1. CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS
  2. INSPECTION MANUAL
  3. BUREAU OF AIR QUALITY
  4. DIVISION OF SOURCE TESTING AND MONITORING
    1. Revision N
    2. o. 2January 2000
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. LEVEL I
      3. LEVEL II
      4. LEVEL III
      5. LEVEL IV
      6. APPENDIX A
      7. RECORDS REVIEW
      8. RECORDS REVIEW
      9. APPENDIX B
      10. CONTRAVES Model(s): 400
      11. Value Comment
      12. DATATEST Model(s):301
      13. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): MC 2000
      14. 1100M
      15. Setting Value Default Description
      16. Fault Codes
      17. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): LS541
      18. Setting Value Default Description
      19. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): RM-41
      20. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): CM50
      21. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): SM810
      22. LEAR SIEGLER Model(s): SM 8100
      23. GE/REUTER-STOKES Model(s): STACK-TRACKER 2001
      24. Model(s): OPM 2000
      25. Data Menu
      26. Calibrate Menu
      27. Setup Menu
      28. SERVOMEX Model(s): 1400B
      29. THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS INC. Model(s): 42
      30. THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS INC. Model(s): 43B
      31. UNITED SCIENCES INCORPORATED - USI Model(s): 500C
      32. APPENDIX C
      33. MAJOR VARIATIONS:

274-0300-003/March 11, 2000
CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS

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INSPECTION MANUAL

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BUREAU OF AIR QUALITY

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DIVISION OF SOURCE TESTING AND MONITORING
Revision N
o
. 2
January 2000
2741-BK-DEP1225

274-0300-003/March 11, 2000
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
BUREAU OF AIR QUALITY
DOCUMENT NUMBER: 274-0300-003
TITLE:
Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems Inspection Manual (Staff Handbook)
EFFECTIVE DATE:
January 1, 2000 - Official copy to be revised January 1, 2001
AUTHORITY:
Air Pollution Control Act (35 PS. §§ 4001 - 4015)
POLICY:
A brief description of continuouus emission monitoring system operational principles and
audit procedures, including checklists for use by Bureau personnel conducting the audits.
PURPOSE:
Certain industrial and technical sources are required to continuously monitor emissions of key pollutants
and/or operational parameters to demonstrate compliance with emission standards. The Bureau's
Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems Inspection Manual contains the following:
1. A description of procedures used by the Bureau and Regional Offices to conduct various levels of
quality assurance auditing activities at existing monitoring installations.
2. Generalized checklists for use by the Bureau and Regional Offices during such activities.
3. Copies of the electronics checklists that have been provided to the Bureau by facilities as part of their
monitoring plan and an explanation of the operating procedures of certain analyzers for the benefit of
Bureau and Regional Office personnel responsible for conducting the audit activities.
From time to time, the manual must be revised in order to include information for new analyzer types or to
reflect changes in the audit procedures used by the Bureau and Regional Offices.
APPLICABILITY:
Personnel of the Bureau's Continuous Emission Monitoring Section and of the Regional Offices who are
responsible for conducting quality assurance auditing procedures at facilities operating continuous
emission monitoring systems will use this document as a guide to conducting the activities.
DISCLAIMER:
The policies and procedures outlined in this guidance document are intended to supplement existing
requirements. Nothing in the policies or procedures shall affect regulatory requirements.
The policies and procedures herein are not an adjudication or a regulation. There is no intent on the part of
the Department to give these rules that weight or defence. This document establishes the framework, within
which DEP will exercise its administrative discretion in the future. DEP reserves the discretion to deviate
from this policy statement if circumstances warrant.
PAGE LENGTH: 62
LOCATION: Vol 02, Tab 39

274-0300-003/March 11, 2000
CONTENTS
Introduction...........................................................................1
Audit Types
Level I..................................................................................2
Level II.................................................................................3
Level III................................................................................4
Level IV ...............................................................................5
Appendices
Appendix A
Generalized checklists for CEMSs and CSASs.
Appendix B
Electronics checklists for analyzers
Appendix C

274-0300-003/March 11, 2000
Operating principles of analyzers

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 1
INTRODUCTION
In accordance with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Air Pollution Control Act, the Federal
Clean Air Act and regulations adopted under those acts, many sources throughout Pennsylvania
have installed and are operating continuous emission monitoring and coal sampling & analysis
systems (CEMS’s & CSAS’s). These systems measure and record various emission
parameters including opacity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen
chloride, and other sulfur compounds. Emission rates, concentrations, opacities and
temperatures are reported on a quarterly basis to determine compliance with a host of federal
and state standards. The performance characteristics of these monitoring systems are evaluated
initially through performance specification testing. This testing is intended to demonstrate the
ability of these systems to meet minimum standards for reliability and capability at the time of
installation.
In order to allow the Department of Environmental Protection (Department) to determine the
continued accuracy and reliability of the installed systems, a four level Inspection and Audit
program was developed. Levels I, III, and IV are conducted by Central Office personnel. Level
II is conducted by personnel from the Regional Office in which the monitored source is located.
This manual primarily contains procedures to be used by personnel conducting a Level II
inspection. Descriptions of the three other audits have also been included for reference. It is
recommended that, prior to visiting a company to conduct an inspection or audit, the company
be contacted, informed of the purpose of the visit, and requested to have the necessary
personnel and information available at the time of the visit. Copies of the appropriate checklists
may be forwarded to the company prior to visiting.
Any questions or comments related to the use or improvement of this manual would be greatly
appreciated and should be directed to the Bureau of Air Quality, Continuous Emission
Monitoring Section, 12th fl. - RCSOB, Harrisburg, Pa. 17105, (717) 787-6547.
Related environmental information is available electronically via the Internet. Access the DEP
Web Site at http://www.dep.state.pa.us (choose Information by Environmental Subject/choose
Air Quality).

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 2
LEVEL I
EMISSIONS REPORT REVIEW
CONDUCTED QUARTERLY
I.
The emissions reports are checked for general compliance in both format & content
against the requirements of the Recordkeeping and Reporting section of the
Departments Continuous Source Monitoring Manual. Both the company and the
Regional Office are notified of any discrepancies requiring correction by the company.
II.
The emissions reports are then processed through the CEM Data Processing System
(CEMDPS) according to the procedures specified in the CEMDPS Manual. Twenty
five percent of both the manually and disk-entered reports are then selected to audit
for accuracy of the data entry.
III.
The quarterly calibration results are also checked. If the results indicate violation of the
applicable performance specification, the appropriate data must be invalidated and
both the company and Regional Office notified of the need for corrective action and
recalibration.
IV.
Summaries of the Quarterly Emissions and Data Availability reports are generated and
copies of all are submitted to the DEP Regional Office, EPA, and the company.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 3
LEVEL II
FIELD SYSTEMS INSPECTION
CONDUCTED RANDOMLY OR AS NEEDED
I.
System configuration and equipment inspection.
A.
Check for any modifications made to the system since the last inspection.
B.
Check the operational status and condition of all equipment associated with the
monitoring system using the appropriate checklist chosen from Appendix A of this
manual. This check includes:
1.
Sampling interface, transport, and conditioning.
2.
Calibration and analysis.
3.
Maintenance and data handling.
II.
Diagnostic check of analyzer electronics.
A.
Locate appropriate checklist in Appendix B of this manual.
B.
Collect electronics checkpoint data as specified and note any changes from
previous values or values outside of specified normals.
III.
Operational audit. Request company to perform manual daily calibration using
company standards that have been verified to meet the requirements of the
Departments Continuous Source Monitoring Manual (CEM Manual).
IV.
Data Inspection. Obtain access to the company's continuous emission monitoring data
file. Check the data from the previous and current quarters, using the “Data Inspection”
section of the checklist found in Appendix A of this manual. This inspection includes:
A.
Compliance with the Recordkeeping and Reporting section of the Department's
CEM Manual.
B.
Compliance with the data validation and reduction procedures in the Quality
Assurance section of the CEM Manual.
C.
Searching for emission rate averages more than twice or less than half the daily
standard occurring on a frequent basis.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 4
D.
Reviewing the record of routine and corrective maintenance.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 5
LEVEL III
ANALYZER PERFORMANCE AUDIT
CONDUCTED AT SPECIFIED FREQUENCIES OR AS REQUIRED
I.
Two or three levels of calibration gas or neutral density filter are selected that are
within the normal operating ranges of the source for each analyzer. The gases or filters
are introduced as close as possible to the point of sample acquisition.
II.
The certified values of the reference materials are compared to company CEM results.
Any problems are determined and the company is directed to make necessary
corrections. The appropriate Regional Office is notified of the audit results and any
required retesting by the company. If retesting is required, the results will be reviewed
and the Regional Office notified of the outcome.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page 6
LEVEL IV
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AUDIT
CONDUCTED AT SPECIFIED FREQUENCIES OR AS REQUIRED
General gaseous pollutants. The department currently has the ability to test for SO2, NOx, O2,
and CO2. Plans are underway to add capabilities to test for CO, THC, TNMHC, and HCl. All
pollutants/diluents are determined using EPA instrumental methods and follow this general
format:
I.
Three gas tests that are each at least 21 minutes long, but can be adjusted upwards to
some multiple of the CEMS sampling or averaging frequency. The methods used are
those described in the 40 CFR, Part 60. Determination of
% CO2 or % O2 is
conducted simultaneously with pollutant.
II.
If necessary, stack gas velocity and moisture content may also be determined using
approved methods at a minimum of one determination per three pollutant tests.
III.
Process data collected may include, but is not limited to, the following: boiler operating
data as necessary to determine heat input; fuel feed rates in conjunction with sampling,
and the most recent Boiler Efficiency rating.
The results of testing will be compared with the CEMS data output for the corresponding time
periods in units of the standard. Supplementary data to be provided by the company should
include results of the normal daily calibrations before and after the audit, and all equations and
constants currently in use by the data acquisition system.
The Regional Office and the company will be notified of the audit results, any problems requiring
company correction, and any appropriate retesting that should be required. If retesting is
required, the results will be reviewed and the Regional Office notified of the outcome.
NOTE: Opacity auditing has not been included in this description because it is currently
performed only by Regional inspectors. The method used is described in 40 CFR, Part
60, Appendix B, Method 9.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999
APPENDIX A
Guide
These checklists are designed to be photocopied and carried into the field to provide a step by
step guide for conducting a Level II audit. However, they cannot possibly be tailored to all
systems and situations. You are encouraged to research the company thoroughly
before
conducting any audit so that you may add or delete any appropriate entries. Also, the results of
this audit should be kept for review to determine if any changes are made in the future. If more
checklists are developed they will be added when the manual is updated.
CHECKLISTS
Continuous Emissions Monitoring.........................................................................A - 1
Coal Sampling & Analysis.....................................................................................A - 5

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 1
CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Company
Name:________________________________________________________________________
Source(s)
Monitored_____________________________________________________________________
GENERAL INFORMATION
Opacity
CEMS ID NO
Manufacturer
Model
Date installed
Installed by plant or vendor?
Applicable regulation
Phase III completed?
Date and type of last performance
specification test?
In-situ or extractive?
N/A
Wet or dry basis?
N/A
Sampling location? (stack, duct)
Flue dimensions at sampling
location?
Cycle time (sampling, analyzing,
recording)
N/A
Any changes since last
inspection?
(explain on back)

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 2
SAMPLING INTERFACE
Opacity
Single or multiple sample points?
N/A
Distance from inner wall?
N/A
If insitu, monitor pathlength
If dilution/extractive, what is
dilution ratio?
N/A
Replacement rate
: of filters
: of lamps
Operational status?
SAMPLE TRANSPORT &
CONDITIONING
EXTRACTIVE SYSTEMS ONLY
System heated or unheated?
N/A
Any visible moisture in lines?
N/A
Sample flowrate?
N/A
Seal & insulation condition?
N/A
Condenser type & condition?
N/A
Final filter condition?
N/A
Ambient temperature?
CALIBRATION SYSTEM
Are span/zero gases or filters
NIST traceable?
Value of span gas or filter
Value of zero gas or filter
Certification date of gas or filter
Cylinder pressure
Frequency of zero & span checks
Automatic or manual?

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 3
ANALYZERS
Opacity
Climate controlled location?
Analytical technique?
Range?
Output signal (V, mV, mA)?
Serial number?
Current time/concentration?
Electronic Check completed?
DATA RECORDING
Opacity
Operational status?
Current emission rate?
Strip chart available?
Analyzer output = DAS?
Operators know drift limits?
DATA REDUCTION
Opacity
Type of average?
Number of points averaged?
Data reduced automatically?
In units of standard?
Automatic zero correction
recorded? Alarm value?
N/A
N/A
N/A
F factor?
N/A
Other factors (explain)?
Factors verified Y/N
N/A
Conversion formulas?

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 4
MAINTENANCE
Repair/modification history?
Spare parts inventory?
Service contract?
Record of previous failures?
Previous quarterly calibration?
Window cleaning interval
Preventive maintenance plan?
RECORDS REVIEW
Obtain access to the company’s monitoring data file. Check the data from the previous and
current quarters for the items listed below. Notify the company of the need to correct any
deficiencies.
1. Check for compliance with the Recordkeeping and Reporting section of the Manual.
2. Obtain a copy of (1) the recorder data, and (2) reduced hourly averages from the current
quarter for a 24-hour time period picked at random.
3. Check the record of preventive and corrective maintenance. Determine the possible effect
on previously reported data.
4. Check for compliance with the data validation and reduction procedures in the Quality
Assurance section of the Manual.
5. Check for unusual (less than half or more than twice the daily standard) emission rate
averages which occur on a frequent basis.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 5
COAL SAMPLING & ANALYSIS SYSTEM INSPECTION CHECKLIST
Company
Name:_____________________________________________________________________________
_
Source(s)
Monitired:__________________________________________________________________________
GENERAL INFORMATION
Comments
CSAS ID NO
Manufacturer
Model
Date Installed?
Installed by plant or vendor?
Applicable regulation?
Has Phase III been completed?
Date and type of last performance specification
test?
Use (emission determination or % Reduction)?
Coal feed continuous or intermittent?
Number of sample acquisition points?
Sample collection (automatic or manual)?
Samples per hour, day?
Hourly sample weights at least 2 lb. or equivalency
demonstrated?
Sample weights constant or proportional to feed?
Can samples be related to known time periods?
Sampling - Analysis time?
Any changes since last inspection (explain on
back)?

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 6
Sample acquisition points downstream of coal
processing equipment?
Sample acquisition from each coal feed
stream?
If not, was equivalency demonstrated?
Check For:
Sampler ID
Sampler in place
Sampler correctly labeled
Sampler Can correctly labeled
Timers operating properly
Timer security
Correct frequency timer setting
Correct duration timer setting
Correct air regulator pressure
Cyclone leaking
Cyclone plugged
Sampler plugged
Pinch valve leaking
Proper sample quantity
Sampler subject to excessive vibration
Sampler probe oriented properly
4
- Satisfactory,
N -
Unsatisfactory (explain below.)
Comments:
__________________________________________________________________________________
___
__________________________________________________________________________________
___
__________________________________________________________________________________
___

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 7
ANALYSIS INSPECTION*
Comments
Duplicate analyses performed daily on each
composite sample
for BTU/lb.**
for % Sulfur
Calibration error for % sulfur analysis checked at
a minimum of every seven days
Value of calorimeter water equivalent checked
at a minimum of every seven days
Response time of system < 168 hours
Emission rate results appear to be normal for
the source
Operators aware of validation criteria
* If coal laboratory is not located on site, you may not be able to complete this section.
** Company may perform duplicate analyses for BTU/lb. at a reduced rate (random 10% of daily samples)
only upon approval by the Department.
DATA INSPECTION
Record the following:
Comments
Malfunctions in air pollution control equipment
Malfunctions in monitoring system
Does the source have a preventative maintenance
program?
Spare parts inventory system maintained?
History of failure on any components maintained?
History of repairs, alterations, etc.?
Stored data identified/labeled/accessed and
retrieved easily?
Written procedure for data reduction?
Written procedure for review of reduced data?
Quarterly excess emissions reported?

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/ Page A - 8
RECORDS REVIEW
Obtain access to the company’s monitoring data file. Check the data from the previous and
current quarters for the items listed below. Notify the company of the need to correct any
deficiencies.
1. Check for compliance with the Recordkeeping and Reporting section of the Manual.
2. Check the record for preventive and corrective maintenance. Determine the possible effect
on previously reported data.
3. Check for compliance with the data validation and reduction procedures in the Quality
Assurance section of the Manual.
4. Check for unusual (less than half or more than twice the daily standard) emission rate
averages which occur on a frequent basis

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999
APPENDIX B
Guide
This Appendix contains specific checklists for various models of analyzers. They are arranged
alphabetically by manufacturer and include electronic checkpoints with expected values where
available. Plant personnel, or the plants contractors are to perform the checks when requested
by DEP personnel. Completed checklists should be maintained by the Regional Office.
If the CEMSs to be audited include analyzers for which no checklist is included in this
Appendix, request a checklist from the owner or operator of the source (the owner or operator
of the source will obtain the checklist from the analyzer vendor).

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 1
Contraves Model 400
CONTRAVES
Model(s): 400
Value
Comment
Analyzer Output Voltage
_____________
____________
Chart Recorder Voltage
_____________
____________
(if used)
Full Scale Voltage
_____________
____________
Zero Offset
_____________
____________
Chart Speed
_____________
____________
Stack Dimensions
Monitor Pathlength (M)
_____________
____________
Stack Exit Diameter (S)
_____________
____________
Stack Taper Ratio (M/S)
_____________
____________
Preset Ratio
_____________
____________
Remote Control Unit (Optional)
Fault lamp indications:
On
Off
Blinking
Cal Fault
____
____
____
Dirty Window
____
____
____
Purge Air
____
____
____
Stack Power Failure
____
____
____
Lamp Failure
____
____
____
Alarm
____
____
____
Instrument Zero/Span Check
(Performed either on the remote unit or the transceiver)
Set ‘Mode’ to “Zero”
Chart Recorder Value
____________
Processor/Meter Value
____________
Set ‘Mode’ to “Span”
Chart Recorder Value
____________

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 2
Processor/Meter Value
____________

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 3
Datatest Model 301
DATATEST
Model(s):301
Indicator Lights:
Instrument Power
____ Blinking…… Normal
____ Off………… Thermocouple is open
____ On…………. Heater circuit is open
Set Points
Low………
On____
Off____
High………
On____
Off____
System Diagnostics
On____
Off____
Digital Multimeter Readings:
Type K Thermocouple Output
____________
mV
Cell Temperature
____________ Deg. F
(min.950 F)
(22.4 mV = 1000 Degrees)
Zirconia Oxide Cell Output
____________ mV
Analyzer Oxygen Concentration
____________ %

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 4

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 5
Lear Siegler Models MC 2000, 1100M
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): MC 2000
1100M
The controller must be partially pulled out of the panel to expose a digital switch on top. The
following list contains settings for that switch that will display values on the front panel.
Setting
Value
Default
Description
00
_N/A__
N/A
Normal Operating Mode
03
______
20
ALARM limit in %
opacity
05
______
24
Auto Calibration interval
(hours)
06
______
10
Zero Calibration nominal
value
07
______
10
Previous
Zero
measurement
08
______
60
Span
Calibration
nominal Value
09
______
60
Previous
Span
measurement
13
______
100 +/- 2
Power Supply check
14
______
N/A
Fault Codes (see below)
15
_N/A__
0
Unlock 16 - 99
*
25
______
?
L
x
/L
t
Factor - Units
**
26
______
?
L
x
/L
t
Factor - Tenths
28
______
0
Calibration Correction
rate
45
______
N/A
Clock - seconds
46
______
N/A
Clock - minutes
47
______
N/A
Clock - hours
*
Entering “12” in location 15 will allow access to location 16 - 99.
**
L
x
= pathlength at stack exit, L
t
= pathlength at monitor
Fault Codes
1
Retroreflector air flow switch circuit open
2
Transceiver air flow switch circuit open

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 6
3
Both weather cover air flow circuits open
4
Main lamp intensity out of tolerance
8
RAM did not survive a power outage - Refresh required
16
Scale or Bias error
64
Software error
128
Software error
Multiple fault codes are possible. The number displayed will be the addition of all codes.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 7
Lear Siegler Model LS541
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): LS541
Similar to the 1100M and MC2000, the only difference is in the assignment of switch location
functions. No Fault code list is available, but it is probably similar to the other models.
Setting
Value
Default
Description
00
_N/A_
N/A
Normal Operating Mode
07
______
20
High opacity alarm
10
______
24
Auto Calibrate interval
(hours)
11
______
0
Zero Calibration nominal
value
13
______
30
Span
Calibration
nominal value
33
______
50
Current
OPLR
(hundredths)
34
______
?
Current OPLR, Month
of entry
35
______
?
Current OPLR, Day of
entry
36
______
?
Current OPLR, Year of
entry
38
______
?
Current time of day,
Hours
39
______
?
Current time of day,
Minutes
51
______
200
Opacity full scale output
(x2)
69
______
0
Zero Compensation

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 8
Lear Siegler Model RM-41
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): RM-41
Internal Diameter at stack exit (L
x
) = _______________
Source of Information?
Internal Diameter at monitor location (L
t
) = _____________
Actual Measurement ___
Ratio of L
x
to L
t
(OPLR) = _____________
Blueprint/Other ___
Remote Control Unit:
“Operate” light illuminated? ________
Measurement Knob Position? __________________
% Opacity on meter? _____________
Fault Lamps:
ON
OFF
Shutter
____
____
Filter
____
____
Reference
____
____
Window
____
____
Over Range
____
____
Instrument Calibration
Turn Measurement Knob to “REFERENCE” and record _________ mA
Turn Measurement Knob to “100% OPACITY”
Press the “OPERATE/CAL” button on the control panel
Record the opacity value on the meter ____________ and on the strip chart
__________
Turn Measurement Knob to “COMP” and record zero compensation _______ % (+ or -
)
Turn Measurement knob to “100% OPACITY”
Press the “ZERO/SPAN” button on the control panel
Record the opacity value on the meter ____________ and on the strip chart
__________
Turn the measurement knob to “INPUT”
and record _________ mA
Turn the measurement knob to “OPTICAL DENSITY” and record __________ (0 - 9)

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 9
Turn Measurement knob to “100% OPACITY”
Press the “OPERATE/CAL” button

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 10
Internal Electronics check
Open converter unit, and, with a digital voltmeter (0 - 10 VDC), attach ground lead to TP2 signal
ground (red) on CAL timer and power supply board. Attach other lead to TP3 (orange) on
receiver w/auto zero board. This voltage should be 10.00 VDC +/- 0.2.
___________
TP3 Voltage
Remove lead from TP3 and place on TP4 (yellow) on optical density board. Leave ground lead
attached to TP2 on Cal Timer and power supply board. This voltage should be 10.00 VDC +/- 0.2.
___________
TP4 Voltage
To check the opacity card, place active lead to TP1 (brown) on opacity card with ground lead still
attached to TP2 on Cal Timer and power supply board. Place measurement switch in 30% opacity
position. Voltage should read 0 VDC at TP1 (brown) and front range should read zero.
___________
TP1 Voltage
Remove all leads from inside converter unit. Have plant personnel remove fuse from holder.
Locate
Cal timer and power supply card
. Note position of S-1 switch.
___________
S-1 position
Locate
Optical Density card
. Note position of switch S-1
___________
S-1 position
Locate
Opacity Card
. Remove from holder and note position of S-1 switch.
___________
S-1 position
Verify the OPLR by measuring resistance across R6 on opacity card.
___________
R6 resistance (ohms)
Measured value / 400 = OPLR
Compare previously calculated OPLR with that measured.
Replace opacity card and fuse. Close control unit door.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 11
Lear Siegler Model CM50
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): CM50
Remote Control Unit
Indicator Lights
ON
OFF
Hi/Low Cal
____
____
Temp Fault
____
____
Range Indicator
____
____
Range
____ 0 - 2.5%
____ 0 - 10%
____
0 - 25%
Alarm Indicator: High ____
____
Low: ____
____
Calibration Switch
Low: ____
High: ____
Operate: ____
Meter Reading _______ % O
2
Internal Span Values: __________ % Low
__________ % High
Verify by turning calibration switch to either “Hi” or “Low” position
(note: both control units must have identical calibration switch settings)
Control Unit
Power Indicator Light ____ On
____ Off
Range Switch ____ 0 - 2.5% ____ 0 - 10% ____ 0 - 25% ____ Remote
Calibration Switch
____ Low
____ High
____ Auto
____ Remote ____ Off
Reference Gas Flow _______ scfh
Calibration Gas Flow _______ scfh
Temperature Fault Indicator Light
____ On
____ Off

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 12
Depress Temperature Fault Indicator, note meter reading.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 13
Lear Siegler Model SM810
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): SM810
Status Lights
SO
2
/NO Operational:
SO
2
NO
Zero
____
____
Span
____
____
Alert/High
____
____
System Fault:
ON
OFF
Scanner
____
____
Ref.
____
____
Operate
____
____
Heater
____
____
Request Cal.
____
____
METER SELECT knob position:
Ref. ___
Input ___
Low ___ SO
2
/NO
High ___ SO
2
/NO
Temp. ___
Rotate METER SELECT knob to REF position. The panel meter should fall within the
green zone.
Rotate METER SELECT knob to SO
2
High/Low position, then to NO High/Low position.
Note stack gas concentrations as indicated by front panel meter or data handling device.
SO
2
______/______ NO ______/_______
Rotate METER SELECT knob to Temp. position. Note stack gas temperature as
recorded by meter display. Compare with scale measurement value. Should agree within +/- 25
o
F.
Scale Ranges
Temperature
____ 0 - 800
o
F
____ 0 - 1000
o
F
Monitor
____ 0 - 750ppm
____ 0 - 1500ppm
____ 0 - 3000ppm
____ 0 - 6000ppm
Inside Remote Display Unit
Note position of
S1
switch:
Note position of
R1
switch
(calibration interval)
(Altitude correction)
1
1 hour
(100 divisions = 500ft.)
2
2 hour
3
4 hour
____________ Actual altitude
4
8 hour
5
24 hour
____________ R1 Indication

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 14
6
OFF

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 15
Lear Siegler Model SM8100
LEAR SIEGLER
Model(s): SM 8100
This analyzer is most likely hooked to a Unicon 700 controller that may also run other analyzers.
To check the analyzer, run through the following diagnostic check at the controller:
Set Heading button to Panel, subheading to ACCESS, read OPEN
________
If ACCESS reads LOCK, select subheading CODE and enter 3300
Subheading to CONFIG, increment CONFIG to YES
Subheading to JBOX, enter appropriate JBOX # (1, 2, 3, 4)
________
Subheading to STATUS, increment STATUS to YES
Subheading to REF, select UPPER or LOWER
Observe ref. reading on front display
________ mA
(REF should read between 8 - 14 mA)
No faults should be displayed on the lower readout, and the fault and upset lights to the
right of the display should be off.
Set heading button to E/O CAL, subheading to INTERVAL,
Interval set to (1 through 24hrs)
________ hrs
Subheading to SO2 Z (between 1 and 7 mA)
________ mA
Subheading to NO Z (between 1 and 7mA)
________ mA
Subheading to SO2S, record reading
________ ppm
Subheading to NOS, record reading
________ ppm
Set heading button to INSTRUMENT, set subheading
to SPAN NO, record reading
________ ppm
Subheading button to SPAN SD, record reading
________ ppm
Subheading to SO2 FS (Full Scale), record reading
________ ppm
Subheading to NO FS (Full scale), record reading
________ ppm

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 16
The following measurement cavity lengths and full scales must correlate:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 17
Cavity Length
Full Scale Range
2.5 cm
0 - 3000 PPM
5.0 cm
0 - 1500 PPM
10.0 cm
0 - 750 PPM
20.0 cm
0 - 375 PPM
38.0 cm
0 - 208 PPM
40.0 cm
0 - 188 PPM
100.0 cm
0 - 75 PPM
The reading recorded under E/O CAL, SO2S and NOS should be within 2.5% (of full scale) of
those readings recorded under INSTRUMENT, SPAN NO and SPAN SD.
Heading to GAS CAL, subheading to SO2G
(Value should be between .9 and 1.1)
________
Subheading to NOG
(Value should be between .9 and 1.1)
________
Set heading to PARAMETERS
Subheading to BARO (between 500 and 800 mm Hg)
________
(average barometric pressure at measurement point)
*Subheading to BWA (between .01 and .05 % H
2
O)
________ %
*Subheading to:
FDX10 (700 - 2000)
FWX10 (700 - 2000)
FC
(500 - 3000)
________
(choose as appropriate Fd, Fw, Fc)
* These entries are only needed if UNICON is converting raw ppm to lb./MBtu
Observe the display. What channels are displayed?
SO
2
____
NO ____
SO
2
lb. ____
NO lb. ____
TEMP ____
Depress the CHECK CAL button in the lower left hand corner of the display unit. Allow the
calibration process to proceed through completion. (No errors should be displayed).
Errors Displayed?
________ If yes, explain:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 18
GE/Reuter-Stokes Model Stack Tracker 20001
GE/REUTER-STOKES
Model(s): STACK-TRACKER 2001
Analyzer Serial Number ________________________
Controller Settings
Calibration Coefficients
AO ________
A3 ________
A1 ________
A4 ________
A2 ________
Delta Z ________
Gain Readings
Internal Gain _______________________________________________
External Gain _______________________________________________
Detector Output
Refer to section 7.D.5 of the Operation and Maintenance Manual for procedure.
TP4 _______ VAC
Diagnostic Checks
Refer to section 3.B.2 of the Operation and Service Manual for procedure.
Mode 1:
OK ____
Other ________________________
Mode 2:
OK ____
Other ________________________
Mode 3:
OK ____
Other ________________________
Mode 4:
OK ____
Other ________________________
Main Power Supply
+5
_____ VDC
+12
_____ VDC
+12
_____ VDC

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 19
-12
_____ VDC
+24
_____ VDC

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 20
Rosemount Model OPM 2000
ROSEMOUNT
Model(s): OPM 2000
At the Control Room Unit, display the following menus:
Data Menu
Submenus
AVERAGES - Up to 12 different parameters may be averaged here in the following
format:
AV 1 - 60
Parameter Value
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
(%, mg/m
3
)
|
| (Opacity, extinction, etc.)
| (number of minutes)
(average)
The important numbers here are the averaging periods set up for opacity. These numbers
are fed to the DAS and should meet our requirements for data handling.
VOLTS - Four voltages are shown, the important one being the V lamp reading. This
should be consistent with previous readings and sufficient to not cause an alarm below.
CURRENT VALUES - Insure that Opacity and Trans add up to 100, note V stack
_____.
DIAGNOSTIC - Note the following:
Blower
ON ____
OFF ____
Lamp
ON ____
OFF ____
Alarm 1
ON ____
OFF ____
Alarm 2
ON ____
OFF ____
Alarm 3
ON ____
OFF ____
Alarm 4
ON ____
OFF ____
Calibrate Menu
Submenus
REFERENCE VOLTS - These establish the minimum and maximum values possible.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 21
V stack 0
______ V
(Voltage value at 0% opacity)
V stack 1
______ V
(Voltage value at 100% opacity)

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 22
LAST CAL TIME - Self explanatory
LAST CAL DATE - Self explanatory
Setup Menu
lx/lt
________
Ratio of exit (lx) diameter to monitor pathlength (lt) diameter
(verify this by measurement or blueprints)
Time ________
Current hour and minutes
Date
________
Month, day, and year
Analog
Outputs
Verify that one of the output VARIABLES is opacity (OP), what
TYPE of signal (V, mA) is being sent, and what RANGE is set
(100.00).
AN OUT
________ #
VAR
________
TYPE
________ V/mA
RANGE
________

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 23
Servomex Models 1400B, 1490
SERVOMEX
Model(s): 1400B
1490
Model 1400B Oxygen Analyzer
Observe the following indicator lights:
Flow Indication
Steady red on alarm condition
Cell Heater
Blinking orange - normal
Constant orange or unlit - alarm condition
Verify the 4 - 20 mA output:
On back of instrument, measure voltage on connector SK5, pin 5 (negative), and
pin 12 (positive). The output should be according to the following formula:
((% O
2
in a calibration sample / % O
2
full scale range) X 16) + 4
Model 1490 Carbon Monoxide Analyzer
Verify analyzer is not flashing “1999” on front panel display (indicates off-scale reading).
Verify the 4 - 20 mA output:
On back of instrument, measure voltage at TP9 (positive) and TP4 (negative).
The output should be according to the following formula:
((ppm CO in a calibration sample / ppm CO full scale range) X 16) + 4

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 24
Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc., Model 42
THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS INC.
Model(s): 42
The model 42 has eight “Entry Push-buttons” on the lower right-hand side that allow various
analyzer functions to be set and adjusted. Beneath the row of buttons are four thumbwheels that
are used to enter the values desired.
Only the “STAT” push-button will be used at this time. A series of 23 settings can be viewed by
pushing the button an equal number of times. Those settings listed below should be noted:
# of pushes
Description
Observed
Normal
1
Full scale
___________
PPB
2
Range - NO
___________
or
3
Range - NO
2
___________
PPM
4
Range - NO
x
___________
5
Averaging time (sec)
___________
10 - 300 sec
6
Troubleshooting on/off
(must be ON to continue)
___________
7
Cooler Temperature -
o
C
___________
- 3
o
C
8
Converter Temperature
___________
325
o
C
9
Reaction Chamber Temp.
___________
50
o
C
10
NO zero correction
___________
< 15 ppb
11
NO
x
zero correction
___________
< 15 ppb
12
NO span correction
___________
approx. 1.000
13
NO
x
balance factor
___________
approx. 1.000
14
NO
2
converter efficiency
___________
96 - 102 %
16
Analog Zero Offset
___________
%
20
Pressure/temperature corr.
___________
ON/OFF

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 25
Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc. Model 43B
THERMO ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS INC.
Model(s): 43B
Similar to the model 42 described on the previous page, the following list is the extended one past
the first six or so normally accessible parameters.
Display
Description
Observed
Normal
b. 0.000
Zero background correction
________
< 0.030 ppm
SF 1.000
Span Factor
________
1.000
Led.oFF
Ignore
L. 000
Lamp Voltage
________
< 1200 V
00000
Lamp Intensity
________
> 10,000 Hz
r.c. 00.0
Reaction Chamber temp.
________
approx. 45
o
C
t. on
Temperature correction
________
ON/OFF
o
C 00.0
Internal Instrument temp.
________
Ambient +5
o
C
0. 0.0
Analog Offset Voltage
________
%
Ignore Rest of Parameters

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 26
United Sciences , Inc. Model 500C
UNITED SCIENCES INCORPORATED - USI
Model(s): 500C
Remote Display Panel
Fault Indicating Lights
ON
OFF
Instrument Malfunction
____
____
Calibration Fail
____
____
Purge Fail
____
____
Stack Power Fail
____
____
Alarm Set #1
____
____
Alarm Set #2
____
____
Lamp Test
OK ____
OTHER
_____________________________________
Cal Zero Check
Current Cal Zero
____________ % Opacity
Cal Zero High Limit
____________ % Opacity
Cal Zero Low Limit
____________ % Opacity
Dirt Accumulation
____________ % Opacity
Cal Span Check
Current Cal Span
____________ % Opacity
Cal Span High Limit
____________ % Opacity
Cal Span Low Limit
____________ % Opacity
Last Auto Cal Span
____________ % Opacity
Last Auto Cal Zero
____________ % Opacity
Analog Outputs
Channel #1
(circle one)
INSTANTANEOUS / AVERAGE / OPACITY / DIRT / ZERO / SPAN
Integration Period: _________ Minutes
Zero
______ OK
Full Scale
______ OK

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 27
Mid Scale
______ OK

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 28
Channel #2
(circle one)
INSTANTANEOUS / AVERAGE / OPACITY / DIRT / ZERO / SPAN
Integration Period: _________ Minutes
Zero
______ OK
Full Scale
______ OK
Mid Scale
______ OK
Channel #3
(circle one)
INSTANTANEOUS / AVERAGE / OPACITY / DIRT / ZERO / SPAN
Integration Period: _________ Minutes
Zero
______ OK
Full Scale
______ OK
Mid Scale
______ OK
Channel #4
(circle one)
INSTANTANEOUS / AVERAGE / OPACITY / DIRT / ZERO / SPAN
Integration Period: _________ Minutes
Zero
______ OK
Full Scale
______ OK
Mid Scale
______ OK
Data Collection
Record Accumulator Channels
0. #0 Samples / Min ______________
1. #1 Cal Kit
______________ VDC
2. #2 Zero
______________ VDC
3. #3 Last Zero Set
______________ VDC
4. #4 Span
______________ VDC
5. #5 Last Span Set ______________ VDC
6. #6 Stack
______________ VDC
7. #7 Last Stack Set ______________ VDC
Stack Taper Ratio ____________________
Record Alarm Values
Alarm #1 (average)
_____________ % Opacity

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page B - 29
Alarm #2 (instantaneous)
_____________ % Opacity

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999
APPENDIX C
Guide
This Appendix contains descriptions of the operating principles used by various
analyzers. It is arranged as described below. Any major differences between
manufacturers are described and examples of current analyzers are given. Any new
principles or analyzer information that becomes available will be added when this manual
is updated.
The following operating principles are described:
Gases:
............................................
C - 1
Chemiluminescence
Electrocatalysis
Electrochemical Cell
Fluorescence
Ion Mobility Spectrometry
IR Gas Filter Correlation
NDIR
NDUV
Paramagnetic
Resonance absorption
2nd derivative UV
UV diode array
Opacity:
.......................................
C - 12
Double Pass Transmissometry
Single Pass Transmissometry
Flows:
..........................................
C - 14
Differential pressure
Orifice Plate
Thermal Mass Flow
Ultrasonic
Vortex flow
Temperature:
..............................
C - 19
Thermocouples
Fuels:
...........................................
C - 20
Coal sampling
Gas Chromatography
Lead Acetate Tape

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 1
Chemiluminescence
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Chemiluminescence
COMMON NAMES:
None
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Light is produced in a chemical reaction which involves mixing NO
with O
3
to produce NO
2
. A particular wavelength band (600 - 900nm) is
measured by a photo-multiplier tube that produces a signal proportional to the
concentration. The reaction only works with NO, so any NO
2
in the sample must
first be converted catalytically. The O
3
is generated inside the analyzer from dry
air. The NO
2
to NO converter can usually be bypassed to allow measurement of
only the existing NO. This permits the calculation of NO, NO
2
, and total NO
x
in
the sample.
NOTE:
Excess O
3
must be provided to the reaction chamber and sample flow must be
carefully monitored in addition to the temperatures of the reaction chamber,
converter, and catalyst.
INTERFERANTS:
Other NO
x
molecules (NO
3
) and Ammonia.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
API models 252 & 200; Thermo Environmental Instruments models 42 & 10AR
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
Differences in ozone generators and NO
2
converters are common, as
are automatic switching methods between converters and bypasses. Not as
common is Dual Channel Analysis - identical analyzers, one with a converter,
the other without.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 2
Electrocatalysis
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Electrocatalysis
COMMON NAMES:
“Fuel Cell”; “Zirconium Oxide Cell”
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
A solid electrolyte (commonly ZrO
2
) coated with platinum is
maintained at approximately 850 deg. C. Sample gas is constantly flowed
over one side, while reference gas of high concentration is flowed over the
other. Ions move across the electrolyte in an attempt to reach equilibrium. The
voltage measured across the two sides, and the partial pressure of the
reference gas can be used to calculate the concentration of the sample gas.
INTERFERANTS:
Any gas combustible at or below 850 deg. C will cause a false low reading
for oxygen analyzers.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Monitor Labs model LS420; Dynatron model 401; Thermox WDG series
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
Thermox models are extractive and have to be mounted on or very
near the source to work properly. Though most are for measuring oxygen
insitu, Westinghouse builds one that uses a Potassium Sulfate electrolyte to
measure SO
2
.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 3
Electrochemical Cell
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Electrochemical Cell
COMMON NAMES:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Sample gas enters the upper chamber where the gas of interest
passes through a selectively permeable membrane. Once through, it diffuses
across the electrolyte liquid and reaches the sensing electrode. An oxidation-
reduction reaction with the electrode material takes place and electrons flow
through the electrode to the resistor where the current is measured. Once
reaching the counter electrode, they again join a reaction involving the
electrode, the electrolyte, and the byproducts of the first reaction. The
electrolyte is not expected to last and must be replaced regularly if consistent
results are desired.
INTERFERANTS:
The sample gas must be well conditioned as particulate and condensed
moisture will rapidly foul the membrane.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:
There are currently no permanently installed analyzers of this type in
the state, but portable ones may be set up for temporary use.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 4
Fluorescence
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Fluorescence
COMMON NAMES:
“UV Fluorescence”; “Pulsed Fluorescence”
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
UV light from 190 - 230 nm is focused into a chamber containing
sample gas. SO
2
molecules absorb that energy and then give it off again at a
different wavelength. The ‘fluorescence’ is measured by a photo-multiplier
tube and related to the total UV energy input to give a concentration of SO
2
.
INTERFERANTS:
Any large Hydrocarbon molecule could interfere but may be controlled by
the use of a ‘Hydrocarbon Kicker’ removal device upstream of the detector.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
Thermo Environmental Instruments model 43; Western Research 721AT; API
model 152
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
Some models pulse the UV light in one chamber, others have two
chambers, one for reference, one for measurement.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 5
Ion Mobility Spectrometry
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Ion Mobility Spectrometry
COMMON NAMES:
None
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Sample and carrier gas is forced through a membrane, ionized by a
weak radiation source, and allowed to drift through an electrical field in a
tube to a detector. The different arrivals of the gas components are measured
in time and intensity to produce a graph. A microprocessor determines the
concentration of Chlorine or Chlorine Dioxide and displays it on the front of
the analyzer.
NOTE:
Several features help the analyzer to be specific: the membrane is specially
selected, the polarity of the field can be biased (+/-), the carrier gas can be
‘doped’ to suppress interferants, and the drift times of compounds are very
specific.
INTERFERANTS:
Unknown
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Environmental Technologies Group ‘FP-IMS’
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:
This is the only Chlorine analyzer being tracked in Pennsylvania.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 6
Infrared Gas Filter Correlation
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Infrared Gas Filter Correlation
COMMON NAMES:
“IRGFC”
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Infrared light passes through the sample cell, then through a ‘filter’
cell filled with a high concentration of the gas of interest. This ‘filter’ is then
exchanged for one containing none of that gas. The differing levels of light
absorption at a particular wavelength indicate the concentration. The order of
components may be rearranged. Multiple gases can be measured with one
analyzer by including various gas filters in the design.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
Thermo Environmental Instruments ‘41’ & ‘48’; Perkin - Elmer ‘MCS - 100’,
Servomex ‘1490’.
MAJOR VARIATIONS:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 7
Non-Dispersive Infrared
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Non Dispersive Infrared
COMMON NAMES
:
NDIR
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Sample gas is passed through a cell with clear windows at either
end. An infrared light source is filtered to allow only certain wavelengths to
pass and they are projected through the cell. The gas of interest absorbs these
wavelengths and the intensity reaching a detector indicates the concentration.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
ACS/Milton Roy ‘3300’, Siemens ‘Ultramat 21’, Bodenseewerk ‘MCS-100’
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
A popular type of detector uses a dual chamber cell with the gas of
interest in full concentration in one chamber and a ‘zero’ gas in the other. The
two chambers are connected and any pressure difference caused by the
unequal absorption of IR light causes a measurable flow between them.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 8
Non-Dispersive Ultraviolet
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Non Dispersive Ultraviolet
COMMON NAMES
:
NDUV
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
Similar to NDIR, ultraviolet analyzers produce specific wavelengths
of light for absorption by molecules of interest. Most IR analyzers use a
measuring and a reference cell while UV analyzers instead use measuring and
reference wavelengths.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
DuPont ‘460’, Western Research ‘721’ series, Lear Siegler ‘SM 100’
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:
Western Research adds a reference cell for similar purposes as an IR
analyzer.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 9
Paramagnetic
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Paramagnetic
COMMON NAMES
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
:
Oxygen molecules, unlike most others, will be attracted to a
magnetic field. The movement of O
2
molecules through a field causes
measurable effects in several types of analyzers. In one, the flow of O
2
molecules over a heated coil will cause a change in its electrical resistance: in
another, differing O
2
partial pressures in an uneven magnetic field cause
changes in the field itself, swinging a ‘dumbbell’ shaped object suspended
there: a third measures the unbalanced flow of N
2
entering a chamber from
two sides with O
2
in the sample gas being attracted to one side.
INTERFERANTS:
NO, or NO
2
in high concentrations.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
“Dumbbell” type detector
EXAMPLES:
Servomex ‘1420’, Rosemount ‘755R’, Hartmann & Braun ‘21113’
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
Described above.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 10
Second Derivative Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Second Derivative Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
COMMON NAMES
:
2nd Derivative UV
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
This method builds on the previously described Non Dispersive UV
detectors, but adds two more functions. These analyzers were developed for
ambient use where concentrations are extremely low and measuring the
absorption of one wavelength directly is difficult to do. Instead, these
detectors vary the wavelength over a short region (i.e. 217.8nm - 219.2nm)
and then derive the
rate
of change in absorption (2nd derivative). The results
are proportional to the concentration of the gas.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
Hardware identical to NDUV; Additional signal analysis performed.
EXAMPLES
:
Lear Siegler ‘SM 8100’, Ametek ‘PDA 6010’
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 11
UV Diode Array
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
UV Diode Array
COMMON NAMES
:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
This technique utilizes the whole absorption spectrum instead of
measuring at a particular frequency. The advantage is that measurement is
not limited to one gas. After passing through the sample, the light is separated
into its component wavelengths by using a holographic grating on a concave
mirror. Each wavelength then strikes an individual diode. An ‘array’ may
contain anywhere from 128 to 4,000 diodes spaced an average of 25
micrometers apart. When a photon strikes one part of a diode, an electron
passes through a barrier to the other part. The amount of voltage necessary to
return those electrons to their original side is proportional to the light energy
striking the diode
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 12

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 13
Double-Pass Transmissometry
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Double Pass Transmissometry
COMMON NAMES:
Opacity Analyzer
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
A light beam is projected across the stack or duct and reflected
back towards the source. Dust particles in the exhaust stream scatter and/or
absorb some of that light. The returning light falls on a detector and is
compared to the intensity of original light. Opacity is the percentage of light
energy ‘lost’ while transmittance is that portion that passes through the dust.
INTERFERANTS:
Condensed water vapor.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM:
EXAMPLES:
Lear Siegler ‘RM 41’, Rosemount ‘OPM 2000’, Dynatron ‘1100’
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
The Rosemount analyzer uses LCD ‘windows’ that can produce
multiple opacities instead of optical filters for calibration.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 14
Single-Pass Transmissometry
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Single Pass Transmissometry
COMMON NAMES:
Opacity Analyzer
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
:
A beam of light is projected across the stack or duct to a detector.
The amount of light reaching the detector is the ‘transmittance’ which can
easily be converted to the ‘opacitance’ (amount lost). More difficult than a
double pass analyzer to calibrate due to the detector being across the stack.
Some method of getting a ‘zero’ value to the detector must be provided.
INTERFERANTS:
Condensed water vapor.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Dynatron ‘301’, Datatest ‘900’.
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
A new analyzer offered by KVB (model ‘MIP LM3086EPA’) uses a
low wattage laser in place of the usual light source.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 15
Differential Pressure
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Differential Pressure
COMMON NAMES:
‘Pitot Tube’, ‘Annubar’
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
The gas pressure on two sides of a probe suspended in a moving gas
stream is measured and used to calculate the velocity. ‘S’ type pitot tubes
measure at a single point using two tubes with openings only at the end.
Annubars use two tubes with multiple holes and average the pressures across
the stack. Both types require thorough profiling of the stack flow in order to
insure a representative reading of velocity is taken. Both types also require
‘Blow back’ systems to purge dust from the tubes and openings. Very low
velocities are difficult to measure with either method.
INTERFERANTS:
Mislead by ‘cyclonic’ flows (those not parallel to stack centerline), and
difficult to maintain in extremely dirty environments.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Air Monitor ‘MASS-tron’ (annubar), EMRC (pitot tubes)
MAJOR VARIATIONS:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 16
Orifice Plate
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Orifice Plate
COMMON NAMES:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Usually used in measuring the flow of extremely clean gases like
natural gas in fuel lines. A ‘plate’ is inserted into the gas stream that has an
exact size opening (orifice). Pressure is continuously measured on both sides
of the plate. That information, plus the exact cross-sectional area of the
orifice, is used to calculate the flow rate. The pressure sensors are usually
electronic
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 17
Thermal Mass Flow
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Thermal Mass Flow
COMMON NAMES:
‘Hot wire anemometer’
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Gas molecules flowing past a heated wire carry away some of that
energy. The amount of current added to maintain a certain temperature in the
wire is then related to the velocity of the gas flow. Usually, a temperature
sensor next to the heated element provides feedback for controlling the
temperature of the element. One, or multiple sensors can be installed.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Kurz ‘455’ & ‘EVA 4000’
MAJOR VARIATIONS

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 18
Ultrasonic
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Ultrasonic
COMMON NAMES
:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Two ‘transducers’ are mounted on the stack on opposite sides at a
45 degree angle to the flow. Ultrasonic pulses are alternately emitted and
received by each. The arrival time at the downstream unit is decreased, while
at the upstream unit it is increased due to the gas flowing past the
transducers. The difference in times is used to calculate the velocity and, with
the stack dimensions, allow calculation of the flow. These units produce
readings in Actual Cubic Feet per Minute (ACFM) on a wet basis. In order to
correct to standard conditions, they must include a separate pressure sensor.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
United Sciences Inc., ‘Ultraflow 100’; SICK Optic Electronic ‘Velos 500’.
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 19
Vortex Flow
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Vortex Flow
COMMON NAMES:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 20
Thermocouples
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Thermocouples
COMMON NAMES:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE:
Two wires of different composition are joined at one end. The
junction is placed in a heated environment and a voltage is measurable at the
opposite ends. This voltage is, for the most part, not linear to the temperature,
but can be graphed fairly accurately. The composition of the wires determines
what standardized ‘type’ the thermocouple falls into, i.e. type K is constructed
of Chromel and Alumel, type R of Platinum and Rhodium. Those that use
metal sheaths to protect the wires may have the junction of the two wires
isolated from it (see diagram), welded to it, or protruding through it. This will
affect the response time and durability.
INTERFERANTS:
Thermocouples should be shielded from radiant energy and matched to the
proper temperature environments.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Newport, JMS, and Omega all produce various types of thermocouples.
MAJOR VARIATIONS:

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 21

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 22
Coal Sampling and Analysis
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Coal Sampling
COMMON NAMES:
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
A sample of coal is pulled from a point as close as possible to where
it is burned. All processing of the coal should be done and the sample should
be identical to that entering the boiler. Some devices include a mechanical
sweep arm that moves across a conveyor belt and deposits a sample in a
container. Others have been designed to take samples from pneumatic feed
lines. Once collected, the sample is analyzed either on-site or at an
independent laboratory for sulfur content and heat value. Users may design
their own devices, but performance specifications for sample frequency,
amount, representativeness, and analysis are published in the Department’s
Continuous Source Monitoring Manual.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
Ramsey ‘RSC - 2100’, Pennsylvania Electric Co. ‘PACSS’
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 23
Lead Acetate Tape
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE
:
Lead Acetate Tape
COMMON NAMES
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
A fixed volume of clean sample gas is mixed with Nitrogen and
injected into a cell. A section of lead acetate covered tape is exposed to the
gas mixture and slowly turns black. Light is projected onto the tape and the
reflected intensity is measured. The rate of change of tape color indicates the
concentration of H
2
S.
INTERFERANTS:
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES
:
Tracor - Atlas ‘722R/102’
MAJOR VARIATIONS
:
This is the only Lead Acetate Tape analyzer currently tracked in
Pennsylvania.

274-0300-003/September 30, 1999/Page C - 24
Gas Chromatography
ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE:
Gas Chromatography
COMMON NAMES:
“GC”
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
:
An automated sampler pulls a fixed volume of conditioned gas from
the sampled stream (usually fuel gas) at a time. The sample is then injected,
along with a ‘carrier’ gas (usually Helium) into a small diameter column
packed with special materials. The different components in the sample
separate while traveling through the column and arrive at a detector at
different times. The most common type of detector is the ‘FID’, which ionizes
the components in a Hydrogen flame and measures the ionization energy.
Many other types of detectors are available and are referred to as follows:
FPD, PID, ECD, TCD, and Mass Spectrometer.
INTERFERANTS:
Both the detector and column(s) need to be carefully chosen and the gas
stream to be sampled thoroughly profiled.
COMPONENTS DIAGRAM
:
EXAMPLES:
ABB ‘Vista’ and 3100; Foxboro 931C; Applied Automation ‘Optichrome’
MAJOR VARIATIONS:
Almost every component of a GC is variable, but all follow the same
basic layout.

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