravel pack.
(3)
Be constructed of materials resistant to damage by chemical action
of groundwater or cleaning operations.
(4)
Have sufficient diameter to provide adequate specific capacity and
low aperture velocity. Usually, the entrance velocity should not
exceed 0.1 feet per second.
(5)
Be installed so that the pumping water level remains above the
screen under all operating conditions.
(6)
Be designed and installed to permit removal or replacement
without adversely affecting watertight construction of the well.
(7)
Be provided with a bottom plate or wash down bottom fitting of
the same material as the screen.
g.
Chemical Conditioning
In general, specifications covering the chemical conditioning of wells shall
be submitted to DEP for approval. Chemical conditioning procedures
shall be included in the specifications as to method, equipment, chemicals,
testing for residuals, disposal of wastes and inhibitors used. Chemicals
used during conditioning shall be acceptable to DEP. Chemicals certified
under ANSI/NSF Standard 60 or the United States Pharmacopeia are
deemed acceptable to DEP.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 21

h.
Grouting
All permanent well casing shall be surrounded by a minimum of
1.5 inches of grout the entire length of casing, unless prior approval is
obtained from DEP. Grouting materials shall conform to AWWA
standards.
(1)
Application
(a)
All grouting shall be performed by adding the mixture,
from the bottom of the annular opening upward, in one
continuous operation until the annular opening is filled.
(b)
When the annular opening is less than four inches, grout
shall be installed under pressure by means of a grout pump
in one continuous operation.
(c)
After grouting is applied, work on the well shall be
discontinued until the grout has properly set.
(d)
Alternate methods may be approved by DEP on a case-by-
case basis.
(2)
Guides
The protective casing must be provided with sufficient guides
welded to the casing to permit unobstructed flow and uniform
thickness of grout.
i.
Upper Terminal Well Construction
(1)
Casing length shall extend 18 inches above final grade or well
house floor, whichever is greater.
(2)
Where a well house is constructed, the floor surface shall be at
least six inches above the final ground elevation.
(3)
The top of the well casing at sites subject to flooding should
terminate at least three feet above the highest known flood
elevation, or as may be directed by DEP.
(4)
Wells shall not be constructed in pits.
j.
Well Development
Every well shall be developed to remove the native silts and clays, drilling
mud and/or the finer fraction of the gravel pack. Development should
continue until the maximum specific capacity is obtained from the
completed well.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 22

k.
Capping
A welded metal plate or bolted and locked cap shall be the minimum
acceptable method of capping a well. The well shall also be equipped
with a sanitary seal.
l.
Well Abandonment
(1)
All abandoned wells, observation points, and test wells, which are
not to be used, shall be sealed by such methods as necessary to
restore the controlling hydrogeologic conditions which existed
prior to construction. The well abandonment procedures outlined
in AWWA’s Standard A100 for Water Wells and DEP’s
Groundwater Monitoring Guidance Manual
,
DEP ID: 383-3000-001, available on DEP’s Web site, should be
followed. An abandonment plan should be submitted and
approved prior to well abandonment.
4.
Special Construction Methods
a.
Radial Water Collectors
(1)
Locations of all caisson construction joints and porthole assemblies
shall be indicated.
(2)
The caisson wall shall be reinforced to withstand the forces to
which it will be subjected.
(3)
Provisions shall be made to assure that radial collectors are
essentially horizontal.
(4)
The top of the caisson shall be covered with a watertight floor.
(5)
All openings in the floor shall be curbed and protected from
entrance of foreign material.
(6)
The pump discharge pipe shall not be placed through the caisson
walls.
b.
Infiltration Galleries
(1)
Infiltration galleries may be considered only where geological
conditions preclude the possibility of developing an acceptable
drilled well.
(2)
The area around infiltration galleries shall be under the control of
the water supplier for a distance acceptable to DEP.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 23

(3)
Flow in the lines shall be by gravity to the collecting well.
(4)
Water from infiltration galleries shall be considered as
groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GUDI)
unless demonstrated otherwise.
c.
Dug Wells
A dug well may not be used as a source of supply for a BVRB system.
d.
Artesian Wells
(1)
Flow from a naturally flowing artesian well shall be controlled.
(2)
Casing shall be set in the impermeable (confining) layer.
(3)
The well shall be pressure grouted to ensure a proper seal around
the casing.
(4)
Pitless adapters shall be welded or screwed onto the casing.
Compression fittings shall not be used.
5.
Well Pumps, Discharge Piping and Appurtenances
a.
Line Shaft Pumps
Wells equipped with line shaft pumps shall:
(1)
Have the pump structure effectively sealed to the well casing to
prevent entrance of surface water.
(2)
Have the casing firmly connected to the pump structure or have the
casing inserted into a recess extending at least ½ inch into the
pump base.
(3)
Have the pump foundation and base designed to prevent water
from coming into contact with the joint.
b.
Submersible Pumps
Where a submersible pump is used:
(1)
The top of the casing shall be effectively sealed against the
entrance of water under all conditions of vibration or movement of
conductors or cables.
(2)
The electrical cable should be firmly attached to the riser pipe at
20-foot intervals.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 24

c.
Discharge Piping
(1)
Discharge piping shall:
(a)
Have control valves and appurtenances located above the
pump house floor when an above ground discharge is
provided.
(b)
Be protected against the entrance of contamination.
(c)
Be equipped with a check valve (in addition to any check
valve within the well), a shutoff valve, a pressure gauge, a
means of measuring flow, and a smooth nosed sampling tap
located at a point where positive pressure is maintained.
(d)
Where applicable, be equipped with an air release-vacuum
relief valve located upstream from the check valve, with
exhaust/relief piping terminating in a downturned position
at least 18 inches above the floor and covered with a
24-mesh corrosion resistant screen.
(e)
Be valved to permit test pumping and control of each well.
(f)
Have all exposed piping, valves and appurtenances
protected against physical damage and freezing.
(g)
Be properly anchored to prevent movement.
(h)
Be protected against surge or water hammer.
(2)
The discharge piping should be provided with a means of pumping
to waste, but shall not be directly connected to a sewer. Piping and
valves should be installed in a manner that allows pumping of the
well to waste at the permitted rate while not affecting the status of
other permitted sources.
d.
Pitless Well Units
(1)
Pitless units shall:
(a)
Be shop-fabricated from the point of connection with the
well casing to the unit cap or cover.
(b)
Be threaded or welded to the well casing, or use
compression fittings certified by the Water Systems
Council under Recommended Standards (PAS-1).
(c)
Be of watertight construction throughout.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 25

(d)
Be of materials and weight at least equivalent and
compatible to the casing.
(e)
Have field connection to the lateral discharge from the
pitless unit of threaded, flanged or mechanical joint
connection.
(f)
Terminate at least 18 inches above final ground elevation,
or three feet above the highest known flood elevation,
whichever is higher, or as DEP directs.
(2)
The design of the pitless unit shall make provision for:
(a)
Access to disinfect the well.
(b)
A properly constructed casing vent meeting the
requirements of Section I.C.5.e.
(c)
A cover at the upper terminal of the well that will prevent
the entrance of contamination.
(d)
A contamination-proof entrance connection for electrical
cable.
(e)
An inside diameter as great as that of the well casing, up to
and including casing diameters of 12 inches, to facilitate
work and repair on the well, pump, or well screen.
(f)
At least one check valve within the well casing.
(3)
If the connection to the casing is by field weld, the shop-assembled
unit must be designed specifically for field welding to the casing.
The only field welding permitted will be that needed to connect a
pitless unit to the casing.
(4)
The grouting of wells using pitless well units shall conform to the
applicable criteria of Sections I.C.3.h. and I.C.4 except that grout
shall only be placed to a level immediately below the point where
the adapter is connected to the well casing.
e.
Casing Vents
Provisions shall be made for venting the well casing to the atmosphere.
The vent shall terminate in a down turned position, at or above the top of
the casing or pitless unit, no less than 18 inches above grade or floor or
three feet above the highest known flood elevation, whichever is higher, or
as DEP directs. The vent shall have a minimum 1.5 inch diameter opening
covered with a 24-mesh corrosion resistant screen. The pipe connecting
the casing to the vent shall be of adequate size to provide rapid venting of
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 26

the casing. Where vertical turbine pumps are used, vents into the side of
the casing may be necessary to provide adequate well venting. Installation
of these vents shall be in accordance with the requirements of DEP.
f.
Water Level Measurement
(1)
Provisions shall be made for periodic measurement of water levels
in the completed well.
(2)
Installation of permanent water level measuring equipment shall be
made using corrosion resistant materials attached firmly to the
drop pipe or pump column and in such a manner as to prevent
entrance of foreign materials.
g.
Observation Points
Observation points shall be:
(1)
Constructed in accordance with the requirements for permanent
sources if they are to remain in service after completion of a water
supply source.
(2)
Protected at the upper terminus to preclude entrance of foreign
materials.
h.
Wellhead Security
All production and monitoring wells shall be constructed to deter vandals.
At a minimum, all wellheads shall be protected by at least one of the
following:
(1)
Installation of a locked cap.
(2)
Installation of security fencing.
(3)
Enclosure within a lockable building.
D.
Treatment
All treatment processes used in the manufacturing of bottled water or water from vending
machines or retail water facilities are subject to the approval of DEP. DEP recognizes
that the design standards and criteria specified in Chapter 4 of the
Public Water Supply
Manual Part II
, DEP ID: 383-2125-108, available on DEP’s Web site, may not apply to
bottled water and vended water systems or retail water facilities. However, information
on each unit process must be submitted in sufficient detail to allow DEP to adequately
evaluate each water treatment process proposed.
Public Water Supply Modules
,
DEP ID: 3800-FM-WSFR0077, available on DEP’s Web site, is to be used for that
purpose.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 27

1.
Required Treatment
Section 109.605 of Title 25, Pa. Code has established the following minimum
treatment requirements for all new sources and for existing sources whenever a
modification increases available water supply.
a.
Surface Water Sources
(1)
Public water systems shall provide conventional filtration designed
and operated in accordance with standards established in Chapter 4
of the
Public Water Supply Manual Part II
,
DEP ID: 383-2125-108, available on DEP’s Web site.
(2)
DEP may permit the use of direct filtration, slow sand filtration
and diatomaceous earth filtration, if studies, including studies
where appropriate are conducted and demonstrate that the
minimum treatment design standard of a 99 percent removal of
Giardia
cysts, a 99 percent removal of
Cryptosporidium
cysts and
a 99 percent removal of viruses can be achieved consistently,
reliably and practically under appropriate design and operating
conditions.
(3)
Other filtration technologies may be permitted after on-site studies,
including pilot studies where appropriate, demonstrate that the
technology can consistently achieve the minimum treatment design
standard.
(4)
The public water system shall provide disinfection capable of a
total of 99.9 percent inactivation of
Giardia
cysts and a
99.99 percent inactivation of viruses prior to the first user of the
system. The CT factors and measurement methods established by
the EPA are the criteria to be used in determining compliance with
this minimum treatment design standard.
b.
Groundwater Sources
BVRBs shall provide continuous disinfection.
E.
Procedures for Obtaining a Permit
Applications for a bottled water, bulk water hauling, vended water system or retail water
facility permit shall be submitted in writing on forms provided by DEP and be
accompanied by plans, specifications, engineer’s and licensed professional geologist’s
report, water quality analyses and other data, information or documentation reasonably
necessary to enable DEP to adequately evaluate the proposal.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 28

1.
Licensed Professional Engineer and Geologist
The party desiring to construct, add to, or modify a water supply shall engage the
services of a licensed professional engineer who is legally qualified to practice in
Pennsylvania, and who is competent in the design and construction of water
supply facilities. When the proposed source is a groundwater source, the party
shall also engage the services of a licensed professional geologist who is legally
qualified to practice in Pennsylvania. The licensed professional geologist shall be
competent in groundwater source siting and hydrogeological investigations.
2.
Preliminary Conference
A preliminary conference with the regional water supply staff should be held for
projects, which include new sources of supply or treatment facilities. At such a
conference, it will be helpful if the applicant’s engineer and/or licensed
professional geologist is prepared to set forth the water supply problems and the
proposed solution in such a manner as to support their conclusions and
recommendations.
a.
Scope
Subjects appropriate to the project as covered in Section I.E.3.a.,
Engineer’s Report, should be discussed in the preliminary engineering
conference.
b.
Preliminary Plans
Location maps, layout sketches and other illustrative material should be
included.
c.
Preliminary Report
A report presenting the proposed design data should be included in the
material presented in the preliminary conference. If a conference is not
held, it is advisable to submit a preliminary report at least 30 days prior to
preparation of final plans.
d.
Preliminary Hydrogeologic Information
Prior to permitting a new groundwater source, a site survey (physical
inspection) must be performed by the regional water supply
hydrogeologist to determine if the proposed site is suitable. The supplier
shall make reasonable efforts to obtain the highest quality sources
available, and estimate the approximate Zone I wellhead protection area.
If the proposed source is a spring, infiltration gallery, ranney well or crib
intake, the source must undergo surface water identification protocol
(SWIP) monitoring before the application is submitted.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 29

A site survey and pre-drilling plan are necessary for proposed groundwater
sources. The following information must be provided:
(1)
Purpose of the project, including water quantity needed
(2)
Geologic description of the project
Supply appropriate citations if taken from published literature:
(a)
Formation name(s) and lithology of target aquifer(s)
(b)
Regional strike and dip, and other relevant structural
features
(c)
Geologic map showing proposed source location and
regional geology
(3)
Expected total depth of well(s)
(4)
Expected yield and desired yield, addressing seasonal flows of
spring sources
(5)
Anticipated water quality or quantity problems from proposed
source aquifer
(6)
Topographic map (with USGS topographics quadrangle name) that
clearly shows:
(a)
Proposed source location(s), stating exact latitude and
longitude in degree-minute-second format to an accuracy of
25 m.
(b)
Estimated outline of surface drainage area.
(c)
Location and identification of potential pollution sources in
the estimated contributing area.
(d)
Municipal zoning (Act 247) and sewage facilities planning
(Act 537) in the estimated surface drainage area. Indicate
zoning and the planned method of sewage disposal.
(7)
Maps or plots of appropriate scale that clearly show:
(a)
Production and observation point locations, with latitude
and longitude in degree-minute-second format accurate to
25 m
(b)
Surface water body locations, including potential wetlands
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 30

(c)
Area to be controlled by permittee
(d)
Zone I wellhead protection area
(e)
Aquifer test monitoring and discharge points
(f)
Fracture trace analysis
(g)
Scale, north arrow, and USGS quadrangle name
(h)
Other groundwater withdrawal points (water supply wells,
irrigation wells, quarries, etc.) within a minimum ½ mile
radius that could be affected by pumping the production
well
(i)
Pre-pumping water table contours or potentiometric
surface; show natural groundwater flow direction
(j)
Estimated contributing area
(k)
Estimated zone of influence
(l)
Sources of contamination within the contributing area
(8)
A description of methods to identify and assess potential impacts
that construction and use of a new source(s) will, or could have, on
adjacent wetlands, surface water bodies, public and private wells,
springs, or other surface and subsurface water features
(9)
Proposed construction specifications for wells - provide
information that clearly describes the following:
(a)
Method of drilling
(b)
Casing
1)
Size of annular opening
2)
Type, diameter, weight, and depth of all casing
3)
Use of drive shoes and casing centralizers
4)
Type of joint
(c)
Grout
1)
Type
2)
Estimated quantity
3)
Method of placement
4)
Emergency procedures - lost circulation
procedures, etc.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 31

(d)
Well completion
1)
Type of production pump
2)
Plumbness and alignment test
3)
Pitless unit or adapter installation
(e)
Proposed development procedure
(f)
Well logging procedure
(g)
Procedure for disposing of cuttings and drilling fluid
ensuring that proper erosion and sedimentation controls are
used
(h)
Certificate of Abandonment, if appropriate
All unused boreholes should be properly abandoned or
constructed as observation wells, according to PWS
standards. A certificate of abandonment, signed and sealed
by the project licensed professional geologist, must be
included in the permit application in the event that any
wells/boreholes are abandoned.
(10)
Detailed construction specifications for springs, infiltration
galleries, and ranney wells including:
(a)
Interception and collection systems.
(b)
Construction materials and their placement.
(c)
Overflow piping.
(d)
Surface water diversion structures.
(e)
Cleanout drain.
(f)
Access to collection system.
(g)
Surface catchment and intake structures.
If a groundwater classification is desired, six months of daily
SWIP monitoring will be required. In addition, two new source
sampling events, reflecting a high flow and low flow condition,
will be required prior to submitting the permit application. Clearly
indicate the existence of a hose bib type sampling port.
(11)
An analysis, conducted by/at a DEP-approved laboratory for the
current list of drinking water parameters
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 32

(12)
The names, addresses and phone numbers of the project licensed
professional geologist, engineer, and water supplier
(13)
Permits, as may be required by other programs or agencies, such as
the Soils and Waterways Section or the appropriate River Basin
Commission
(14)
Resolution of Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory (PNDI)
conflicts
e.
DEP Advice
Advice given by the regional water supply engineer or the engineering
staff of the appropriate county health department (CHD) is not to be
construed as representing official approval by DEP. Favorable
consideration of design data submitted at a preliminary conference or in a
preliminary report in no manner waives the legal requirements for the
submission of final plans, specifications, and an engineer’s or geologist’s
report in support of the application for a permit, nor does it waive the right
of DEP to require modification of plans which in its judgment do not
conform to good engineering practice or its requirements.
3.
Submission of Application
In-state bottled water, bulk water hauling, vended water systems and retail water
facilities must submit their applications, reports, final plans and specifications in
duplicate to the appropriate regional office listed in Table III-1.2. In some
regions, a third copy of the application data may be necessary for submission to a
CHD or river basin commission.
Out-of-state bottled water and bulk water hauling applications shall be submitted
to the Bureau of Water Standards and Facility Regulation, P.O. Box 8467,
Harrisburg, PA 17105-8467 for review.
Documents submitted for approval of a major modification shall include
(a) application, (b) modules, (c) engineer’s and licensed professional geologist’s
report, (d) detailed plans, (e) specifications, (f) water quality analyses, (g) permit
fee, and (h) copies of labels where appropriate. The modules, specifications and
front cover or flyleaf of each set of plans shall bear the signature and imprint of
the seal of the licensed engineer by or under whom prepared. In addition, each
plan submitted shall bear an imprint or a legible facsimile of such seal. (Refer to
Section I.F.) The cover of the licensed professional geologist’s report shall bear
the signature and imprint of the seal of the licensed professional geologist by or
under whom prepared.
Applicants for a bottled water system permit also will be required to submit an
analysis of the quality of the manufactured water for each water product to be sold
prior to final approval. This analysis must be for all parameters as outlined in
Section I.E.3.d. A copy of each label to be affixed to a bottled water product must
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 33

also be submitted. This label must meet the requirements of Section 109.1007 of
the Safe Drinking Water Regulations. Applicants also must submit proof that the
system is in compliance with the standards of the Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) contained in 21 CFR Part 129 (relating to processing and bottling of
bottled drinking water).
a.
Engineer’s Report
As a minimum, the engineer’s report shall consist of completed copies of
the appropriate modules furnished by DEP. All modules pertaining to the
project must be included.
A comprehensive engineer’s report, covering the following items, shall be
prepared where major construction or modification of a water system is
proposed.
(1)
General Information shall include:
(a)
A description of the existing and proposed water system.
(b)
A description of the area to be served.
(c)
Where earth moving activities will be involved, an Erosion
and Sedimentation Control Plan which meets the
requirements of Chapter 102 of DEP Rules and Regulations
must be submitted.
(2)
Sources of Water
Describe the proposed source or sources of water supply to be
used, the reasons for their selection, and the following information:
(a)
Surface Water Sources
1)
Summarized data on the quality of the raw water
with special reference to fluctuations in quality,
changing meteorological conditions, stream flow,
etc.
2)
Hydrological data, stream flow and weather records
3)
Reliable yield, including all factors that may affect
it
4)
Maximum flood flow, together with approval for
safety features of the spillway and dam from the
Bureau of Waterways Engineering
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 34

5)
Description of the watershed, noting any existing or
potential sources of contamination (i.e., sewerage
treatment plants, industrial facilities, etc.) which
may affect water quality
(b)
Groundwater Sources
A separate hydrogeologic report, signed and sealed by a
licensed professional geologist shall be submitted with the
permit application (see Section I.C.3.c.).
(c)
Finished Water Sources
Finished water obtained from an approved public water
system is considered to be raw water for purposes of an
application. Applicants proposing to use finished water as
their source of supply must provide information on the
quality of the water. The results of analyses submitted
shall be from samples collected at the point closest to the
proposed point of interconnection.
(3)
Proposed Treatment Processes
Summarize the adequacy of the proposed processes and the unit
hydraulics for each treatment process to be used.
(4)
Automation
Where appropriate, provide supporting data justifying automatic
equipment, including the servicing and operator training to be
provided. Manual override must be provided for any automatic
controls.
(5)
Waste Disposal
Discuss the various wastes from the water hauling, bottling or
treatment facilities, their volume, proposed treatment, and methods
of disposal.
b.
Detailed Plans
Plans shall be legible and shall be drawn to a scale that will permit all
necessary information to be correctly shown. The size of the plans should
not be larger than 36 inches by 50 inches. The plans shall include
topographic maps, general layouts, plan views, elevations, sections and
supplementary views, which, together with the specifications, provide the
information for the contract and construction of the works. The
topographic map shall include the location of the existing and potential
sources of pollution listed in any report.
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The plans shall include:
(1)
The datum used.
(2)
The north point.
(3)
Land area owned and/or controlled by the purveyor, including the
Zone I wellhead protection area.
(4)
Topography of the drainage area and site, including wells, springs,
streams, lakes, dams and reservoirs.
(5)
The location and outline form of equipment.
(6)
Water levels.
(7)
Flood levels.
(8)
The locations and logs of test borings and wells.
(9)
The diameter and depth of well casings and liners.
Each plan shall bear a suitable title showing:
(1)
The name and address of the company served.
(2)
The scale in feet.
(3)
Graphic scale.
(4)
The date.
(5)
The name, address and seal of the design engineer.
c.
Specifications
Complete, detailed technical specifications shall be supplied for each
major modification, including:
(1)
All additional laboratory facilities and equipment.
(2)
The type and design of chemical feed systems and grades of
chemicals to be used.
(3)
All paints, coatings or other materials that will come into contact
with drinking water during and after construction.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 36

d.
Water Quality Analyses
All bacteriological, inorganic, organic and radiological laboratory analyses
must be performed by laboratories certified by DEP in accordance with
the analytical techniques adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) under the federal act or methods approved by DEP.
Contact the Bureau of Water Standards and Facility Regulation, P.O. Box
8467, Harrisburg, PA 17105-8467 or the regional offices (see
Table III-1.2) for the current list of DEP’s Maximum Contaminant Levels.
F.
Special Permit-By-Rule Requirement
1.
Bottled Water Systems
The permit-by-rule provides in-state permitted bottled water systems an option to
obtaining a permit amendment for substantial modification to the bottling,
processing, or manufacturing facilities provided the following conditions are met:
a.
The system’s sole source of water supply is permitted groundwater
sources not under the direct influence of surface water as determined
through DEP’s
Summary of Key Requirements for Surface Water
Identification Protocol,
DEP ID: 383-0810-203, available on DEP’s Web
site, or finished water from a DEP-approved community water system, or
both.
b.
The quality of the source water does not exceed FDA quality standards for
health related chemical and radiological contaminants and requires only
disinfection to meet the Pennsylvania primary maximum contaminant
levels.
c.
The facilities meet the national standards of the FDA and the International
Bottled Water Association (IBWA) Model Bottled Water Code as
determined by an annual on-site evaluation conducted by a nationally
recognized independent not-for-profit third-party organization such as
NSF International (NSF) or other organization acceptable to DEP.
Permitted in-state bottled water systems that intend to operate under the permit-
by-rule option shall submit a written notification to DEP documenting compliance
with the above requirements. When a substantial modification (such as
replacement of equipment or addition of a new product line) is made to the
system, a description of the modification shall be filed with DEP within 30 days
of operation of the modification. The description must include documentation
that the modification complies as applicable with Section 109.606 of Chapter 109
or the FDA standards in 21 CFR Part 129, and that validated treatment
technologies are being used.
Any bottler seeking to use the permit-by-rule shall comply with all other
applicable laws administered by DEP as required by Section 7(j) of the
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Pennsylvania Safe Drinking Water Act and comply with other requirements of
Chapter 109 including design, construction, operation, monitoring and reporting.
The permit-by-rule does not cover modifications or additions of a bottled water
system’s collection facilities (i.e., parts of the water system prior to treatment,
including source, transmission facilities and pretreatment storage facilities), which
would continue to require a permit amendment from DEP under the present
permitting requirements.
DEP retains the right to require a bottler who meets the requirements of the
special permit-by-rule to obtain a permit amendment for any change that cannot
be adequately regulated through the standardized specifications and conditions of
the permit-by-rule.
2.
Vended Water Systems
Persons proposing to install and operate water vending machines can obtain a
separate and distinct permit-by-rule if the following conditions are met:
a.
All water vending machines are located in the same DEP region.
b.
All water vending machines are certified by the National Automatic
Merchandising Association (NAMA) and have as their sources existing
permitted community water systems.
Vended water systems meeting these requirements shall register with DEP on
forms provided by DEP. A separate and distinct permit-by-rule is required for
each DEP region in which the water vending machines are located. Amendments
to the registration shall be filed when a substantial modification is made to the
system. Descriptions of the modifications shall be filed within 30 days of
operation of the modification.
DEP retains the right to require a vended water system that meets the special
permit-by-rule requirements to obtain a permit, if, in the judgment of DEP, the
vended water system cannot be adequately regulated through the standardized
specifications and conditions of the permit-by-rule.
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TABLE III-I.2
DEP Regional Offices
Southeast Region
2 E. Main St.
Norristown, PA 19401
Main Telephone:
484-250-5900
24-Hour Emergency:
484-250-5900
Counties:
Bucks, Chester, Delaware,
Montgomery and Philadelphia
Southwest Region
400 Waterfront Drive
Pittsburgh, PA 15222-4745
Main Telephone:
412-442-4000
24-Hour Emergency:
412-442-4000
Counties:
Allegheny, Armstrong,
Beaver, Cambria, Fayette, Greene,
Indiana, Somerset, Washington and
Westmoreland
Southcentral Region
909 Elmerton Ave.
Harrisburg, PA 17110
Main Telephone:
717-705-4700
24-Hour Emergency: 1-877-333-1940
Counties:
Adams, Bedford, Berks,
Blair, Cumberland, Dauphin, Franklin,
Fulton, Huntingdon, Juniata,
Lancaster, Lebanon, Mifflin, Perry and
York
Northwest Region
230 Chestnut St.
Meadville, PA 16335-3481
Main Telephone:
814-332-6945
24-Hour Emergency: 1-800-373-3398
Counties:
Butler, Clarion, Crawford,
Elk, Erie, Forest, Jefferson, Lawrence,
McKean, Mercer, Venango and
Warren
Northeast Region
2 Public Square
Wilkes-Barre, PA 18711-0790
Main Telephone:
570-826-2511
24-Hour Emergency:
570-826-2511
Counties:
Carbon, Lackawanna,
Lehigh, Luzerne, Monroe, Northampton,
Pike, Schuylkill, Susquehanna, Wayne
and Wyoming
Northcentral Region
208 W. Third St., Suite 101
Williamsport, PA 17701
Main Telephone:
570-327-3636
24-Hour Emergency: 570-327-3636
Counties:
Bradford, Cameron,
Clearfield, Centre, Clinton, Columbia,
Lycoming, Montour, Northumberland,
Potter, Snyder, Sullivan, Tioga and
Union
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 39

II.
BOTTLED WATER SYSTEMS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide minimum acceptable standards on the design of
bottled water systems. This information has been taken, in part, from standards
established by the FDA, 21 CFR Part 129 (Processing and Bottling of Bottled Drinking
Water) and from the technical manuals published by the IBWA. Other designs may be
approved by DEP provided that the applicant can demonstrate that the alternate design
will be capable of providing a consistently reliable, safe quality of drinking water to the
public.
B.
Sources of Supply
All water for bottling and operating a bottled water system shall be from a source
approved by DEP. Purchase of water from a permitted public water supply system also
must be approved by DEP.
C.
Buildings and Facilities
1.
Siting
The location of a bottled water plant shall be such that it is free from any
conditions that may result in the contamination of finished water, the equipment
used in the manufacturing process, or the primary containers.
2.
Plant Design and Construction
a.
General
Bottled Water Plants should:
(1)
Be designed and constructed to allow proper installation of
equipment, facilitate maintenance, and to provide for the sanitary
operation of the bottled water operation.
(2)
Have floors which are smooth, impervious, and properly drained.
All drains shall be equipped with traps and grills.
(3)
Have joints between walls and floors which are tight and
impervious.
(4)
Have walls and ceilings which are smooth, of a light color, and
easily cleaned.
(5)
Have no fixtures, ducts, or pipe suspended over work areas, which
may allow condensate to contaminate the product or bottling
equipment.
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b.
Bottling Room
The bottling room should be separated from other plant facilities or
storage areas by tight walls, ceilings, and self-closing doors to protect
against contamination. Conveyor openings shall not exceed the size
required to permit passage of containers. Joints between floors and walls
should be covered. Doors, windows, and all outside openings into bottling
rooms shall be screened and/or otherwise protected against entry of
insects, birds, rodents, dust, and airborne contamination. Where air
curtain blowers are used, they should be located inside the bottling room
so that cleaner air will be moved through the filter and around the bottles.
c.
Bottle Washing Area
A separate enclosed room should be provided for the washing and
sanitizing of containers for bottled drinking water. The washing and
sanitizing equipment should be positioned within the room to minimize
any possible post-sanitizing contamination of the containers before they
enter the bottling room.
d.
Bottle Storage and Chemical Storage
(1)
Bottles
Adequate clean, dry storage areas or facilities shall be provided for
containers, closure materials, paper for wrapping, adhesives and
other production materials to provide protection from dust, insects,
chemicals, or other sources of contamination. The materials
should be stored on pallets above the floor away from the wall to
facilitate cleaning. Partially used cartons of containers, caps or
other closure materials shall be resealed between uses.
(2)
Chemicals
Separate storage facilities shall be provided for chemicals used in
container-sanitizing operations, equipment sanitizing and/or
general plant sanitation. Separate areas should be provided for
each chemical, properly labeled and ventilated where appropriate.
Where toxic or hazardous chemicals are used, the requirements in
Part II, Section V.C.2. of this manual shall be followed.
e.
Dressing and Locker Rooms
Adequate facilities shall be provided for the orderly storage of the clothing
and personal belongings of employees where employees routinely change
clothes within the establishment. Such designated areas should be
provided for each sex and shall be located outside the bottling room,
bottling washing room, bottle storage areas and utensil washing areas.
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f.
Ventilation
(1)
Adequate ventilation shall be provided to minimize condensation
or the accumulation of noxious fumes in processing rooms,
bottling rooms, and in container washing and sanitizing areas.
This equipment shall not create conditions that may contribute to
product contamination. Positive pressure ventilation in bottling
rooms is recommended.
(2)
Ventilation systems for chlorine gas rooms shall comply with
Part II, Sections V.D.1. and V.E.3.C.(3) of this manual.
g.
Lighting
Adequate lighting, either natural or artificial, must be provided in all areas
where finished water is examined, processed, or stored, and where
equipment and bottles are cleaned. A minimum of 50-foot candles must
be provided in any product inspection station. Light bulbs, fixtures,
skylights, or other glass suspended over exposed product in any step of
preparation shall be of the safety type or otherwise protected to prevent
product contamination in case of breakage.
h.
Sanitary Facilities
(1)
Each bottled water manufacturing establishment shall have
available conveniently located washroom facilities which are
separate from any room or rooms where bottled water is
manufactured or packaged and from areas where bottles are
sanitized or stored.
(2)
Each washroom shall provide toilets, urinals and lavatories
appropriate for the number of employees. Handwashing facilities
shall be equipped with hot and cold running water under pressure,
hand cleansing soap or detergent, and approved sanitary towels or
other approved hand-drying devices. Washrooms shall have self-
closing doors and windows or a ventilation system to the outside.
(3)
Wastewater disposal facilities must be acceptable to or approved
by DEP.
D.
Treatment
All treatment processes used in the manufacturing of water for bottling must be
approved by DEP. It is recognized that the design requirements specified in Part II,
Chapter IV of this manual may not apply to bottled water systems; however, information
on each unit process must be submitted in sufficient detail to allow DEP to adequately
evaluate the bottled water treatment system. DEP’s
Public Water Supply Modules
available on DEP’s Web site are to be used for this purpose.
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Bottled water systems shall be designed to provide an adequate quality of water to the
public. The design shall ensure that the system will, upon completion, be capable of
providing water that complies with the primary and secondary MCLs and treatment
techniques established in Section 109.1002 of DEP’s Safe Drinking Water Regulations
(relating to MCLs and treatment technique).
Bottled water systems shall provide continuous disinfection for groundwater sources.
Refer to Chapter 3 of Part IV (Noncommunity System Design Standards) of this manual
for design standards on ultraviolet light systems.
E.
Equipment
1.
Materials of Construction
Contact surfaces of equipment used in the processing, storage, handling and
transportation of finished water shall be of a material which can be easily cleaned
and withstand the repeated application of sanitizing chemicals. Only safe,
nontoxic lubricants shall be used on equipment which may come into contact with
the product water and are required to receive periodic lubrication.
2.
Storage Tanks
Storage tanks shall be of the type which can be securely closed to exclude foreign
matter and shall be adequately vented through inverted air filters. Any liner or
coating used in a raw or finished water storage tank must be acceptable to DEP.
3.
Sanitizing Systems
Sanitizing systems for equipment and bottles should be provided. Where
temperature is an important factor in the operation of the sanitizing operation, at
least two temperature gauges shall be provided in the system for monitoring
purposes.
a.
Steam in an Enclosed System
Steam sanitizing shall occur at a temperature of at least 170°F for no less
than 15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes. Steam
used in contact with product water-contact surfaces shall be free from any
materials or additives other than those allowed in 21 CFR 173.310 or as
otherwise approved by DEP.
b.
Hot Water in an Enclosed System
Hot water sanitizing shall occur at a temperature of at least 170°F for no
less than 15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 43

c.
Chemical Sanitizers
Chemical sanitizers shall conform with 21 CFR 178.1010 or otherwise be
acceptable to DEP.
(1)
The preferred method will be to clean by exposing all surfaces to
not less than 2½ percent caustic solution at a minimum
temperature of 120°F for not less than one minute where high
velocity jets are used and for not less than three minutes where
soaker-type bottle washers are used, followed by a thorough
rinsing with operations water or product water.
(2)
Acceptable alternate procedures are to sanitize with 100 ppm
chlorine water solution at 75°F for not less than 30 seconds, or
sanitize with 200 ppm approved quaternary ammonium water
solution at 75°F for not less than two minutes.
4.
Rinse Facilities
Finished water rinse facilities shall be provided to remove any traces of the
chemicals used in the chemical sanitizing process. The design shall be such that
only disinfected water shall be used for this purpose.
F.
Containers and Closures
Containers and closures for bottled water shall comply with the requirements of 21 CFR
Parts 170 through 189.
1.
Containers
All bottled water containers shall be made of a nontoxic material that is readily
cleanable and not subject to deterioration or leaching of injurious substances
when subjected to sanitizing operations.
a.
Single Service
Single-service containers shall be stored in a manner to protect their
sanitary condition until used.
b.
Multiservice
Multiservice containers shall be adequately cleaned, sanitized and
inspected immediately prior to being filled.
2.
Closures
All bottles shall be provided with nontoxic, tamper-proof seals or caps, which are
not subject to deterioration or leaching of injurious substances. Only new screw,
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 44

snap, or crown caps may be used without sanitizing, and only when received
clean and kept protected from contamination.
G.
Tanker Trucks
Tanker trucks used in transporting bulk water for bottling shall comply with the design
requirements in Chapter 3 of this part on Bulk Water Hauling Systems.
H.
Laboratory Equipment
Sufficient laboratory equipment and testing facilities shall be provided to allow for the
routine testing necessary to assure proper operation. In addition to equipment for the
routine testing of the water for bottling, the appropriate equipment needed to test all
cleansing and sanitizing solutions used in the bottling operation shall be available.
Laboratory equipment should not be located in the bottling room or bottle washing area.
The laboratory equipment requirements specified in Part II, Section II.E. of this manual
should be followed.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 45

III.
BULK WATER HAULING SYSTEMS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide basic information on the design of water hauling
tank trucks, which will be used to transport bulk water from a DEP-approved source of
supply to the customers’ point of use or storage. This information has been taken, in part,
from the “3-A Sanitary Standards for Stainless Steel Automotive Milk and Milk Products
Transportation Tanks for Bulk Delivery and/or Farm Pick-Up Service.” Though the use
of milk trucks for water hauling purposes is a generally accepted practice, each truck
must have the interior of the tank thoroughly cleaned and inspected with an ultraviolet
lamp each time water is to be transported. Tanks
previously
used to transport petroleum
products; toxic materials or other deleterious substances
shall not be used
to haul
drinking water.
B.
Sources
All sources of water used for bulk water shipment must be approved by DEP and are
subject to the quality and treatment requirements outlined in Chapter 109 of DEP’s Rules
and Regulations relating to Safe Drinking Water. Where new groundwater or surface
water sources are developed as part of a bulk water hauling system, the design standards
outlined in Chapter 1 of this part shall apply.
C.
Tank Trucks
1.
Construction Materials
a.
Tanks
All water contact surfaces should be of stainless steel of the American Iron
and Steel Institute (AISI) 300 series or corresponding Alloy Casting
Institute (ACI) types or stainless steel that is nontoxic and nonabsorbent
and which under conditions of intended use is equally resistant as stainless
steel of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 300 series or
corresponding Alloy Casting Institute (ACI) types.
b.
Noncontact Surfaces
Noncontact surfaces should be of a waterproof, corrosion-resistant
material that is nonabsorbent, durable and easily cleaned.
c.
Gaskets and Seals
Plastic, rubber, and rubber-like materials may be used for water transfer
tubing, bearings, seals and gaskets provided that they comply with the
food additives and indirect food additives provisions of 21 CFR Parts 170
through 189.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 46

2.
Fabrication
a.
Outer Shell
The outer shell should be smooth and effectively sealed except for a vent
or weep hole. The vent or weep hole shall be located in a position that
will provide drainage from the outer shell and shall be insect proof.
b.
Outlets
Each tank or compartment shall have a separate outlet. The outlet should
be of welded construction except that a rolled-on fitting may be used on
the terminal end. The outlets shall provide complete drainage of the tank
or compartments.
c.
Manhole Opening and Covers
Manhole openings should be not less than 16 inches by 20 inches oval or
18 inches in diameter. Each manhole shall provide an effective seal to
prevent entrance of contaminants. Where air vents are installed, they shall
be designed so they are easily removable and readily cleaned. Manhole
cover gaskets shall be removable and cleanable.
d.
Baffles
Where used, baffles shall not interfere with the free drainage of the tank.
They shall be permanently attached to the tank and have no sharp edges.
Baffles shall be designed that walk-through accessibility is provided to all
areas for inspection and cleaning.
e.
Cabinets
Transfer tubing storage cabinets shall be dust-tight and doors should be
equipped with a compression-type closing device. Gasket material for
sealing doors may be installed on the face of the cabinet except along a
drainage area, where it shall be attached to the doors. A roof overhang or
suitable drip molding should be provided over the cabinet doors. Where
transfer tubing is stored, a means should be provided to support the loose
end of the tubing above the cabinet floor to ensure proper sanitation.
D.
Water Loading Stations
Filling stations should be designed in such a way as to prevent backflow that may
contaminate the feed water supply.
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E.
Transfer Tubing
Single lengths of transfer tubing should not exceed 8 feet except where adequate
provisions have been made to clean greater lengths. A sanitary closure shall be furnished
for the open ends of the tubing.
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IV.
VENDED WATER SYSTEMS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide minimum acceptable standards on the design of
water vending machines. This information has been taken, in part, from standards
established by the NSF’s Standard 25 - Vending Machines for Food and Beverages and
the NAMA’s “Vending Machine Evaluation Manual.” Other designs may be approved
by DEP provided the applicant can demonstrate the alternate design will be capable of
providing a consistently reliable, safe quality of drinking water to the public.
B.
Coverage
For the purposes of this chapter, the following definition of a water vending machine
shall apply:
Water Vending Machine -
Any self-contained, self-service device which, upon insertion
of a coin, paper currency, token, card, key, or other similar means or through manual
operation, dispenses unit servings of water, either in bulk or in packages, without the
necessity of replenishing the device between each vending operation.
This definition is not meant to include machines which dispense carbonated soft drinks,
coffee, tea, soup, milk, chocolate drinks or fruit juices which are regulated by DEP under
Title 7 Pa. Code Chapter 80, Department of Agriculture (Food Vending Machines).
C.
Sources
All sources of drinking water must be approved by DEP and sampled and tested for the
parameters specified by DEP’s new-source sampling requirements. Vending machines
which will obtain their source water from the distribution system of an approved public
water system may submit the results of analyses obtained by the source/selling water
system when submitting an application for a permit. The analyses must have been
conducted within the appropriate routine monitoring schedule and conducted by a
laboratory certified by DEP. Source water analyses are not required from water vending
machines which meet the special permit-by-rule requirements.
D.
Vending Machine Design
Vending machines shall comply with the following design and construction standards or
their equivalent.
NSF Standard 25 - Vending Machines for Food and Beverages
NAMA’s “Vending Machine Evaluation Manual”
1.
Exterior
The exterior of the vending machine shall be designed to facilitate cleaning and to
prevent the entrance of dust, dirt, insects and rodents.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 49

a.
Materials
The materials of construction shall be durable, sturdy, easily cleaned and
capable of withstanding the corrosive effects of cleaning chemicals.
Paints or other materials used in fabrication shall not impart an odor,
color, taste, or toxic substance to the dispensed water.
b.
Surfaces
External surfaces, including corners, joints and seams shall be sealed and
smooth to eliminate sharp edges which might cause accidents or interfere
with proper cleaning and drainage.
c.
Doors and Covers
Doors and covers shall be tight fitting and, if necessary, gasketed to
prevent the entrance of dust, moisture, insects and rodents.
d.
Ventilation Openings
All ventilation openings shall be effectively screened and accessible for
cleaning. Screening size shall not be less than 16-mesh per inch except for
motor compartments, which shall not be larger than 8-mesh per inch.
e.
Water Vending Openings
Customer service openings shall be designed to minimize the entrance of
contaminants, insects and rodents. Bulk water vending machines shall
have a self-closing door or panel to protect the water during the vending
stage.
f.
Service Connections
All service connections through an exterior wall (i.e., water, electrical,
etc.) shall be grommeted or sealed to prevent the entrance of insects or
rodents.
2.
Interior
All interior surfaces and component parts of the vending machine shall be
designed and constructed to permit easy cleaning.
a.
Materials
All interior surfaces of the machine shall be of smooth, nontoxic,
corrosion-resistant and nonabsorbent material, and shall be capable of
withstanding repeated cleaning and sanitizing by normal procedures.
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b.
Accessibility
All containers, valves, pipes, tubes, fittings, faucets, discharge nozzles and
other water-contact components shall be accessible for cleaning and
inspection by disassembly with simple tools such as an open-end wrench
or screwdriver. When disassembled, all surfaces shall be visible for
inspection and cleaning.
c.
Water Reservoirs
Water reservoirs, when installed as a separate internal component of the
vending machine, shall meet the following requirements:
(a)
Be removable from their in-use position
(b)
Have covers which are flanged to overlap the container opening
(c)
Have covers which are sloped to provide drainage whenever
condensation may form
(d)
Have outlet tubing which can be easily removed from the basin
(e)
Have floats and assemblies, where provided, which are smooth,
nontoxic and easily cleaned
d.
Water Supply System
The materials and method of installation of all water piping, connections
and fittings, which, in field use, will be directly connected to a potable
water supply, shall conform to local plumbing codes and the source water
system requirements.
e.
Waste Containers
Containers shall be provided for the collection of drip, spillage, overflow
or other internal wastes. Waste containers shall be leak proof, readily
removable, easily cleanable and corrosion resistant.
f.
Protection of Source Water Supply
The potable water supply to vending machines shall be protected from
backflow and back pressure from in-machine water by means of properly
installed cross-connection control and backflow prevention device.
g.
Drains
Drains shall be effectively protected against the entrance of insects and
rodents by the use of a 16-mesh screen or an effective trap.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 51

h.
Drainage to Sewers
Wastewaters discharged to a sewer shall be through a minimum air gap of
two inches.
E.
Treatment
1.
Filters
Water treatment devices installed by the manufacturer should be of the disposable
type or of a type that can be readily disassembled with ordinary tools for cleaning,
sanitizing or replacement of the active elements.
2.
Activated Carbon
Activated carbon if used should be virgin carbon. Carbon, which complies with
the NSF Standard 61 or any other certification organization as stringent as NSF, is
acceptable.
3.
Disinfection
Vended water shall be disinfected prior to delivery into the customer’s container.
Chlorine, chlorine compounds, ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light or other methods
acceptable to DEP may be used provided the appropriate contact times are
provided. Water supplied by the source/selling water system is considered to be
raw water and must be disinfected prior to dispensing from the vending machine.
a.
Ultraviolet Radiation
(1)
UV systems may be used provided they comply with the FDA’s
requirements under 21 CFR 179.39 and the NSF Standard 55. UV
systems of the Class A type, as approved by NSF under
Standard 55, are acceptable to DEP.
(2)
Machines using UV shall be equipped with a sensor to shut off the
machine if the lamp burns out or the intensity of the effective
radiation at 2,537 Angstrom units falls below 13,000 microwatt
seconds per square centimeter based on the manufacturer’s
recommended flow rate.
(3)
UV lamp assemblies shall be designed to permit intensity testing
with a portable unit while avoiding direct eye exposure to radiation
during the test.
b.
Ozone
Ozone may be used provided that its application complies with the FDA’s
requirements under 21 CFR 184.1563.
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F.
Machine Location
Vending machines shall be located in a room, area or space that can be maintained in a
clean condition and that is protected from overhead leakage or condensation from water,
wastewater, or sewer piping. Each vending machine shall be located so that the space
around the machine and the space under the machine, unless effectively sealed to the
floor, can be readily cleaned and so that insect and rodent harborage is not created. The
floor area on which vending machines are located shall be reasonably smooth and be
capable of withstanding repeated washings and scrubbings. The space and immediate
surroundings of each vending machine shall be maintained in a clean condition.
G.
Machine Markings
Water vending machines shall display, in a position clearly visible to customers, the
following information:
1.
The name of the owner/operator
2.
The full address of the owner/operator
3.
A telephone number that can be used to obtain further information, service, or
register complaints
4.
A statement describing the treatment processes and chemicals used
5.
A statement indicating the source of raw water
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V.
RETAIL WATER FACILITIES
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide minimum standards acceptable to DEP on the
design of retail water facilities. This information has been taken, in part, from standards
established by the FDA, 21 CFR Part 129 (Processing and Bottling of Bottled Drinking
Water) and NSF Standard 25 - Vending Machines for Food and Beverages. Other
designs capable of providing a consistently reliable, safe quality of drinking water to the
public also may be approved by DEP.
B.
Coverage
For the purpose of this chapter, the following definition of a retail water facility shall
apply:
Retail Water Facility
- A public water system (PWS) which provides water for bottling,
without the use of a water vending machine, by dispensing unit servings of water in
containers, whether or not the container is provided by the customers.
C.
Sources of Supply
All water for bottling at a retail water facility shall be from a source approved by DEP
and sampled and tested for the parameters outlined on DEP’s Maximum Contaminant
Levels (MCL) list.
Retail water facilities that will obtain their water from an approved public water system
may substitute for this testing the results of analyses obtained by the source/selling water
system when submitting an application for a permit. The analyses must have been
conducted within the appropriate routine monitoring schedule of the source water system
by a laboratory certified by DEP.
D.
Buildings and Facilities
1.
Siting
The location of a retail water facility shall be such that it is free from any
conditions that may result in the contamination of the finished water, the
equipment used in the manufacturing process, or the primary containers.
2.
Facility Design and Construction
a.
General
Retail Water Facilities should:
(1)
Be designed and constructed to allow proper installation of
equipment, facilitate maintenance, provide for sanitary operation,
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prevent contamination of the finished water, and process
equipment or containers.
(2)
Have floors that are smooth, impervious, and properly drained,
with traps and grills as necessary.
(3)
Have joints between walls that are tight and impervious.
(4)
Have walls and ceilings that are smooth, of a light color, and easily
cleaned.
(5)
Have no fixtures, ducts, or pipe suspended over work areas, which
may allow condensation to contaminate the product or bottling
equipment.
b.
Bottle Washing Area
A separate enclosed area should be provided for the washing and
sanitizing of containers for retail drinking water. The washing and
sanitizing equipment should be positioned within the room to minimize
any possible post-sanitizing contamination of the containers before they
enter the bottling area.
c.
Container Storage and Chemical Storage
(1)
Retail Containers
If containers are provided for customers use, adequate, clean, dry
storage areas or facilities shall be provided for containers and
container preparation materials to assure protection from dust,
insects, chemicals, or other sources of contamination. The
materials should be stored on pallets above the floor away from
the walls to facilitate cleaning. Partially used cartons or
containers, caps or other closure materials shall be resealed
between uses.
(2)
Chemicals
Separate storage facilities shall be provided for chemicals used in
container sanitizing operations, equipment sanitizing and/or
general facility sanitation. Separate areas should be provided for
each chemical, properly labeled, and ventilated where appropriate.
Where toxic or hazardous chemicals are used, the requirements in
Part II, Section V.C.2. of this manual shall be followed.
d.
Ventilation
(1)
Adequate ventilation shall be provided to minimize condensation
or the accumulation of noxious fumes in processing or retail areas.
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Ventilation equipment shall not create conditions that may
contribute to product contamination. Positive pressure ventilation
in bottling rooms is recommended.
(2)
Ventilation systems for chlorine gas rooms shall comply with
Part II, Section V.D.1. and V.E.3.c.(3) of this manual.
e.
Lighting
Adequate lighting, either natural or artificial, must be provided in all areas
where finished water is examined, processed, or sold, and where
equipment and bottles are cleaned. A minimum of 50-foot candles must
be provided in any product inspection station. Light bulbs, fixtures,
skylights, or other glass suspended over exposed products in any step of
preparation shall be of the safety type or otherwise protected to prevent
product contamination in case of breakage.
f.
Sanitary Facilities
(1)
If available, washroom facilities shall be separate from any room
or rooms where bottled water is manufactured or packaged and
from areas where bottles are sanitized or stored.
(2)
Wastewater disposal facilities must be acceptable to or approved
by DEP.
E.
Treatment
All treatment processes used in the purification of water at retail water facilities must be
approved by DEP. It is recognized that the design requirements specified in Part II,
Chapter 4 may not apply to retail water facilities; however, information on each unit
process must be submitted in sufficient detail to allow DEP to adequately evaluate the
retail water treatment system. DEP’s
Public Water Supply Modules
are to be used for
this purpose.
For retail water facilities using pre-assembled treatment devices, those whose treatment
devices have been evaluated and certified by a third-party organization such as NSF will
be considered acceptable. Equipment used in the treatment of drinking water should be
approved under the appropriate NSF standards: 42-Drinking Water Treatment Units:
Aesthetic Effects, 43-Chemical Feeding and Processing Equipment, 44-Cation Exchange
Water Softeners, 53-Drinking Water Treatment Units: Health Effects, 55-Ultraviolet
Water Treatment Systems, 58-Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems, and
62-Drinking Water Distillation Systems.
Disinfection of the water must be provided immediately prior to filling the containers.
Chlorine, compounds, ozone and ultraviolet light or other methods acceptable to DEP
may be used provided that the appropriate contact times are provided. Water supplied by
the source/selling water system is considered to be raw water and must be disinfected
prior to dispensing to the customer’s containers.
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F.
Equipment
1.
Materials of Construction
Contact surfaces of equipment used in the processing, storage, and handling of
finished water shall be of a material which can be easily cleaned and withstand
the repeated application of sanitizing chemicals. Only safe, nontoxic lubricants
shall be used on equipment which may come into contact with the product water
and are required to receive periodic lubrication.
2.
Storage Tanks
Storage tanks shall be of the type which can be securely closed to exclude foreign
matter and shall be adequately vented through inverted air filters. Any liner or
coating used in a raw or finished water storage tank must be acceptable to DEP.
3.
Sanitizing Systems
Sanitizing systems for equipment and bottles should be provided. Where
temperature is an important factor in the operation of the sanitizing operation, at
least two temperature gauges shall be provided in the system for monitoring
purposes.
a.
Steam in an Enclosed System
The minimum exposure temperature and duration shall be 170°F for five
minutes. Steam used in contact with product water-contact surfaces shall
be free from any materials or additives other than those allowed in
21 CFR 173.310 or as otherwise approved by DEP.
b.
Hot Water in an Enclosed System
The minimum exposure temperature and duration shall be at least 170°F
for no less than 15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes.
c.
Chemical Sanitizers
Chemical sanitizers shall conform with 21 CFR 178.1010 or otherwise be
acceptable to DEP.
(1)
The preferred method will be to clean by exposing all surfaces to
not less than 2.5 percent of caustic solution at a minimum
temperature of 120°F for not less than one minute where high
velocity jets are used, and not less than three minutes where
soaker-type bottle washers are used, followed by a thorough
rinsing with operations water or product water.
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(2)
An acceptable alternative procedure is to sanitize with 100 ppm
chlorine water solution at 75°F for not less than 30 seconds.
(3)
An additional alternate procedure is to sanitize with 200 ppm
approved quaternary ammonium water solution at 75°F for not less
than two minutes.
4.
Rinse Facilities
Finished water rinse facilities shall be provided to remove any traces of the
chemicals used in the chemical sanitizing process. The design shall be such that
only disinfected water shall be used for this purpose.
G.
Containers and Closures
Containers and closures for retail water shall comply with the requirements of 21 CFR
Parts 170 through 189.
1.
Containers
All retail water containers shall be made of a nontoxic material which is readily
cleanable and not subject to deterioration or leaching of injurious substances
when subjected to sanitizing operations. Containers shall be stored in a manner to
protect their sanitary condition until used.
2.
Closures
All containers shall be provided with nontoxic, tamper-proof seals or caps which
are not subject to deterioration or leaching of injurious substances. Only new
screw, snap, or crown caps may be used without sanitizing, and only when
received clean and kept protected from contamination.
H.
Tanker Trucks
If tanker trucks are used in transporting bulk water to the facility, the truck shall comply
with the design requirements in Section III of this part on Bulk Water Hauling Systems.
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APPENDIX A
I.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BOTTLED WATER
SYSTEMS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide basic guidelines on the operation and
maintenance of bottled water manufacturing facilities. This information has been taken
in part, from standards established by the FDA under 21 CFR Part 129 (Processing and
Bottling of Bottled Drinking Water) and from technical manuals published by the IBWA.
DEP’s community water supply “operations and maintenance” requirements, as they
apply to bottled water systems, also have been incorporated into this chapter.
B.
Records
Properly kept records are a valuable tool for making adjustments in operation and
management of a bottled water system. Good records also serve as proof of performance
for justifying the expenditure of money and resolving disputes where there are concerns
over water quality. The following are the types of records that should be maintained at a
bottled water plant.
1.
Plant and Equipment
All design drawings, specifications, and all construction documents should be
retained in a safe location for the life of the facility regardless of any changes.
Detailed records as to the manufacturer, make, model, installation date, and
installers should also be retained for each piece of equipment. Repairs of any
kind also should be recorded.
2.
Operation
Records should be maintained of all inspections, cleaning and sanitizing activities
which should include the names of the persons involved, date, time, and the
results of the inspection or activity. These records should be maintained for at
least three years. Sanitary surveys conducted on the source(s) of raw water
should be retained for not less than ten years.
Water quality analysis data for each source, each product and any intermediate
samples are to be retained. Bacteriological and turbidity analysis data are to be
retained for at least five years; chemical, radiological and organic analysis data
are to be retained for at least ten years. All water quality analysis data should
clearly indicate which tests were done in-house and which were done by DEP-
certified laboratories. In addition to identifying the person(s) conducting the tests,
the laboratory procedure or the technique used should be recorded.
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3.
Chemicals
Accurate records are to be kept on all types of chemicals used in the plant, when
and from whom purchased, and where and how they are stored. Where hazardous
or toxic chemicals are involved, it is recommended that access be restricted to
essential personnel and that detailed records be retained on their purchase and use.
Daily records on the amount of each chemical used should be kept and retained
for at least two years.
4.
Personnel
Bottled water manufacturers should maintain up-to-date records for each of its
employees. Records should include the employee’s name, address, telephone
number, emergency phone number, date hired, education, medical history,
criminal record, and information of any physical disabilities. These records
should be retained for at least five years.
5.
Emergency Response
A critical element in the operation of any drinking water system is the ability to
respond to an emergency situation. For that reason it is very important that the
owners and operators maintain accurate and up-to-date records on the names,
addresses, telephone numbers and responsibilities of each individual employed.
Emergency response plans should be updated at least annually and should provide
specific information on the responsible officials for each shift. Detailed
instructions on how to implement a product recall and initiate public notification
should be provided in the emergency response plan.
C.
Buildings and Grounds
Buildings, fixtures, and other physical facilities of the plant must be kept in good repair
and are to be maintained in a sanitary condition. Cleaning operations should be
conducted in such a manner as to minimize the danger of contamination of product and
product contact surfaces. Only materials required for the proper operation and
maintenance of the plant and equipment are to be stored in the plant. These materials
shall be properly identified and stored in a safe manner.
1.
Buildings
a.
Buildings must be vermin-proof and kept in good repair. Only pesticides
approved for use by the FDA and/or registered with the EPA shall be used
for vermin control.
b.
Walls and ceilings in bottling areas must be kept clean. Overhead
structures, fixtures, and ducts in nonbottling areas are to be kept free from
accumulations of dust and other contaminants.
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c.
Floors are to be kept clean and free of waste, litter, and extraneous
material. Floors in the bottling areas should be cleaned daily and sanitized
with a 200 ppm chlorine solution.
d.
Doors and windows must be kept clean and in good repair.
e.
Ventilation equipment should not create conditions that may contribute to
product contamination by airborne contaminants and must be kept free of
accumulation of dust and grease.
f.
Washrooms must not be utilized for storage of garments, food products,
utensils, or packaging and wrapping materials. Hot and cold running
water; powdered, liquid, or bar soap; and single-use sanitary towels are to
be provided. The toilet room and fixtures are to be maintained in a
sanitary condition and kept in good repair at all times. Signs informing
employees to wash their hands after using the washrooms must be posted
in a visible location.
g.
Where employee locker and lunchrooms are provided, they are to be
separated from plant operations and/or storage areas and be equipped with
self-closing doors. The rooms shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary
condition with refuse containers provided. Packaging or wrapping
material or other processing supplies must not be stored in locker or
lunchrooms.
h.
Storage facilities must be kept clean and dry and provide protection from
splash, insects, dust, and other contaminants.
i.
All refuse must be stored in properly identified, covered containers.
2.
Grounds
The grounds about a bottled water plant under the control of the operator must be
kept free from conditions which may result in the contamination of the product
water or manufacturing facilities. This is to be achieved by:
a.
Prompt elimination of any litter, waste or refuse, within the immediate
vicinity of the plant buildings that may attract or provide a breeding place
or harborage for rodents, insects and other pests.
b.
The elimination or control of air pollutants (i.e., dust, engine exhaust) that
may contribute to the contamination of the product during its manufacture.
c.
Adequately draining areas that may cause contamination through seepage
or by providing a breeding place for insects or microorganisms.
d.
Additional care where plant grounds are bordered by land not under the
operator’s control of the kind described in subparagraphs a, b, and c of this
section. Additional care must be exercised by increased plant inspections,
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extermination, or other means which will ensure exclusion of pests, dirt,
and other contaminants.
D.
Sanitary Operations
1.
Whenever air under pressure is directed at product water or a product water-
contact surface, it must be free of oil, dust, rust, excessive moisture, and
extraneous materials.
2.
The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes
and equipment used in the transportation, processing, handling and storage of
bottled water shall be clean and adequately sanitized. All product water-contact
surfaces are to be inspected by plant personnel as often as necessary to evaluate
the sanitary condition of such surfaces and to take appropriate action to assure
they are kept free of scale, evidence of oxidation, and other residue. The presence
of any contaminants, scale, residue, or oxidation will be sufficient reason to reject
the container or utensil from further use or until properly cleaned.
3.
After cleaning, all multiservice containers, utensils and disassembled piping and
equipment must be stored in such a manner as to assure drainage and protection
from contamination.
4.
Single-service containers and caps or seals shall be stored in sanitary closures and
kept clean and dry until used. Prior to use they must be examined and as
necessary, washed, rinsed, and sanitized.
5.
Filling, capping, closing, sealing, and packaging of containers shall be done in a
sanitary manner to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water.
E.
Processes and Controls
1.
Treatment of Product Water
The manufacture of bottled water by distillation, ion-exchange filtration,
ultraviolet treatment, reverse osmosis, or any other process shall be done in a
manner to achieve the optimum level of treatment. All facilities and treatment
processes approved by permit from DEP shall be operated and maintained in
accordance with DEP’s Rules and Regulations. Chemicals approved under NSF
Standard 60 are accepted. Product water samples shall be taken after processing
and prior to bottling, and analyzed as often as is necessary to assure uniformity
and effectiveness of the treatment processes. The following recommendations are
provided for each treatment process.
a.
Distillation
Feed water with a high hardness should be deionized prior to distillation to
preclude rapid and excessive scale buildup in the evaporator. Scale
buildup reduces evaporator efficiency. Sufficient boiler blow-down also
should be provided to reduce scale buildup.
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To maintain the quality of the distilled water, a conductivity meter should
be installed in the product line. Conductivity should be recorded at start-
up and then regularly (e.g., hourly) during a production run. The
conductivity of the finished water should be less than 10 micromhos.
b.
Ion Exchange
Prior to start-up, the ion exchange resins should be conditioned before
putting into service. Maintaining demineralization efficiency of a two-bed
system is very important. This could be carried out in the following
manner.
(1)
Cation Unit
(a)
Backwash the unit using reverse flush (upward) to remove
trapped solids and prevent packing/channeling.
(b)
Proceed with normal regeneration by passing a strong acid
solution (sulfuric or hydrochloric acid) downward through
the resin.
(c)
Rinse by passing rinse water downward to flush out
minerals and excess acid.
(2)
Anion Unit
(a)
Backwash the unit using reverse flush to remove trapped
solids and prevent packing/channeling.
(b)
Proceed with normal regeneration by passing a strong base
solution, such as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) or soda
ash (sodium carbonate) downward through resin. The type
of base used depends on resin used.
(c)
Rinse by passing rinsed water downward to flush out
minerals and excess base.
The operating procedures, regeneration procedures, and flow rates
specified by the manufacturers should be followed to ensure proper
operation of the units.
As a minimum the conductivity of the water from the deionizing units
should be checked at start-up and every hour. Preferably, automatic
controls should be used to shut off the system when a preset level of
conductivity is exceeded. Records of each regeneration should be kept
and the number of gallons produced per cycle recorded.
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c.
Maintenance of Filters
The manufacturer’s service and maintenance guidelines should be
followed when servicing filters. Particulate filters should be changed
regularly (cartridge type) or backflushed (sand or mixed-media) to reduce
particulate matter and ensure a high clarity water. All backwash should be
done with finished product water. A turbidity of 0.1 NTU or less is highly
desirable. When carbon filters are used for taste and odor control, the bed
must be backwashed regularly to dislodge trapped particulates and reverse
carbon compaction. Sanitation of carbon beds with chlorine is not
recommended. Such a procedure could result in possible release of
chlorinated organics into the product water. Backflushing regularly is
sufficient.
After performing maintenance on a particulate filter, test for filter
performance and measure the pressure drop across the filter. The quality
of the product water should be tested by measuring turbidity, total
suspended solids (TSS), and heterotrophic plate count.
d.
Maintenance of UV Systems
Only ultraviolet light systems of the class A type, as approved by NSF
under Standard 55, are acceptable to DEP. The operation, maintenance
and installation of these units must follow the recommendations outlined
in that standard. The ultraviolet lamps should warm up for at least five
minutes before allowing their use in treating water. The following routine
maintenance is recommended for UV disinfection systems:
(1)
The quartz jacket of the lamp should be wiped at least once a
month.
(2)
Lamps should be replaced when the intensity meter indicates less
than 50 percent of the rated lamp intensity.
(3)
Check UV intensity of 253.7 nm daily.
(4)
Check accuracy of intensity meter monthly.
e.
Maintenance of Reverse Osmosis (RO) Units
(1)
Fouling of Membrane
RO units should be preceded by one micron particulate filters. For
water from municipal sources, a polishing filter usually is
sufficient. Pretreatment of feed water is essential to prevent
membrane fouling. For cellulose acetate membranes, an acid feed
often is required to prevent the formation of carbonate scale. For
hard feed water, a water softener or a polyphosphate feed which
keeps the hardness minerals from precipitating out of the
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membrane may be used. It is advisable to periodically flush the
system with a detergent solution to remove built-up solids.
(2)
Temperature of Feed Water
RO units are temperature-sensitive. Since membranes will degrade
much more quickly at elevated temperatures, water temperature
must be kept at 2°C to 35°C for cellulose acetate and polyamide,
2°C to 30°C for cellulose triacetate, and 2°C to 45°C for thin film
composite. However, lowering feed water temperature
dramatically reduces the production rate of product water. As a
rule of thumb, a 2°C reduction in water temperature reduces the
flow of product water by three percent.
(3)
Pressures
RO units are very pressure sensitive. It is very important to
maintain design pressure drop because a reduction in this operating
variable not only reduces production but also allows more salt
passage. Back pressure can build up as a result of deliberate
throttling, causing the same effect of increased salt passage.
Control of transmembrane pressure is critical to optimum
performance.
(4)
Monitoring RO System
To maintain a consistent quality of product water, an RO system
must be carefully monitored. Records of hourly measurements are
recommended for pH, feed water temperature, feed water TDS,
chlorine, product TDS, pump pressure, product flow, brine flow,
polyphosphate feed (if used), and softener records (if used).
2.
Equipment Maintenance
All tanks, pipelines, and equipment used to store, handle, and transport water
must be inspected, maintained, cleaned, and sanitized (see Section III.D. for
Storage Tanks).
3.
Containers
a.
Multiservice containers (i.e., containers which are intended by the bottler
for more than one use) shall be adequately cleaned, sanitized, and
inspected just prior to being filled, capped and sealed. Containers found to
be unsanitary or defective by the inspection are to be reprocessed or
discarded. All multiservice containers shall be washed, rinsed, and
sanitized by mechanical washers or by other methods giving adequate
sanitary results. Mechanical washers should be inspected as often as is
necessary to assure adequate performance. Records of physical
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maintenance, inspections and conditions found, and performance of the
mechanical washer are to be maintained by the plant operators.
b.
Multiservice shipping cases (i.e., shipping cases which are intended by the
bottler for more than one use) should be maintained in such condition as to
assure they will not contaminate the primary container or the product
water. Adequate dry or wet cleaning procedures should be performed as
often as necessary to maintain the cases in satisfactory condition.
4.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Solutions
Cleaning and sanitizing solutions utilized by the plant shall be sampled and tested
by the plant at least daily to assure adequate performance in the cleaning and
sanitizing operations. Records of these tests are to be maintained by the plant
operators.
5.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Bottling Room
The bottling room must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized daily. Upon
completion there should be no dust, grease, or oil film on the exterior of the
processing equipment.
At the finish of each daily bottling run, bottle caps should be removed from the
capper, cap bowl, and bin and placed into a sealed container. Caps only should be
handled by persons wearing sterile gloves or with clean hands sanitized with a
disinfectant.
At the end of each day’s operation, the filling room should be cleaned as follows:
a.
Brush off dust and debris from conveyor.
b.
Sweep floor and remove all unnecessary items, such as unfilled bottles and
bottle crates.
c.
Use detergent solution to wash frames on fillers and capper. Rinse with
product water.
d.
Scrub floor (and walls if needed) with detergent solution and nylon brush.
Hose down entire floor and walls.
e.
Clean floor drain.
f.
Clean all windows and window sills inside and outside of the filling
rooms.
g.
Carefully wipe off electrical panels, light fixtures, and other surfaces not
directly hoseable with a damp cloth. This includes top of filler, nozzle
hoses, air hoses, etc., because vibration of operating conveyor, filler or
capper can knock loose dust into product.
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Before the start of bottling, the filler room should be sanitized each day. Bottling
lines and the interiors of filler nozzles should be sanitized with ozonated water of
at least 0.1 ppm or preferably greater than 0.35 ppm, or chlorine solution of about
50 ppm.
6.
Sanitizing Operations
a.
Sanitizing Bottles
Sanitizing operations must be adequate to effectively sanitize the product
water-contact surfaces and any other critical area. Plant operators are to
maintain a record of the strength of the sanitizing solution and the time the
agent was in contact with the surface being sanitized. The following times
and strengths are considered a minimum:
(1)
Steam in enclosed system - At least 170°F for no less than
15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes.
(2)
Hot water in enclosed system - At least 170°F for no less than
15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes.
(3)
Chemical sanitizers shall be equivalent in bactericidal action to a
two-minute exposure of 50 ppm of available chlorine at 75°F when
used as an immersion or circulating solution. Chemical sanitizers
applied as a spray or fog shall have as a minimum 100 ppm of
available chlorine at 75°F or its equivalent in bactericidal action.
(4)
0.1 ppm ozone water solution in an enclosed system for at least
five minutes.
b.
Sanitizing Capper, Bottle Shield and Filler Spout
Capper, chute, filler spouts, and bottle shields should be sanitized with
200 ppm chlorine. The following procedures should be performed
immediately before bottling:
(1)
Capper - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and apply to all
surfaces of the capper coming into contact with caps.
(2)
Capper Chute - Moisten sponge in sanitizing solution and apply to
inside surfaces of chute.
(3)
Filler Spouts - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and apply
to all outside surfaces of spouts.
(4)
Bottled Shields - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and
apply to underside surfaces of shields. Remove corrosion or
foreign material if found.
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c.
Sanitizing Floor of Bottling Room
Bottling room should be sanitized every night as the last step in cleaning
bottling room. The following procedure is recommended:
(1)
Materials
Tank-type sprayer with 200 ppm chlorine
(2)
Procedure
After normal cleaning, spray entire floor with fine mist of chlorine
spray. Do not rinse chlorine-sanitized floor.
7.
Filling, Capping, or Sealing
During the process of filling, capping or sealing either single-service or
multiservice containers, the performance of the filler, capper or sealer is to be
monitored. Filled containers are to be visually or electronically inspected to
assure that they are sound, properly capped or sealed, coded and labeled.
Containers, which are not satisfactory, shall be reprocessed or rejected. Fillers
must be kept free from scale, evidence of oxidation and residue, and are to be
sanitized on a daily basis using the cleaning and sanitizing procedures specified in
III.D.1.b under Appendix A of this part of the manual. The filler reservoir shall
be kept covered at all times.
In accordance with filler manufacturer’s instructions, any parts, which are not
designed to be cleaned in-place, should be disassembled and removed. All of
these parts are to be cleansed and sanitized prior to reassembly using appropriate
cleansing and sanitizing procedures, as specified in I.E.6.a. above.
All surfaces of the filler, which do not contact water, are to be cleaned manually
so as to render all surfaces clean and free of any residues.
The filler should be prepared and all appropriate connections made in accordance
with the filler manufacturer’s instructions to place the filler in the clean-in-place
mode. To prepare the filler, the following procedures should be followed:
a.
An alkaline cleaning solution of appropriate strength should be
recirculated through the filler to provide effective cleaning of all product
contact surfaces, with minimum recirculation time of 20 minutes at a
temperature between 140°F and 170°F;
b.
The cleaning solution must be drained and followed with a product water
rinse-to-drain for the removal of all residual cleaner. This step may be
preceded by the application of an acidified rinse prior to the product water
rinse in order to neutralize any residual alkalinity on the water contact
surfaces.
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Following reassembly of all parts, the filler is to be sanitized in-place in
accordance with procedures specified in Section I.E.6. of Appendix A.
8.
Quality Assurance Procedures
To assure that the plants production of bottled drinking water is in compliance
with DEP’s requirements, the plant should conduct the following tests. All tests
must be performed by laboratories certified by the DEP.
Test for microbiological contaminants weekly and for all other primary maximum
contaminant levels annually. Where a surface source is used, plants shall monitor
for turbidity every 4 hours. Source water from other than a public water system
should be analyzed for VOCs and unregulated contaminants annually. Systems,
which fluoridate shall conduct operational monitoring for fluoride at least once
each day. At least once each 3 months, a bacteriological swab and/or rinse count
should be made from no less than four containers and closures selected just prior
to filling and sealing. Three of the four samples should not exceed more than one
bacteria per milliliter of container capacity and not over one colony per square
centimeter of closure area, and should be free of coliform organisms.
9.
Packaging Processes
Packaging processes and materials shall not transmit contaminants or deleterious
substances to the bottled water and shall conform to the applicable food additive
regulations in CFR Title 21 and NSF Standard 61.
a.
Containers and closures for bottled water must be manufactured from
approved materials.
b.
Only sanitary, nontoxic lubricants shall be used on container contact
surfaces.
10.
Storage Facilities
Clean, dry storage facilities must be provided for containers, closure materials,
paper for wrapping, adhesives and other production materials to prevent
contamination. The materials are to be stored on pallets above the floor and away
from any wall to facilitate cleaning.
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F.
Personnel
The plant management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to assure the
following:
1.
Cleanliness
All persons, while working on bottled water preparation facilities or equipment
which manufactures and packages bottled water should:
a.
Wear clean outer garments and maintain a high degree of personal
cleanliness while on duty.
b.
Wash their hands thoroughly in a proper hand-washing facility before
starting work, after each absence from the work station, and at any other
time when the hands may have become soiled or contaminated. Hands are
to be sanitized at frequent intervals using a sponge saturated with an
approved sanitizing solution or by immersing the hands in the solution at
capping, packing and faucet installation stations.
c.
Remove all insecure jewelry and, during periods where the process is
manipulated by hand, remove from hands any jewelry that cannot be
adequately sanitized.
d.
If gloves are used, maintain them in an intact, clean and sanitary
condition. Such gloves should be of an impermeable material except
where their usage would be inappropriate or incompatible with the work
involved.
e.
Wear hair nets, headbands, caps, or other effective hair restraints.
f.
Not store clothing or other personal belongings, or drink beverages in
areas where the bottled water product is exposed or in areas used for
washing equipment or utensils.
g.
Consume food only in designated dining areas. Areas where product
water utensils or manufacturing equipment are stored shall not be
designated as a dining area.
h.
Not use tobacco in any form during production. Employees are to use
tobacco only in designated areas. An employee tobacco-use area shall not
be designated for that purpose if the use of tobacco may result in
contamination of product water, equipment utensils, or other items
needing protection.
i.
Take any other necessary precautions to prevent contamination of the
product water with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but
not limited to, perspiration, cosmetics, chemicals or medicines.
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2.
Disease Control
No person affected by disease of a communicable form, or while affected with
boils, sores, infected wounds, or other abnormal sources of microbiological
contamination, shall be permitted to work in a bottled water plant.
3.
Education and Training
Personnel responsible for identifying sanitation failures or product contamination
should have sufficient background education or experience, or combination
thereof, to provide a level of competency necessary for overseeing the production
of safe bottled drinking water. Workers and supervisors should receive
appropriate training in proper operating techniques and bottled water protection
principles. The IBWA’s “Technical Training Course,” or its equivalent, is an
example of acceptable basic course for this requirement. This course should be
taken at least annually.
4.
Supervision
Responsibility for assuring compliance by all personnel with the requirements of
this part should be assigned to competent supervisory personnel. This person
should receive appropriate training for this purpose.
5.
Activities
Activities unrelated to the bottling process such as sleeping, eating, etc. are
prohibited in all working and storage areas.
6.
Sanitizing Hands
It is essential for workers to keep hands clean and sanitized when working on the
“clean” side of the bottling plant. Hand-washing facilities should be conveniently
located in the bottling area. If no hand-washing stations are convenient, dip
stations or sanitizers should be provided.
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APPENDIX A
II.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR VENDED WATER
SYSTEMS
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide standards for the operation and maintenance of
drinking water vending machines. This information has been taken in part from
standards established by NAMA and NSF. Readers also are referred to DEP’s
Public
Water Supply Manual Part V
, DEP ID: 383-3110-111, available on DEP’s Web site, for
additional operation and maintenance standards that may apply to their system.
B.
Machine Location
1.
Drinking water vending machines are to be located in a room, area or space,
which can be maintained in a clean condition. The immediate area in which the
equipment is located is to be well-lit and ventilated. In addition, the counter or
floor where the machines are located must be smooth, of cleanable construction,
and be capable of withstanding repeated washing and scrubbing.
2.
Each machine is to be located so that the space around and under the machine can
be easily cleaned and maintained.
C.
Employee Training
The owners/operators of drinking water vending machines must provide competent and
properly trained staff to oversee the operation and routine maintenance of the machines.
Personnel are to be trained in the specific types of processes and equipment used in their
machines. Those individuals operating reverse osmosis filters or deionization units, or
where chemicals are added to the water, are to receive specific training on the operation
of these systems.
D.
Operations and Maintenance Plan
Each vended water system must develop an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan,
which includes a testing program covering the routine servicing of each water vending
machine (WVM). Copies of the service manuals containing cleaning and sanitization
procedures, field-testing procedures, component replacement schedules and component
servicing instructions are to be included in the O&M Plan. In addition, the O&M Plan
should contain at least the following information:
1.
A description of the treatment processes used in each machine as identified by
their model number
2.
A detailed explanation of the system’s normal operation procedures
3.
Information on the frequency and procedures for maintaining and cleaning the
machine
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4.
Staffing and training
5.
Records and reporting system
6.
Safety program and emergency response plan
7.
Manufacturer’s manuals
The O&M Plan should be reviewed and updated at least yearly and revised to
reflect changes in the operation and maintenance of the machines. The plan
should be bound and placed in locations which are readily accessible to the
vending water system’s personnel, and must be presented upon request to DEP.
E.
Service and Maintenance
At every service, inspect all interior parts and surfaces of the water vending machine in
accordance with the service manual. The vending stage and dispensing nozzle must be
thoroughly cleaned and sanitized each time the machine is serviced. All exterior surfaces
are to be well maintained and visibly clean. A record of all cleaning and maintenance
operations shall be kept by the operator for each water vending machine and is to be
available for inspection upon request. A copy of the cleaning and servicing records
should be kept inside each machine.
1.
Maintenance Schedule
The following guidelines are recommended minimums. However, cleaning will
vary depending on local water conditions and the amount of water produced.
Each water vending machine must be maintained individually in accordance with
its own particular location requirements. At every service the following should be
done:
a.
General Internal Cleaning
(1)
Thoroughly inspect all inside surfaces of the machine to be sure
they are clean.
(2)
Wash, rinse and sanitize the dispensing nozzle. Clean the vending
stage thoroughly; then wash, rinse and sanitize the stage.
b.
Check Operational Parameters
(1)
Check all lines for leaks.
(2)
Check dates of all replaceable components in conformation with
change-out schedule and replace outdated and/or used up
components. These would include the following items: coarse
prefilter(s), carbon filter(s) or block(s), RO and DI systems (if
applicable), and UV light intensity. Follow the manufacturer’s
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instructions to replace, as needed, indicated by but not limited to
change in vended water quality, flow rate, pressure or as scheduled
according to their individual rated capacities, etc.
(3)
Check the finished product water storage tank, if applicable.
Follow the manufacturer’s cleaning and servicing instruction.
(4)
Cycle the drinking and/or purified water and check volume and
applicable physical parameters. Record the reports on the
operating report.
c.
General External Cleaning
(1)
Clean the outside surface of the machines with a safe, nontoxic
industrial cleaner. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
F.
Sampling
NAMA-approved machines connected to an approved community water system are
eligible for a permit-by-rule. For such permitted machines, the vended water from each
machine shall be monitored for total coliforms once every month. In addition, the vended
water system shall sample the vended water for lead, cadmium and total dissolved solids
(TDS) annually.
For non-NAMA-approved machines or machines connected to an unapproved
community water system, the vended water from each machine shall be monitored for
total coliforms once every week. In addition, each year the vended water system shall
sample the vended water from one-third of the system’s water vending machines for all
primary MCLs so that all machines are sampled once every three years. All water
analyses must be done by a laboratory certified by DEP.
Any water vending machine having a water sample, which exceeds an MCL for any
parameter, is to be taken out of use until it is serviced and subsequent check samples
indicate a level below the MCL.
A more frequent analysis of the above should be done by the water vending machine
system if there is concern that the vended water is being affected by contaminants in the
source water.
Samples for analysis should be collected by laboratory personnel or individuals who have
been trained in proper collection techniques. To simulate actual dispensing conditions,
no extraordinary flushing should be conducted prior to the collection of the samples.
Any water vending machine having a positive-coliform water sample shall be taken out
of service until it is completely serviced and all water contact parts are sanitized. An
additional sample with acceptable results is to be obtained prior to placing the machine in
service.
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Vending machines utilizing silver-impregnated carbon filters in the treatment process
should be tested for silver at least once every six months. Any water vending machine
having a sample that exceeds 0.05 mg/L of silver is to be taken out of use until it is
serviced and subsequent samples for silver are below this standard.
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APPENDIX A
III.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR BULK WATER HAULERS
A.
General
The purpose of this section is to provide basic information on the operation and
maintenance procedures for bulk water hauling systems. Information for this section has
been taken in part from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture standards. Readers
also should refer to DEP’s
Public Water Supply Manual Part V
, DEP ID: 383-3110-111,
available on DEP’s Web site, for additional information on the operation and
maintenance requirements that apply to public water supply systems.
B.
Operations
Tank trucks, loading and unloading facilities, and other equipment used to transport bulk
water are to be maintained clean and sanitary at all times. Tanks previously used to
transport toxic materials, petroleum products, or other deleterious substances shall not be
used to haul drinking water.
C.
Records
1.
For each vessel, daily records are to be maintained that include the number of
gallons delivered and all cleansing and/or sanitizing activities conducted on the
tank truck exterior, interior, risers, connections, pumps, hoses, etc.
2.
Such records shall include date, time and location of pickup or delivery,
concentration of residual disinfection, and the results of any other water quality
analysis which are conducted.
D.
Storage Tanks
There should be ample room around a tank for inspection and maintenance. Bulk water
storage tanks used to transport and store water shall be inspected, maintained, cleaned
and sanitized according to the following guidelines.
1.
Storage Tanks
a.
Storage tanks should be inspected for cleanliness on a monthly basis and
shall be kept free of scale, evidence of oxidation, and residue.
b.
Storage tanks also should be cleaned on a monthly basis by sanitizing with
one of the following:
(1)
Soaking in a chlorine water solution of 200 ppm for a minimum of
five minutes contact time
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(2)
Spray wet surface with 200 ppm chlorine water solution (This is to
be used on surfaces that are not reached by the above soaking
treatment.)
(3)
Soaking in a 0.1 ppm ozone water solution for not less than ten
minutes contact time
(4)
Flushing with product water for at least 30 minutes
2.
Maintaining Tanks
Tanks for water transport or storage must be maintained in good repair and
regularly sanitized to prevent microbiological contamination of the water. Before
entering a tank to work on the interior surfaces, the following precautions are to
be taken:
a.
Notify a foreman or other responsible employee that tank is out-of-service
and work is being performed inside it.
b.
Lock all valves to the tank.
c.
Verify that tank is free of water, air pressure, and vacuum.
d.
When using an electrical cord with light, the cord must be waterproof with
no insulation breaks, be properly grounded, and have a shielded bulb.
e.
Set up a small forced-draft blower outside the tank to blow air into the
tank via a flexible duct. The suction of blower should be placed so that
exhausted air from the tank will not be recirculated into the tank.
3.
Cleaning/Sanitizing Tanks
The following steps are necessary for cleaning tanks:
a.
Isolate tank from other tanks and lines by closing valves. Inspect valves
for tightness and leaks.
b.
Carry out safety precautions as outlined in Section B.
c.
Remove, clean, and re-install air filter and vent piping.
d.
Add approximately 50 gallons of 100 to 200 ppm chlorine solution on to
the tank. If done by spray, allow 15 to 20 minutes contact time.
e.
If a wrench is used for removing spray heads, be careful not to drop the
wrench. Tank linings are thin, delicate coverings and are easily broken by
a dropped wrench.
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f.
Rubber boots may be worn only after washing them in 200 to 400 ppm
chlorine solution. Be sure that no dirt is on the soles of the boots.
g.
Inspect linings and fittings.
h.
Remove and clean spray heads, if present.
i.
Sanitize the sight glass or plastic tube by pumping chlorine solution
upward through it. If the tube needs scrubbing, remove it for cleaning,
sanitizing, and rinsing with disinfected product water.
j.
In all tanks, always start at the highest point so that “dirt” doesn’t fall on
to areas already scrubbed. For horizontal tanks, start scrubbing at the top
of the inside end panel, dipping the brush into the chlorine solution
frequently. For vertical tanks, start scrubbing at the top.
k.
Scrub manhole cover and gasket (replace and seal, if spray system is
used).
l.
Drain scrubbing solution from tank.
m.
Rinse with 100 ppm chlorinated water, followed by a rinse with product
water. Use lightly chlorinated product water (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) if this water
is to be stored in the tank. Rinse until testing shows the tank to be clean
and free of impurities.
n.
Close all drains.
o.
Put tank into use, or alternatively for distilled water tanks, add about
1/6 of a tank of water.
For purified water, the frequency of tank cleaning may be reduced by
ozonating, at night, once each one to two days, as long as tank is made of
stainless steel or other material resistant to ozone oxidation. In this way,
bacteria growth may be controlled in water storage tanks over long
periods.
4.
Cleaning Tank Air Vent Filters
Storage tank air filters should be dismantled, cleaned, and sanitized, or the
element replaced each time the tank is scrubbed. Each time the filter is removed,
clean filter piping by dismantling.
E.
Bulk Transport and Transfer Procedures
1.
Sanitation
a.
Prior to filling, tank interior should be cleaned, flushed with potable water,
sanitized with not less than 100 ppm chlorine water solution for a contact
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period of not less than 20 minutes, and rinsed with potable water. The
dome cover shall be closed immediately after cleaning.
b.
Tanks used for the transport of dairy products must have the interior of the
tank inspected with a black lamp (ultraviolet) after cleaning and flushing
as outlined in E.1.a. above. Tanks shall be rejected for use when odors or
contaminants are found or suspected.
c.
All hoses, connections, and fittings shall be sanitized with a concentrated
solution of chlorine (three ounces of 5-1/4 percent household bleach to
two gallons of water) by brushing solution on all exposed parts.
2.
Fluid Transfer
a.
Tank trucks or tank trailers should be filled through the fitting on the inner
dome cover when the tail pipe cannot be used.
b.
After 20 to 30 gallons have been delivered into the tank, water quality in
the tank should be checked as follows:
(1)
Stop filling.
(2)
Open discharge valve.
(3)
Inspect water as it discharges. If water has unpleasant odor and/or
looks dirty, it shall be rejected for use.
(4)
Check disinfectant residual.
c.
When these checks indicate satisfactory water quality, proceed to fill the
tank.
d.
The dome cover shall be closed and sealed after filling to the volume
desired.
e.
The tank discharge valve cover shall be closed and sealed after filling.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 79

 
APPENDIX A
IV.
OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS FOR RETAIL WATER
FACILITIES
A.
General
The purpose of this chapter is to provide basic guidelines on the operation and
maintenance of retail water facilities. This information has been taken in part, from
standards established by the FDA under 21 CFR Part 129 (processing and bottling of
bottled drinking water) and NSF International (NSF). Readers also are referred to DEP’s
Public Water Supply Manual Part V
, DEP ID: 383-3110-111, available on DEP’s Web
site, for additional operation and maintenance standards which may apply to their system.
B.
Records
The following are the types of records that should be maintained at a retail water facility.
1.
Facility and Equipment
All design drawings, specifications, and all construction documents should be
retained in a safe location for the life of the facility regardless of any changes.
Detailed records as to the manufacturer, make, model, installation date, and
installers should also be retained for each piece of equipment. Repairs of any
kind also should be recorded.
2.
Operation
Records should be maintained of all inspections, cleaning and sanitizing activities
which should include the names of the persons involved, date, time, and the
results of the inspection or activity. These records should be maintained for at
least three years. Sanitary surveys conducted on the source(s) of raw water
should be retained for not less than ten years.
Water quality analysis data for each source, each product and any intermediate
samples also are to be retained. Bacteriological and turbidity analysis data are to
be retained for at least five years; chemical, radiological and organic analysis data
are to be retained for at least ten years. All water quality analyses data should
clearly indicate which tests were done in-house and which were done by DEP
approved laboratories. In addition to identifying the person(s) conducting the
tests, the laboratory procedure or technique used should be recorded.
3.
Chemicals
Accurate records are to be kept on all types of chemicals used in the facility, when
and from whom purchased, and where and how stored. Where hazardous or toxic
chemicals are involved, it is recommended that access be restricted to essential
personnel and that detailed records be retained on their purchase and use. Daily
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records on the amount of each chemical used should be kept and retained for at
least two years.
4.
Personnel
Retail water facilities should maintain up-to-date records for each of their
employees. Records should include the employee’s name, address, telephone
number and other pertinent background information. These records should be
retained for at least five years.
5.
Emergency Response
A critical element in the operation of any drinking water system is the ability to
respond to an emergency situation. For that reason, it is very important that the
owners and operators maintain accurate and up-to-date records on the names,
addresses, telephone numbers and responsibilities of each individual employed.
Emergency response plans should be updated at least annually. Detailed
instructions on how to implement a product recall and initiate public notification
should be provided in the emergency response plan.
C.
Buildings and Grounds
Buildings, fixtures, and other physical facilities must be kept in good repair and are to be
maintained in a sanitary condition. Cleaning operations should be conducted in such a
manner as to minimize the danger of contamination of product contact surfaces. Only
materials required for the proper operation and maintenance of the facility and equipment
are to be stored in the facility. These materials shall be properly identified and stored in a
safe manner.
1.
Buildings
a.
Buildings must be vermin-proof and kept in good repair. Only pesticides
approved for use by the FDA and/or registered with the EPA shall be used
for vermin control.
b.
Walls and ceilings in the facility must be kept clean. Overhead structures,
fixtures, and ducts are to be kept free from accumulations of dust and
other contaminants.
c.
Floors are to be kept clean and free of waste, litter, and extraneous
material. Floors in the filling areas should be cleaned daily and sanitized
with a 200 ppm chlorine solution.
d.
Doors and windows must be kept clean and in good repair.
e.
Ventilation equipment should not create conditions that may contribute to
product contamination by airborne contaminants and must be kept free of
accumulation of dust and grease.
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 81

f.
Storage facilities must be kept clean and dry, and provide protection from
splash, insects, dust, and other contaminants.
g.
All refuse must be stored in properly identified, covered containers.
2.
Grounds
The grounds about a retail water facility under the control of the operator must be
kept free from conditions which may result in the contamination of the product
water or manufacturing facilities. This is to be achieved by:
a.
Prompt elimination from within the immediate vicinity of the facility
buildings of any litter, waste or refuse that may attract or provide a
breeding place or harborage for rodents, insects and other pests.
b.
Adequately draining areas that may otherwise cause contamination
through seepage or by providing a breeding place for insects or
microorganisms.
D.
Sanitary Operations
1.
Whenever air under pressure is directed at product water or a product water-
contact surface, it must be free of oil, dust, rust, excessive moisture, and
extraneous materials.
2.
Containers and caps or seals shall be stored in sanitary closures and kept clean
and dry until used. Prior to use they must be examined and as necessary, washed,
rinsed, and sanitized.
3.
Filling, capping, closing, sealing, and packaging of containers shall be done in a
sanitary manner to preclude contamination of the retail drinking water.
E.
Processes and Controls
1.
Treatment of Product Water
The treatment of retail water by distillation, ion-exchange filtration, ultraviolet
treatment, reverse osmosis, or any other process shall be done in a manner to
achieve the optimum level of treatment. All facilities and treatment processes
approved by permit from DEP shall be operated and maintained in accordance
with DEP’s Rules and Regulations. Chemicals approved under NSF’s Standard
60 are accepted. Product water samples shall be taken and analyzed as often as
necessary to assure uniformity and effectiveness of the treatment processes.
2.
Equipment Maintenance
All tanks, pipelines, and equipment used to store and handle water must be
inspected, maintained, cleaned, and sanitized (see Section III.D. for Storage
Tanks).
383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 82

3.
Containers and Washing Equipment
Containers shall be adequately cleaned, sanitized, and inspected just prior to being
filled, capped and sealed. Containers found to be unsanitary or defective by the
inspection are to be reprocessed or discarded. All multiservice containers shall be
washed, rinsed, and sanitized by mechanical washers or by other methods giving
adequate sanitary results. Mechanical washers should be inspected as often as
necessary to assure adequate performance. Records of physical maintenance,
inspections and conditions found, and performance of the mechanical washers are
to be maintained by the plant operators.
4.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Solutions
Cleaning and sanitizing solutions utilized by the facility shall be tested by the
plant at least daily to assure adequate performance in the cleaning and sanitizing
operations. Records of these tests are to be maintained by the facility operators.
5.
Cleaning and Sanitizing Bottling Area
The bottling area must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized daily. Upon
completion there should be no dust, grease, or oil film on the exterior of the
processing equipment.
6.
Sanitizing Operations
a.
Sanitizing Containers
Sanitizing operations must be adequate to effectively sanitize the product
water-contact surfaces and any other critical area. Facility operators are to
maintain a record of the strength of the sanitizing solution and the time the
agent was in contact with the surface being sanitized. The following
criteria are considered minimums:
(1)
Steam in enclosed system - At least 170°F for no less than
15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes
(2)
Hot water in enclosed system - At least 170°F for no less than
15 minutes or at least 200°F for no less than five minutes
(3)
Chemical sanitizers shall be equivalent in bactericidal action to a
two-minute exposure of 50 ppm of available chlorine at 75°F when
used as an immersion or circulating solution. Chemical sanitizers
applied as a spray or fog shall have as a minimum 100 ppm of
available chlorine at 75°F or its equivalent in bactericidal action.
(4)
0.1 ppm ozone water solution in an enclosed system for five
minutes
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b.
Sanitizing Capper, Bottle Shield and Filler Spout
Capper, capper chute, filler spouts, and bottle shields should be sanitized
with 200 ppm chlorine. The following procedures should be performed
immediately before bottling:
(1)
Capper - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and apply to all
surfaces of the capper coming into contact with caps.
(2)
Capper Chute - Moisten sponge in sanitizing solution and apply
sponge to inside surfaces of chute.
(3)
Filler Spouts - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and apply
to all outside surfaces of spouts.
(4)
Bottle Shields - Moisten sponge with sanitizing solution and apply
to underside surfaces of shields. Remove corrosion or foreign
matter if found.
c.
Sanitizing Floor of Filling Area
Filling area should be sanitized every night as the last step in cleaning
bottling area. The following procedure is recommended:
(1)
Materials
Tank-type sprayer with 200 ppm chlorine
(2)
Procedure
After normal cleaning, spray entire floor with fine mist of chlorine
spray. Do not rinse chlorine-sanitized floor.
7.
Filling, Capping, or Sealing
During the process of filling, capping or sealing containers, the performance of
the filler, capper or sealer is to be monitored. Filled containers are to be visually
or electronically inspected to assure they are sound, properly capped or sealed,
coded and labeled. Containers, which are not satisfactory, shall be reprocessed or
rejected. Fillers must be kept free from scale and evidence of oxidation and
residue, and are to be sanitized on a daily basis using the cleaning and sanitizing
procedures specified in Section IV.E.6.a. The filler reservoir shall be kept
covered at all times.
In accordance with filler manufacturer’s instructions, any parts that are not
designed to be cleaned in-place, should be disassembled and removed. All of
these parts are to be cleansed and sanitized prior to reassembly using appropriate
cleansing and sanitizing procedures, as specified in Section IV.E.6.a.
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All surfaces of the filler that do not contact water are to be cleaned manually to
render all surfaces clean and free of any residues.
The filler should be prepared and all appropriate connections made in accordance
with the filler manufacturer’s instructions to place the filler in the clean-in-place
mode. To prepare the filler, the following procedures should be followed:
a.
An alkaline cleaning solution of appropriate strength should be
recirculated through the filler to provide effective cleaning of all product
contact surfaces, with minimum recirculation time of 20 minutes at a
temperature between 140°F and 170°F;
b.
The cleaning solution must be drained and followed with a product water
rinse-to-drain for the removal of all residual cleaner. This step may be
preceded by the application of an acidified rinse prior to the product water
rinse in order to neutralize any residual alkalinity on the water contact
surfaces.
Following reassembly of all parts, the filler is to be sanitized in-place in
accordance with procedures specified in Section IV.E.6.a.
8.
Quality Assurance Procedures
To assure that the production of retail drinking water is in compliance with DEP’s
requirements, the facility should conduct the following tests. All tests must be
performed by laboratories certified by DEP.
Test for microbiological contaminants weekly and for all other primary maximum
contaminant levels annually. Source water from other than a public water system
should be analyzed for VOCs and unregulated contaminants annually. Facilities,
which fluoridate shall conduct operational monitoring for fluoride at least once
each day. At least once every three months, a bacteriological swab and/or rinse
count should be made from no less than four containers and closures selected just
prior to filling and sealing. Three of the four samples should not exceed more
than one bacteria per milliliter of container capacity and not over one colony per
square centimeter of closure area, and should be free of coliform organisms.
9.
Packaging
Packaging processes and materials shall not transmit contaminants or deleterious
substances to the bottled water and shall conform to the applicable food additive
regulations in CFR Title 21 and NSF Standard 61.
a.
Containers and closures for retail water must be manufactured from
approved materials.
b.
Only sanitary, nontoxic lubricants shall be used on container contact
surfaces.
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10.
Storage Facilities
Clean, dry storage facilities must be provided for containers, closure materials,
paper for wrapping, adhesives and other production materials to prevent
contamination. The materials are to be stored on pallets above the floor and away
from any wall to facilitate cleaning.
F.
Personnel
The facility management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to assure the
following:
1.
Cleanliness
All persons working on retail water preparation facilities or equipment which
manufactures and packages retail drinking water should:
a.
Wear clean outer garments and maintain a high degree of personal
cleanliness while on duty.
b.
Wash their hands thoroughly in a proper hand-washing facility before
starting work, after each absence from the work station, and at any other
time when the hands may have become soiled or contaminated.
c.
Remove all jewelry.
d.
Maintain gloves, if used, in an intact, clean and sanitary condition. Such
gloves should be of an impermeable material except where their usage
would be inappropriate or incompatible with the work involved.
e.
Wear hair nets, headbands, caps, or other effective hair restraints.
f.
Consume food only in designated dining areas. Areas where product
water utensils or manufacturing equipment are stored shall not be
designated as a dining area.
g.
Not use tobacco in any form during production. Employees are to use
tobacco only in designated areas. An employee tobacco-use area shall not
be designated for that purpose if the use of tobacco may result in
contamination of product water, equipment, utensils, or other items
needing protection.
h.
Take any other necessary precautions to prevent contamination of the
product water with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but
not limited to, perspiration, cosmetics, chemicals or medicines.
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2.
Disease Control
No person affected by disease of a communicable form, or while affected with
boils, sores, infected wounds, or other abnormal sources of microbiological
contamination, shall be permitted to work in a retail water facility.
3.
Education and Training
The owners/operators of retail water facilities must provide competent and
properly trained staff to oversee the operation and routine maintenance of the
facility. Personnel are to be trained in the specific types of processes and
equipment used in their facilities. Those individuals operating reverse osmosis
filters, deionization units, or where chemicals are added to the water are to receive
specific training on the operation of these systems.
4.
Sanitizing Hands
It is essential for workers to keep hands clean when working on “clean” side of
the facility. Hand-washing facilities should be conveniently located in the
bottling area. If no hand-washing stations are convenient, dip stations or sanitizer
should be provided.
G.
Operations and Maintenance Plan
Each retail water facility must develop an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Plan
which includes a testing program covering the routine servicing of each treatment unit.
Copies of the service manuals containing cleaning and sanitization procedures, field
testing procedures, component replacement schedules and component servicing
instructions are to be included in the O&M Plan. In addition, the O&M Plan should
contain at least the following information:
1.
A description of the treatment processes used
2.
A detailed explanation of the facilities normal operation procedures
3.
Information on the frequency and procedures for maintaining and cleaning unit
process
4.
Staffing and training
5.
Records and reporting system
6.
Safety program and emergency response plan
7.
Manufacturer’s manuals
The O&M Plan should be reviewed and updated at least yearly and revised as necessary
to reflect changes in the operation and maintenance of the facility. The plan must be
bound and placed in locations that are readily accessible to the facility’s personnel, and
must be presented upon request to DEP.
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383-2126-303 / DRAFT June 24, 2006 / Page 88
H.
Service and Maintenance
Where water-dispensing machines are used, each machine is to be serviced at intervals
specified by the manufacturer. At each service, all interior parts and surfaces of the
machine are to be cleaned and sanitized in accordance with the service manual. All
exterior surfaces are to be well maintained and visibly clean. A record of all cleaning and
maintenance operations shall be kept by the operator for each machine and is to be
available for inspection upon request.

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