1. DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
      2. Bureau of Environmental Cleanup and Brownfields
      3. TABLE OF CONTENTS
      4. APPENDIX IV-A: METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING SHS VAPOR
      5. ACRONYMS

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page i
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Bureau of Environmental Cleanup and Brownfields
DOCUMENT NUMBER:
261-0300-101
TITLE:
Land Recycling Program Technical Guidance Manual
EFFECTIVE DATE:
Upon publication of notice as final in the
Pennsylvania Bulletin
AUTHORITY:
The Land Recycling and Environmental Remediations Standards Act
(Act 2 of 1995) (35 P.S. §§ 6026.101 et seq.) and the regulations issued
pursuant to that legislation at 25 Pa. Code Chapter 250.
POLICY:
It is the policy of the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP or
Department) to implement Act 2 in accordance with the regulations
contained in 25. Pa. Code Chapter 250 and as described in this guidance
manual
.
PURPOSE:
DEP has developed this manual to assist remediators in satisfying the
requirements of Act 2 and the regulations published in Chapter 250 of the
Pa. Code
.
The manual provides suggestions and examples of how to best
approach site characterization, remediation and demonstration of
attainment. This document replaces the
“Land Recycling Program
Technical Guidance Manual”
dated June 8, 2002, in its entirety.
APPLICABILITY:
The guidance in this manual is applicable to any person or persons
conducting a site remediation under Act 2 and who wish to receive the
liability protection afforded by Chapter 5 of that Act (35vP.S. §§
6026.501-6026.506).
DISCLAIMER:
The policies and procedures outlined in this guidance document are
intended to supplement existing requirements. Nothing in the policies or
procedures will affect regulatory requirements.
The policies and procedures herein are not an adjudication or a regulation.
DEP does not intend to give these rules that weight or deference. This
document establishes the framework, within which DEP will exercise its
administrative discretion in the future. DEP reserves the discretion to
deviate from this policy statement if circumstances warrant.
PAGE LENGTH:
509 pages

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION I: OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................................I-1
A.
What the Land Recycling Program Offers....................................................................................I-1
1.
Benefits of Involvement Through the Land Recycling Program......................................I-1
2.
How to Use this Manual ...................................................................................................I-1
B.
The Voluntary Nature of Act 2 .....................................................................................................I-3
C.
Improving Service through Program Consistency........................................................................I-4
1.
DEP Implementation of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs).....................................I-4
2.
Initiation and Final Execution of Reopeners ....................................................................I-4
3.
Non-Routine Waivers .......................................................................................................I-5
4.
Issue Resolution ................................................................................................................I-5
5.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)................................................................................I-5
D.
Resources and Assistance .............................................................................................................I-6
1.
Program Contacts..............................................................................................................I-6
2.
Financial Assistance..........................................................................................................I-6
SECTION II: ACT 2 REMEDIATION PROCESS.......................................................................... II-1
A.
Applying Land Recycling Remediation Standards to Your Property..........................................II-1
1.
Classifying your Site and Considering Options for Remediation....................................II-1
2.
Immediate Response ........................................................................................................II-3
3.
Notice Requirements and Procedures ..............................................................................II-4
4.
Site Characterization......................................................................................................II-10
B.
Remediation Standards ..............................................................................................................II-25
1.
Background Standard.....................................................................................................II-25
2.
Statewide Health Standard.............................................................................................II-47
3.
Site-Specific Standard....................................................................................................II-92
4.
Special Industrial Areas ...............................................................................................II-130
SECTION III: TECHNICAL AND PROCEDURAL GUIDANCE...............................................III-1
A.
Fate and Transport Analysis ...................................................................................................... III-1
1.
Fate and Transport Analysis in the Unsaturated Zone................................................... III-3
2.
Fate and Transport Analysis in the Saturated Zone ....................................................... III-7
3.
Impacts to Surface Water from Diffuse Flow of Contaminated
Groundwater ................................................................................................................ III-18
B.
Guidance for Attainment Demonstration with Statistical Methods......................................... III-41
1.
Introduction.................................................................................................................. III-41
2.
Data Review for Statistical Methods ........................................................................... III-42
3.
Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Statements ......................................................... III-43
4.
Selection of Statistical Methods................................................................................... III-45
5.
Additional Information on Statistical Procedures........................................................ III-58
6.
Calculation of UCL of Mean When the Distribution of the Sampling Mean
is Normal...................................................................................................................... III-61
7.
Calculation of UCL of Mean of a Lognormal Distribution ......................................... III-62
8.
Procedure and Example for Conducting the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test...................... III-65
9.
Procedure and Example for Conducting the Quantile Test ......................................... III-69
C.
Storage Tank Program Guidance ............................................................................................. III-78
1.
Corrective Action Process............................................................................................ III-78
2.
Corrective Action Process Checklist ........................................................................... III-78

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page iii
3.
Use of the Short List of Regulated Substances for Releases of Petroleum
Products........................................................................................................................ III-85
4.
Maximum Extent Practicable....................................................................................... III-86
D.
Mass Calculations .................................................................................................................... III-91
1.
Groundwater Mass Calculation.................................................................................... III-91
2.
Soil Mass Calculation .................................................................................................. III-91
E.
Long-Term Stewardship .......................................................................................................... III-92
1.
Introduction.................................................................................................................. III-92
2.
Uniform Environmental Covenants Act ...................................................................... III-92
3.
Institutional versus Engineering Controls.................................................................... III-95
4.
Postremediation Care Plan........................................................................................... III-95
5.
Postremediation Monitoring ........................................................................................ III-96
6.
Postremediation Care Attainment ................................................................................ III-97
F.
One Cleanup Program.............................................................................................................. III-98
1.
Purpose......................................................................................................................... III-98
2.
Provisions and Applicability........................................................................................ III-98
3.
Implementation ............................................................................................................ III-99
4.
Benefits ........................................................................................................................ III-99
G.
Data Quality and Practical Quantitation Limits..................................................................... III-100
1.
Data Quality Objectives Process, Sampling, and Data Quality Assessment
Process ....................................................................................................................... III-100
2.
Preliminary Data Review........................................................................................... III-102
3.
Practical Quantitation Limit (25 Pa. Code § 250.4)................................................... III-103
H.
Site-Specific Human Health Risk Assessment Guidance...................................................... III-104
1.
Introduction................................................................................................................ III-104
2.
When to Perform a Risk Assessment......................................................................... III-104
3.
Risk Assessment for Human Health [25 Pa. Code § 250.602(c)].............................. III-105
4.
References for Human Health Risk Assessment ....................................................... III-118
I.
Site-Specific Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance ............................................................ III-122
1.
Introduction................................................................................................................ III-122
2.
Ecological Risk Assessment Process ......................................................................... III-122
3.
References.................................................................................................................. III-127
SECTION IV: VAPOR INTRUSION...............................................................................................IV-1
A.
Introduction................................................................................................................................ IV-1
B.
Definition and Use of Important Terms..................................................................................... IV-3
C.
Overview of the VI Evaluation Process..................................................................................... IV-7
1.
VI Conceptual Site Model ............................................................................................. IV-7
2.
Screening Values and Points of Application (POA).................................................... IV-10
3.
Guidelines for Evaluating VI Using a Combination of Standards............................... IV-11
D.
Preferential Pathway Evaluation.............................................................................................. IV-14
1.
External Preferential Pathways .................................................................................... IV-15
2.
Significant Foundation Openings ................................................................................ IV-18
E.
Use of Proximity Distances ..................................................................................................... IV-21
F.
Soil and Groundwater VI Screening ........................................................................................ IV-24
1.
Soil and Groundwater Screening Values ..................................................................... IV-24
2.
Soil and Groundwater Screening Methods .................................................................. IV-25
G.
Alternative VI Assessment Options......................................................................................... IV-28
1.
Soil Gas and Indoor Air Screening Values .................................................................. IV-28

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page iv
2.
Soil Gas and Indoor Air Screening Methods ............................................................... IV-29
3.
Vapor Intrusion Modeling............................................................................................ IV-32
H.
Mitigation and Activity and Use Limitations .......................................................................... IV-33
I.
Remediating and Reassessing the VI Pathway ........................................................................ IV-35
J.
Addressing 25 Pa. Code Chapter 250 Requirements ............................................................... IV-36
K.
Evaluating the VI Pathway Under the Site-Specific Standard................................................. IV-37
1.
Overview...................................................................................................................... IV-37
2.
Preferential Pathway Evaluation.................................................................................. IV-38
3.
Use of Proximity Distances ......................................................................................... IV-38
4.
Site-Specific Standard VI Screening ........................................................................... IV-38
5.
Performing a VI Risk Assessment and Modeling........................................................ IV-40
6.
Mitigation and Remediation ........................................................................................ IV-41
7.
Using an OSHA Program to Address VI ..................................................................... IV-41
8.
Addressing Chapter 250 Requirements ....................................................................... IV-42
L.
References................................................................................................................................ IV-48
M.
Tables....................................................................................................................................... IV-54
Table IV-1: Groundwater SHS Vapor Intrusion Screening Values (SV
GW
)........................... IV-54
Table IV-2: Soil SHS Vapor Intrusion Screening Values (SV
SOIL
)........................................ IV-59
Table IV-3: Near-Source Soil Gas SHS Vapor Intrusion Screening Values (SV
NS
).............. IV-64
Table IV-4: Sub-Slab Soil Gas SHS Vapor Intrusion Screening Values (SV
SS
).................... IV-68
Table IV-5: Indoor Air SHS Vapor Intrusion Screening Values (SV
IA
) ................................ IV-72
Table IV-6: Collection of Data for Vapor Intrusion Screening .............................................. IV-76
Table IV-7: Application of Statewide Health Standard Vapor Intrusion Screening
Criteria ......................................................................................................................... IV-78
APPENDIX IV-A: METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING SHS VAPOR
INTRUSION SCREENING VALUES.................................................................................IV-82
1.
Indoor Air..................................................................................................................... IV-82
2.
Sub-Slab Soil Gas ........................................................................................................ IV-85
3.
Near-Source Soil Gas................................................................................................... IV-86
4.
Soil ............................................................................................................................... IV-87
5.
Groundwater ................................................................................................................ IV-88
6.
Building Foundation Openings .................................................................................... IV-89
7.
Attenuation Factor Summary....................................................................................... IV-90
APPENDIX IV-B: VAPOR INTRUSION MODELING GUIDANCE........................................IV-96
1.
Background .................................................................................................................. IV-96
2.
Assumptions................................................................................................................. IV-97
3.
J&E Model Parameter Adjustments............................................................................. IV-97
4.
Site-Specific Standard Parameter Adjustments ......................................................... IV-103
5.
Petroleum Hydrocarbons ........................................................................................... IV-104
6.
Attenuation Factor Risk Calculations ........................................................................ IV-105
7.
Report Contents ......................................................................................................... IV-105
APPENDIX IV-C: VAPOR INTRUSION SAMPLING METHODS........................................IV-107
1.
Introduction................................................................................................................ IV-107
2.
Sampling Locations ................................................................................................... IV-109
3.
Near-Source Soil Gas Sampling ................................................................................ IV-113
4.
Sub-Slab Soil Gas Sampling...................................................................................... IV-114

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page v
5.
Indoor Air Sampling .................................................................................................. IV-115
6.
Sampling Soil Gas for Oxygen Content..................................................................... IV-117
7.
Sampling Separate Phase Liquids.............................................................................. IV-117
8.
Quality Assurance and Quality Control Procedures and Methods ............................ IV-119
9.
Active Sub-Slab Depressurization System Testing ................................................... IV-126
APPENDIX IV-D: OSHA PROGRAM VAPOR INTRUSION CHECKLIST.........................IV-128
SECTION V: RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL STATUTES ....................... V-1
A.
Solid Waste Facilities ................................................................................................................. V-1
1.
Movement of Excavated Contaminated Media and Other Solids................................... V-1
2.
Disposal Prior to September 7, 1980 .............................................................................. V-2
3.
Disposal after September 7, 1980, for Residual Waste and
Construction/Demolition Waste, and between September 7, 1980, and
October 9, 1993, for Municipal Waste............................................................................ V-2
4.
Disposal of Hazardous Waste after September 7, 1980, or Municipal
Waste after October 9, 1993, Subject to Federal Closure Requirements........................ V-3
B.
Clean Streams Law Interface ...................................................................................................... V-6
1.
Point Source Discharges ................................................................................................. V-6
2.
Nonpoint Source Discharges........................................................................................... V-6
3.
Erosion and Sedimentation (E&S) Control..................................................................... V-7
C.
Clean Air Act and Air Pollution Control Act Interface .............................................................. V-9
D.
Regulated Storage Tank Release Sites...................................................................................... V-10
1.
Introduction................................................................................................................... V-10
2.
Short List of Petroleum Products.................................................................................. V-10
3.
Management of Separate Phase Liquid (SPL) under Act 2 and Act 32........................ V-11
E.
HSCA/CERCLA Remediation.................................................................................................. V-26
1.
Hazardous Sites Cleanup Act (HSCA) Sites ................................................................ V-26
2.
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act
(CERCLA) Sites ........................................................................................................... V-27
F.
References................................................................................................................................. V-28
SECTION VI: RELATED DOCUMENTS AND WEBSITES OF INTEREST ...........................VI-1
APPENDIX A: GROUNDWATER MONITORING GUIDANCE ................................................ A-1
A.
Overview..................................................................................................................................... A-1
1.
Introduction..................................................................................................................... A-1
2.
References....................................................................................................................... A-2
B.
Monitoring Well Types and Construction .................................................................................. A-3
1.
Objectives of Monitoring Wells...................................................................................... A-3
2.
Types of Groundwater Monitoring Systems................................................................... A-3
3.
Choice of Monitoring System......................................................................................... A-7
4.
Minimum Construction Standards .................................................................................. A-7
5.
Direct Push Technology................................................................................................ A-12
6.
References..................................................................................................................... A-13
C.
Locations and Depths of Monitoring Wells.............................................................................. A-15
1.
Importance .................................................................................................................... A-15
2.
Approach to Determining Monitoring Locations and Depths ...................................... A-15
3.
Factors in Determining Target Zones for Monitoring .................................................. A-16
4.
Areal Placement of Wells ............................................................................................. A-23

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page vi
5.
Well Depths, Screen Lengths, and Open Intervals ....................................................... A-24
6.
Number of Wells........................................................................................................... A-26
7.
Well Yield..................................................................................................................... A-26
8.
References..................................................................................................................... A-28
D.
Groundwater Sampling Techniques.......................................................................................... A-30
1.
Importance of Sampling Technique.............................................................................. A-30
2.
Sample Collection Devices ........................................................................................... A-32
3.
Sample Collection Procedures ...................................................................................... A-32
4.
References..................................................................................................................... A-45
E.
Well Decommission Procedures ............................................................................................... A-47
1.
Introduction................................................................................................................... A-47
2.
Well Characterization ................................................................................................... A-47
3.
Well Preparation ........................................................................................................... A-48
4.
Materials and Methods.................................................................................................. A-48
5.
Recommendations......................................................................................................... A-50
6.
Existing Regulations and Standards.............................................................................. A-54
7.
Reporting....................................................................................................................... A-54
8.
References..................................................................................................................... A-54
F.
Quality Assurance/Quality Control Requirements ................................................................... A-55
1.
Purpose.......................................................................................................................... A-55
2.
Design ........................................................................................................................... A-55
3.
Elements........................................................................................................................ A-55
4.
References..................................................................................................................... A-58

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page vii
ACRONYMS
AIHC
American Industrial Health Council
ANOVA
Analysis of Variance
AOC
Area of Concern
API
American Petroleum Institute
ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials
ATSDR
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
AUL
Activity and Use Limitation
BMP
Best Management Practices
BTAG
Biological Technical Assistance Group
BTGS
Pennsylvania Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey
BTEX
Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes
CAP
Corrective Action Process
CERCLA
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act
CERCLIS
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability
Information System
CO&A
Consent Order & Agreement
CPEC
Constituents of Potential Ecological Concern
CPT
Cone Penetration Technologies
Csat
Carbon Saturation
CSM
Conceptual Site Model
CSSAB
Cleanup Standards Scientific Advisory Board
CP
Cleanup Plan
DCED
Department of Community and Economic Development
DCNR
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
DNAPL
Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid
DPT
Direct Push Technologies
DQA
Data Quality Analysis
DQO
Data Quality Objectives
E&S
Erosion and Sedimentation
EC
Environmental Covenant
ECB
Environmental Cleanup and Brownfields
EMPR
Equal Marginal Percent Reduction
EPA or USEPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
EQL
Estimated Quantitation Limit
EZ
Enterprise Zone
FR
Final Report
FAQ
Frequently Asked Question
GW
Groundwater
GWMP
Groundwater Management Plan
HEAST
Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables
HHEM
Human Health Evaluation Manual
HSA
Hollow Stem Auger
HSCA
Hazardous Sites Cleanup Act
HVAC
Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
IEUBK
Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model
IQR
Interquartile Range
IRIS
EPA’s Integrated Risk Information Systems

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page viii
ISRP
Industrial Sites Reuse Program
ITRC
Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council
J&E
Johnson and Ettinger
KIZ
Keystone Innovation Zone
KOZ
Keystone Opportunity Zone
LCSM
LNAPL Conceptual Site Model
LIF
Laser-Induced Fluorescence
LNAPL
Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid
LNAPL Tn
LNAPL Transmissivity
LOQ
Limit of Quantitation
LRP
Land Recycling Program
LSWC
Lowest Surface Water Quality Criterion
MDL
Method Detection Limit
MEP
Maximum Extent Practicable
MGD
Million Gallons per Day
MLE
Most Likely Exposure
MOA
Memorandum of Agreement
MRF
Mutagenic Risk Adjustment Factor
MSC
Medium-Specific Concentration
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheet
msl
Mean Sea Level
NAPL
Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid
NCEA
National Center for Environmental Assessment
ND
Nondetect
NFA
No Further Action
NGVD
National Geodetic Vertical Datum
NIOSH
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NIR
Notice of Intent to Remediate
NOAA
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NPDES
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPL
National Priority List
NR
Non-residential
NRCS
Natural Resources Conservation Service
NSZD
Natural Source Zone Depletion
NWI
National Wetlands Inventory
OPP
EPA Office of Pesticide Programs
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSWER
EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
PaGIS
Pennsylvania Geographic Information Systems Mapping Tools
PAH
Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
PAPL
Pennsylvania Priority List
PCSM
Post-Construction Stormwater Management
PDB
Polyethylene (or passive) Diffusion Bags
PID
Photoionization Detector
PNDI
Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory
POA
Point of Application
POC
Point of Compliance
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
PPRTV
Provisional Peer-Reviewed Toxicity Values

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page ix
PQL
Practical Quantitation Limit
PRCP
Postremediation Care Plan
QA
Quality Assurance
QC
Quality Control
QD
Quick Domenico
RA
Risk Assessment
RAR
Risk Assessment Report
RACR
Remedial Action Completion Report
RAGS
Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund
RAP
Remedial Action Plan
RCRA
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RFD
Request for Determination
RIR
Remedial Investigation Report
RL
Reporting Limit
RME
Reasonable Maximum Exposure
RSL
EPA Regional Screening Level
RT
Regulatory Threshold
SCS
Soil Classification System
SDS
Safety Data Sheet
SHS
Statewide Health Standard
SIA
Special Industrial Area
SMCL
Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level
SMP
Soil Management Plan
SOP
Standard Operating Procedure
SPL
Separate Phase Liquid
SPLP
Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure
SQuiRT
Screening Quick Reference Table
SSD
Sub-slab Depressurization
SSL
Soil Screening Level
SSS
Site-specific Standard
SV
Soil Vapor
SVGW
Groundwater Screening Values
SVIA
Indoor Air Screening Values
SVNS
Near-source Soil Gas Screening Values
SVSOIL
Soil Screening Values
SVSS
Sub-slab Soil Gas Screening Values
SVOC
Semi-volatile Organic Compound
SWL5
SWLOAD5 Spreadsheet
SWMA
Solid Waste Management Act
TC
Total Concentration
TCLP
Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
TDS
Total Dissolved Solids
TGM
Technical Guidance Manual
TPH
Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
TSCA
Toxic Substances Control Act
UCL
Upper Confidence Limit
UECA
Uniform Environmental Covenants Act
USGS
United States Geological Survey
UST
Underground Storage Tank

261-0300-101 / DRAFT December 16, 2017 / Page x
VI
Vapor Intrusion
VOC
Volatile Organic Compound
WRS
Mann-Wilcoxon Rank Sum

Back to top