1. Table of Contents
    2. Appendix 2001
    3. Appendix 2002
      1. _
        1. _
          1. _
          2. QUEHANNA THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
    4. WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION;
    5. WALTZ MILLS SITE
    6. EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE

PENNSYLVANIA BUREAU OF
RADIATION PROTECTION
ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION IN
PENNSYLVANIA
2001 - 2002 ANNUAL REPORT
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Department of Environmental Protection
Bureau of Radiation Protection
Edward G. Rendell, Governor
www.dep.state.pa.us
Kathleen A. McGinty, Secretary

 
2
Table of Contents
Environmental Surveillance Section............................................................
7
I.
Introduction ........................................................................................................
7
II. Summary ............................................................................................................
8
III. Background Radiation Monitoring ....................................................................
12
A. Pennsylvania Milk Network...........................................................................................
12
B. Water Quality Network ..................................................................................................
13
C. Drinking Water Monitoring............................................................................................
14
D. Precipitation Monitoring ................................................................................................
15
IV. Source-Oriented Monitoring ..............................................................................
16
A. Beaver Valley Power Station .........................................................................................
19
B. Limerick Generating Station ..........................................................................................
26
C. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station .............................................................................
32
D. Susquehanna Steam Electric Station ..............................................................................
39
E. Three Mile Island Nuclear Station .................................................................................
45
F. Babcock and Wilcox Facility .........................................................................................
52
G. Quehanna........................................................................................................................
53
H. MolyCorp .......................................................................................................................
54
I. Waltz Mills.....................................................................................................................
55
V. Emergency Planning & Response......................................................................
56

 
3
Appendix 2001
Background Radiation Monitoring
Pennsylvania Milk Network Data
60
Pennsylvania Water Quality Network
61
Philadelphia Drinking Water
63
Precipitation Monitoring Data
64
Source-Oriented Monitoring
Beaver Valley Power Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
65
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
66
Air Sampling Data
67
Air Particulate Composites
71
Surface Water
72
Milk Sampling Data
74
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
75
Limerick Generating Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
76
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
77
Air Sampling Data
78
Air Particulate Composites
82
Surface Water
83
Milk Sampling Data
85
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
86
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
87
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
88
Air Sampling Data
89
Air Particulate Composites
93
Surface Water
94
Milk Sampling Data
95
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
96
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
97
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
98
Air Sampling Data
99
Air Particulate Composites
103
Surface Water
104
Milk Sampling Data
106
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
107
Three Mile Island Nuclear Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
108
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
109
Air Sampling Data
110
Air Particulate Composites
115

4
Surface Water
116
Milk Sampling Data
117
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
118
Babcock & Wilcox Air Sampling Results
119
Quehanna Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
120
Permagrain Inc. Facility Air Sampling Data
121
MolyCorp Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
126
MolyCorp Air Sampling Results
127

 
5
Appendix 2002
Background Radiation Monitoring
Pennsylvania Milk Network Data
129
Pennsylvania Water Quality Network
130
Philadelphia Drinking Water
132
Precipitation Monitoring Data
133
Source-Oriented Monitoring
Beaver Valley Power Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
134
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
135
Air Sampling Data
136
Air Particulate Composites
140
Surface Water
141
Milk Sampling Data
143
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
144
Limerick Generating Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
145
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
146
Air Sampling Data
147
Air Particulate Composites
151
Surface Water
152
Milk Sampling Data
154
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
155
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
156
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
157
Air Sampling Data
158
Air Particulate Composites
162
Surface Water
163
Milk Sampling Data
164
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
165
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
166
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
167
Air Sampling Data
168
Air Particulate Composites
172
Surface Water
173
Milk Sampling Data
175
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
176
Three Mile Island Nuclear Station
Quarterly TLD Intercomparison
177
Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
178
Air Sampling Data
179
Air Particulate Composites
184

6
Surface Water
185
Milk Sampling Data
186
Fish, Produce & Sediment Data
187
Quehanna Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
188
Permagrain Inc. Facility Air Sampling Data
189
MolyCorp Thermoluminescence Dosimetry (TLD) Data
194
MolyCorp Air Sampling Results
195
Waltz Mills Air Sampling Results
196
Comparison of BRP and ICN dosimeter results
197

7
ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE SECTION
INTRODUCTION
The Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) maintains a
comprehensive environmental radiation monitoring program in Pennsylvania, as required by the
“Radiation Protection Act” (No. 1984-147). The purpose of the program is to evaluate long-term trends
in environmental radiation levels; to assess the environmental impact of particular sites, such as nuclear
power plants; and to provide this information to the public. The Environmental Surveillance Section
within the Bureau of Radiation Protection is responsible for ensuring these goals are accomplished. The
Environmental Surveillance Section’s monitoring activity is focused on radiation levels in the outdoor
environment affected by human activities such as industrial (including power production), weapons
testing and wastes from medical facilities.
Following are the results of this section’s environmental monitoring activities for calendar years 2001 and
2002, including both background radiation monitoring and source-oriented monitoring around nuclear
facilities.
The report is submitted to the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives and made available to the general public.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Special thanks are extended to the individuals who allow us to maintain sampling sites on their properties
and provide the Bureau of Radiation Protection with samples from their farms and gardens.

8
SUMMARY
The results of our 2001 and 2002 environmental sampling program indicate that Pennsylvanians have not
been exposed to levels of radiation above normal background. This has been determined by comparing
samples collected around nuclear facilities with those from locations that would not be influenced by such
facilities.
This is a report of the results of sampling done to measure radiation levels in Pennsylvania during 2001
and 2002. Air sampling and environmental dosimeter results from around facilities that could be
contributing radiation contamination to the environment are compared to samples that are collected from
the Evangelical Press Building rooftop site in Harrisburg, Dauphin County. Water, fish and sediment
samples taken downstream of a facility are compared with those collected upstream (control samples).
Downwind milk and vegetation samples at each facility are compared to samples collected from the
upwind direction. If these comparisons ever point out elevated levels from controllable sources of
radiation, action would be taken to investigate and correct problems.
Samples collected as part of the BRP environmental monitoring program are analyzed by the DEP Bureau
of Laboratories, Radiation Measurements Section. Data tables containing analysis results of samples are
contained in the attached appendices.
The direct gamma radiation measurements reported in the appendices are readings from
thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Throughout 2002, the Environmental Surveillance Section
continued to operate its own thermoluminescent dosimeter environmental monitoring system with Bureau
of Radiation Protection (BRP) personnel analyzing these dosimeters. During the third and fourth quarters
of 2002, dosimeters were provided by ICN Worldwide Dosimetry Service and collocated with BRP
dosimeters around the nuclear power facilities. Due to aging of BRP dosimeter analysis equipment and
fiscal concerns, use of contractor provided dosimeters and analysis was considered. A contractor
dosimetry system was desired that responded to exposures similarly to BRP’s system so that historical
data could be easily compared. Results compared well between contractor and BRP dosimeters and can
be seen in App. 8.A-E. Overall, there was an average variation of 1.29 millirem per quarter. The
variation from BRP data was lower by a consistent variation and appears to have the ability to provide an
acceptable replacement for the Bureau's own operation.
The National Voluntary Laboratory
Accreditation Program accredits ICN. Plans are in place to adopt the ICN service to replace the Bureau’s
own TLD system in 2003.
For quality control purposes, a limited number of collocated radiation measurements are made using
dosimeters supplied by another contractor, Proxtronics, Inc. The contractor analyzes these dosimeters
with the results reported to BRP as a check on BRP data. Contractor dosimeters are exchanged quarterly
with the BRP TLDs. The contractor is not advised of the locations during the field exposure period.
The federal government has established guidelines for levels of exposure to radiation thought to be safe.
Levels detected in samples collected during 2001 and 2002 did not exceed these guidelines.
The variation of radiation levels observed (unless otherwise referred to in the report), are well within
normal ranges. Background levels, mostly due to natural sources vary somewhat from place to place, and
season to season. Background levels are affected by type of terrain (some rock and soil formations
contribute more radiation exposure than others); fallout from weapons and variations in cosmic radiation,
which increase with altitude and vary with sunspot activity. Exposure to radon and its decay products is
affected by weather conditions.
Lastly, there is still detectable man-made radioactivity in the
environment from past nuclear weapons testing.

9
Tritium levels normally observed in the environment have varied greatly through the years. These levels
were greatly affected by fallout from nuclear weapons testing. In 1963, mean concentrations of H-3 in
surface streams in the United States were on the order of 4000 pCi/l, about 400 times the contribution
from naturally occurring tritium (NCRP 1979) and an order of magnitude greater than the concentration
typically found in environmental waters in 1983 (Kathren, 1984). Cosmogenic radiation is responsible
for producing concentrations in groundwater on the order of 19 pCi/l (Kathren, 1984).
Harrisburg viewed from the background monitoring station at 3
rd
and Reilly Streets.

10
Radioactivity Measurements
Samples collected as part of the BRP environmental monitoring program are analyzed by the DEP Bureau
of Laboratories, Radiation Measurements Section. Radioactivity measurements for these samples are
reported in terms of sample concentration. The unit of radioactivity used most frequently in this report is
the picocurie (pCi). One picocurie is equal to 2.22 nuclear disintegrations per minute. A picocurie is
one-one trillionth of a curie.
Air-borne radioactivity is reported in terms of picocuries per cubic meter. Since the concentrations found
are less than one picocurie per cubic meter, the gross activity and iodine-131 measurements listed must
be multiplied by 0.01 to obtain the measured value. For example, 1.4 x 0.01 pCi/m
3
= 0.014 pCi/m
3
. Air
particulate gamma measurements are reported in femtocuries per cubic meter. A femtocurie (fCi) is one-
one thousandth of a picocurie.
Radioactivity concentrations in liquids, such as water and milk, are expressed in picocuries per liter
(pCi/L). In precipitation, the gross activity concentration in pCi/L is used to determine deposition in
nanocuries per square meter (nCi/m
2
). A nanocurie is one-one billionth of a curie.
Radioactivity concentrations in solids, i.e., fish, sediment and produce, are expressed in picocuries per
kilogram (pCi/kg).
The sample concentration is the observed reading of radioactivity in a sample on a given date and time
divided by volume or mass of the sample, as appropriate. Because the radioactive decay process is
random, it requires using a method of reporting the uncertainty inherent in this single measurement. This
method uses basic counting statistics. It considers background and sample counting rates. The resulting
count rate uncertainties are corrected for instrument counting efficiency, sample
size, decay since
collection and other modifiers to allow reporting in the same units as the sample concentration data.
All measurements for samples found to contain radioactivity are reported as the mean +/- 2σ (σ =
standard deviation of the mean) or the 95 percent Confidence Limit (CL). This means that we are 95
percent confident that the real concentration in the sample lies somewhere between the measured
concentration minus the counting error and the measured concentration plus the counting error. For
example, if a value of 8+/-2 pCi/L is reported, this means we are 95 percent confident that the real
concentration is somewhere between 6 and 10 pCi/L.
Counting statistics are also used in reporting the confidence that the radioactivity in the sample is less
than some concentration. This minimum concentration is termed the Lower Limit of Detection (LLD)
and is represented by the symbol <.
Real world limitations of sample size, counting time and the statistical nature of radioactive decay
preclude the ability to analyze and report a true zero concentration. The method used to describe the LLD
for all sample analyses in this report uses 4.66σ applied to the instrument background, corrected for
volume, counting efficiency, radioactive decay since collection, branching ratio and chemical recovery.
This LLD at 4.66σ is also called the 95 percent Confidence Limit since it statistically yields a five percent
risk of reporting a false positive and a five percent risk of reporting a false negative result. For example,
if a datum is reported as less than 10 pCi/L (<10 pCi/L), we are 95 percent confident that the sample
concentration, if any, is less than 10 pCi/L. Conversely, if a similar sample were counted so as to produce
an LLD at 4.66σ of 10 pCi/L and the result was greater than 10 pCi/L, we are 95 percent confident that
this datum truly is greater than 10 pCi/L.

11
Radiation Measurements
The direct gamma radiation measurements reported are readings from thermoluminescent dosimeters
(TLDs). TLDs used for environmental monitoring consist of three replicate elements of the gamma
sensitive phosphor calcium sulfate which is doped with thulium (CaSO
4
:Tm). Each element is shielded
with lead to compensate for the tendency of the phosphor to overreact to low-energy gamma rays. All
BRP dosimeters are analyzed by BRP personnel. The data are reported in terms of milliroentgen per
standard month (mR/std. mo.), a standard month being 30.4 days. Regardless of the duration of TLD
exposure in the field, the data have been normalized to a standard month to allow convenient
intercomparisons in the net value.
Each of the three elements in a dosimeter observes the radiation environment differently. The reported
data then must include an error term to express this variation. This error term is reported at 2σ or the 95
percent Confidence Limit. Individual correction factors are also used for each element to lower the error
term and improve the overall accuracy in these measurements. The element correction factors (ECFs) are
generated from results of four 200 mR exposures to a cesium-137 source. The response/delivered dose
(R/D) is calculated for each element for each of the four exposures. For each individual element, the
mean R/D is then calculated and becomes the correction factor for that element.
A test for linear response of the TLDs at lower environmental levels of 20 mR also is performed. After
the correction factors are applied, the mean corrected mR for the TLD is determined and the TLDs are
ranked in order of their response. The median response TLDs are used for field placement. These TLDs
are additionally grouped so that TLDs used at a particular facility have a similar response at 20 mR to
eliminate variations among quarterly results and more easily discern changes in environmental radiation
levels. Two TLDs are assigned to each field location and are used during alternating quarters. TLDs are
removed from field service for evaluation and recalibration if they start to deviate from historical results
for their assigned monitoring location or from the results of the alternate TLD for that location.
In addition to the BRP dosimeters, collocated radiation measurements are made using dosimeters supplied
by a contractor, Proxtronics, Inc. The contractor analyzes these dosimeters with the results reported to
BRP as a check on BRP data. Contractor dosimeters are exchanged quarterly with the BRP TLDs. The
contractor is not advised of the locations during the field exposure period.

12
BACKGROUND RADIATION MONITORING
The purpose of a background radiation monitoring program is to evaluate the normal levels of
radionuclides in the environment from natural sources and atmospheric fallout and to monitor trends over
time. Background monitoring stations are not intended to monitor specific nuclear facilities, but rather to
gauge widespread impacts. The types of media routinely sampled in this program include milk, surface
water, drinking water and precipitation.
Pennsylvania Milk Network
The Pennsylvania Milk Network (PMN) was established in 1963 in response to substantial atmospheric
testing of nuclear weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union in preceding years. The network
originally sampled pasteurized milk monthly from ten cities in the Commonwealth. In the late 1960s the
number of cities sampled was reduced to four: Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Erie and Philadelphia.
The objective of this program is to estimate the intake of milk-borne radionuclides by the general
population. To provide a representative sample of the milk supply in each city, PMN samples are
composites of milk from local dairy processors. All samples are analyzed by gamma spectroscopy and
strontium-90 separation and analysis.
The Pittsburgh and Erie PMN samples are collected monthly by the county Departments of Health. The
Harrisburg and Philadelphia samples are collected monthly by BRP staff.
During 2001 and 2002, the results of analyses showed traces of Cs-137 in one sample from Harrisburg
and one from Pittsburgh. Strontium-90 levels are indicative of normal background. The potassium-40
concentrations reported are consistent with a natural potassium concentration of about 1.5 to 1.7 grams
potassium per liter of milk. (See Appendix 1.A 2001 and 2002)

 
13
Pennsylvania Water Quality Network
The Pennsylvania Water Quality Network (WQN) originally was established to measure a number of
conventional water quality parameters in surface water. In 1963, analyses for gross alpha and gross beta
activity were added to measure the impact of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. The early program
sampled about 180 surface water stations on a quarterly basis.
In the early 1970s, the number of stations for which radioactivity measurements were made was reduced
to 22 and radioassay specifically for tritium was added. The stations retained were those located on the
main stems of rivers, which are, or may at some time, become receiving streams for effluents from
nuclear power stations. In 1988, the network was again revised, and as of 2002, 11 stations are sampled
for radiological analysis. Sampling frequency was reduced from monthly to approximate bi-monthly
intervals at nine of the eleven stations due to staffing restraints beginning in 1999 and continued through
2002. Due to frozen conditions, many of the planned December collections were not possible.
The purpose of this program has gradually evolved from one of assessing the impact of atmospheric
weapons testing to one of developing a database against which the long-term impact of nuclear facilities
might be gauged.
All 2001 and 2002 WQN samples are grab samples collected by DEP’s Bureau of Water Quality
Management
.
Gross alpha and beta results are indicative of normal background levels in 2001 and 2002. During 2001
positive tritium results were detected once, in the WQN Marietta collection in August, but were well
within levels thought to be safe by both federal and state regulatory agencies. (See Appendix 1.B 2001
and 2002)
Pennsylvania Water Quality Network Stations

14
Drinking Water Monitoring
Finished drinking water samples are collected from the city of Philadelphia.
At the request of the city of Philadelphia, sampling was initiated in 1978 at the three sources of
Philadelphia’s water supply. The Baxter Water Treatment Plant taps the Delaware River; Queen Lane
and Belmont Treatment Plants utilize the Schuylkill River. The continuously composited samples are
collected monthly by Philadelphia Water Department personnel and analyzed for gross activity and
tritium by Bureau of laboratories (BOL).
These drinking water data are used, along with the WQN surface water data, to evaluate the long-term
impact of nuclear facilities and to monitor trends over time.
All data compare favorably with the USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water regulations.
Those criteria were 15 picocuries per liter gross alpha, 50 picocuries beta and 20,000 picocuries per liter
tritium before the December 2000 revisions went in effect. Drinking water criteria, at present, maintain
the 15 picocurie per liter gross alpha limit but make beta and tritium criteria contingent on activity levels
for isotopes that are not analyzed in this program. (See Appendix 1.C 2001 and 2002)

15
Precipitation Monitoring
Precipitation, as rain, snow, mist, sleet or fog condensation is routinely gathered from a collector located
on the roof of the Evangelical Press Building in Harrisburg. Sampling is tied to precipitation episodes.
Precipitation is analyzed for gross activity and tritium. Gross activity concentration data are used to
express deposition data. In times of environmental radiation crises, such as the Chernobyl accident in
1986, deposition data are used to evaluate the potential for contamination of the milk supply. Data for
tritium in precipitation are used for comparison with similar data for surface water.
All data collected at the Evangelical Press Building during 2001 and 2002 are indicative of normal
background levels. (See Appendix 1.D 2001 and 2002)

16
SOURCE-ORIENTED MONITORING
The purpose of a source-oriented monitoring program is to assess the environmental impact of a particular
facility. The BRP currently maintains off-site environmental radiation monitoring programs around five
nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania: Beaver Valley Power Station, Limerick Generating Station, Peach
Bottom Atomic Power Station, Susquehanna Steam Electric Station and Three Mile Island Nuclear
Station. At each facility, the monitoring program is designed to measure human population exposure.
Monitoring stations are placed at locations that serve as indicators of any effects from plant operation and
at control locations, which are beyond the measurable influence of the facility. These stations also
provide verification of utility effluent monitoring programs during routine operations and serve as an in-
place-sampling network in the event of an accidental release.
Environmental monitoring continued in the vicinity of the PermaGrain Products Incorporated facility at
Quehanna, Clearfield County, during the cleanup project being overseen by the Department of
Environmental Protection in cooperation with the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and
the Department of General Services.
The environmental monitoring program at the Molycorp Facility in Washington, Pa. (a subsidiary of
Unocal Corporation), also continued. This was originally in preparation for a project planned to create a
holding area for material to be moved from their York, Pa site. The York facility had processed ores to
produce inorganic rare earth chemicals for industrial use producing waste products containing thorium
and uranium. The Washington, Pa. site processed ores to produce a ferro-columbian alloy which created
a waste of thorium-bearing slag. The plan to transfer the waste between facilities and stored was
withdrawn and both sites are undergoing decommissioning. All contaminated waste materials removed
from both the Washington and York sites are being shipped to appropriate waste handling facilities.
Details of these projects can be found in the BRP Decommissioning Section’s report. On two occasions
during 2002, Environmental Surveillance staff provided assistance to the bureau’s Decommissioning
Section staff at the York facility clean up site. Surveys were performed to screen areas at the site,
proposed by the facility to be deemed safe for release.
A limited monitoring program is being conducted at the Waltz Mills Westinghouse facility as they
conduct cleanup activities around the site of a nuclear test reactor last operated in the 1960’s. Two air
samplers are located in predominant wind directions toward populated areas.
The modified monitoring program around the Babcock and Wilcox Leechburg facility under
decommissioning was discontinued during 2002 when work was stopped. In 1996, the Apollo site was
cleaned up and released. These facilities were utilized in the past for fuel processing and fabrication
using uranium and plutonium.
Exposure to the population can occur through direct pathways, i.e., immersion, inhalation or indirectly
through the food chain. These exposure pathways are monitored using thermoluminescent dosimeters and
by collection of air, milk, produce, water, fish and sediment samples.

17
Direct exposure by immersion or inhalation is measured by TLDs and collection of representative air
samples, respectively. TLDs continuously observe the radiation environment and provide a direct
measurement of ambient gamma radiation levels. Approximately 30 TLD stations are located within a
15-mile radius around each nuclear power plant. Five TLDs are in a 5-mile radius of the PermaGrain
clean up project. Twelve TLDs have been placed within a 5-mile radius of the proposed holding area at
Molycorp. At three facilities, a TLD station is located at a distance greater than 15 miles as a control. A
statewide control station also is located in Harrisburg.
At the five nuclear power plants, air samples are collected by drawing air through a particulate filter and
an activated charcoal canister in tandem using continuously running vacuum pumps. The particulate
filters are analyzed individually for gross alpha and beta activity and composited quarterly for gamma
spectrum analysis. The charcoal canisters are analyzed for iodine-131. Four air samplers are located
within a 5-mile radius of each nuclear power plant, with a statewide control station located in Harrisburg.
The locations of both the TLD and air sampling sites are chosen with respect to the meteorology and
population distribution around each plant. At Molycorp, Waltz Mills and Quehanna sites, samples were
collected with only particulate filters and composited monthly for alpha spectrum analysis and/or gamma
spectroscopy. The Quehanna filters are analyzed individually for gross alpha and beta activity.
Radionuclides can enter the food chain through atmospheric and liquid discharges from the nuclear power
plant. Radionuclides released to the atmosphere, i.e., iodine-131 or cesium-137, may be deposited on
agricultural land and then ingested by dairy animals becoming concentrated in milk. These isotopes can
also become incorporated in food products such as green leafy vegetables. An indicator sample of milk is
collected for each plant from the closest dairy farm in the prevailing wind direction. A control sample is
also collected from a farm in the least prevalent wind direction. A green leafy vegetable, i.e., cabbage, is
collected from the closest indicator garden around each plant when available. For the Susquehanna
station, where irrigation uses water downstream of the discharge, produce with high water content is
sampled.
Monitoring for radionuclides in liquid discharges at nuclear power facilities includes collection of surface
and finished water, fish and sediment samples and, in some cases, produce samples. Raw water samples
are collected upstream of the plant discharge as a control and downstream of the discharge at the closest
drinking water user. A sample in the vicinity of the discharge is also collected at four facilities. The
samples are analyzed for gross beta, tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. All water samples are
composites to provide a more accurate indication of the quantities of radionuclides present in water
available for public use.
Pumpkins were collected from a garden in the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station area, where water
drawn downstream from the plant is used for irrigation. This crop was analyzed to measure uptake by the
plants of any gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the water.
Fish are sampled annually or semiannually in the vicinity of the discharge. The collected species
correspond to those consumed by the public, when possible. Fish are good indicators because they
concentrate radionuclides to some extent and provide an effective mechanism for integrating the variable
concentrations of radionuclides in the water over extended periods.
Annual or semiannual bottom sediment samples are collected in the vicinity of the discharge. Sediment
represents the major site for accumulation of radionuclides in an aquatic environment and, with long-lived
radionuclides, a gradual increase in concentration may be expected over time. Sediment, therefore, may
provide a long-term indication of change that may also appear in other media.

18
Exposure Pathways Monitored by BRP

19
BEAVER VALLEY POWER STATION
Beaver Valley Power Station Units 1 and 2 are pressurized water reactors each rated at 852 megawatts
electrical (Mwe). The facility is situated on the south bank of the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough,
Beaver County, Pennsylvania. The facility is operated by FENOC (First Energy Nuclear Operating
Company).

20
BEAVER VALLEY THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP Thermolouminescent Dosimeter (TLD) program in the environs of Beaver Valley Power Station
includes 30 dosimeter stations exchanged quarterly. The locations range in distance from 0.4 to 29.2
miles from the site.
Contractor dosimeters are at four locations to provide a check on BRP data. The Teledyne contractor
used in previous years subcontracted their dosimeter service business to Proxtronics, Inc. beginning with
fourth quarter of 2000. Dosimeters from both companies were collocated during the third quarter of 2000
for comparison in preparation for this change. Results were comparable. Beginning with the second
quarter of 2001 the contractor service supplied a different type of dosimeter for the collocations, which
may now contribute to the lower response, compared to BRP dosimeters. (See Appendix 2001 2.A)
With the exception of the second quarter of 2002, contractor cross check dosimeters from Proxtronics,
Inc. were at four locations to provide a check on BRP data. (See Appendix 2002 2.A) Both BRP
dosimeters and dosimeters provided by the ICN Worldwide Dosimetry Service were placed at all 30
stations during the third and forth quarters in 2002. Results from dosimeters provided by the service can
be found in Appendix 2002 8.A where ICN and BRP net exposures for the quarters are compared. The
ICN contractor service is being considered for replacing the BRP system in an effort to control fiscal
expenditures.
All dosimeters are changed by BRP staff.
The annual average exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 70.0 milliroentgen in 2001 compared to
69.9 in 2000. The annual average for the four BRP TLDs collocated with contractor TLDs was 70.1
milliroentgen. The corresponding contractor values were 56.7 milliroentgen. (See Appendix 2001 2.B)
The annual average exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 68.2 milliroentgen in 2002 (See
Appendix 2002 2.B), compared to 70.0 in 2001. The annual average for the four BRP TLDs collocated
with contractor TLDs was 68.6 milliroentgen without correction for control values. The corresponding
contractor values were 50.8 milliroentgen (control corrected).

 
21
BEAVER VALLEY AIR SAMPLING
In 2001, air sampling in the environs of Beaver Valley continued at four stations. A control sampler is
located at Harrisburg. (See TMI air sampling data 6.C.1) The samplers continuously collect air
particulates and radioiodines. The particulate filters were individually analyzed for gross activity and
composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis. Activated charcoal canisters impregnated with
TEDA, a chelating agent, were individually analyzed by gamma spectroscopy for iodine-131. The filters
and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of Beaver Valley was relatively uniform throughout the year.
No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data from Beaver Valley are similar to analogous
data from other nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania and the control station (15L3) at Harrisburg. (See
Appendices 2001 2.C and 2.D)
2001
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Beaver Valley Power Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
3C2
4A2
15A2
11B2
15L2
In 2002, air sampling in the environs of Beaver Valley continued at four stations. A control sampler is
located at Harrisburg. (See TMI air sampling data App. 6.C.5.) The samplers continuously collect air
particulates and radioiodines. The particulate filters were individually analyzed for gross activity and
composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis. Activated charcoal canisters impregnated with
TEDA, a chelating agent, were individually analyzed by gamma spectroscopy for iodine-131. The filters
and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of Beaver Valley was relatively uniform throughout the year.
No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data from Beaver Valley are similar to analogous
data from other nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania and the control station (15L3) at Harrisburg. (See
Appendices 2002 2.C and 2.D)

 
22
2002
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Beaver Valley Power Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
3C2
4A2
11B2
15A2
15L3

23
BEAVER VALLEY WATER SAMPLING
Beaver Valley Power Station uses the Ohio River for station water and for the discharge of liquid
effluents.
Raw river water is sampled monthly at three locations. Continuous composites are collected upstream at
Arco Polymer, downstream 1.3 miles at Midland, and 5.0 miles at East Liverpool, Ohio.
The samples were analyzed for gross beta activity, tritium and gamma emitters.
During 2001 and 2002, no reactor related isotopes were detected in water samples. (See Appendix 2.E,
2001 and 2002)
BEAVER VALLEY MILK SAMPLING
Milk sampling near Beaver Valley Power Station continued monthly at local farms in 2001 and 2002.
These grab samples, one of raw milk (11C1-11) and one of processed milk (07G2-11), were analyzed by
gamma spectroscopy.
During 2001, a trace of cesium-137 were detected in the April processed sample. Presence of this isotope
is attributable to fallout from weapons testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. Natural
potassium-40 concentrations are equivalent to potassium content of 1.4 to 1.9 grams per liter in 2001.
(See Appendix 2001 2.F)
During 2002, a trace of cesium-137 was detected in the April and June raw samples. Presence of this
isotope is attributable to fallout from weapons testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986.
Natural potassium-40 concentrations are equivalent to potassium content of 1.4 to 1.7 grams per liter in
2002. (See Appendix 2002 2.F)
BEAVER VALLEY FISH, PRODUCE AND SEDIMENT
During 2001 and 2002, fish and sediment from the Ohio River and locally grown produce were collected
by a utility contractor and split with BRP.
The semi-annual fish samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge were composites of bottom-feeders
(catfish). Cabbage was sampled from gardens at two locations, 1.0 mile northeast and 3.8 miles west-
northwest of the site. The sediment sample was collected downstream from the discharge point. Analysis
was by gamma spectroscopy.
Manganese-54, cobalt-58, cobalt-60, cesium-134 and cesium-137 were detected in the sediment.
Presence of these isotopes was attributed to station discharges. No reactor-related radionuclides were
detected in the fish or produce samples. (See Appendix 2.G, 2001 and 2002)

24
Beaver Valley Power Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Within 5 Miles of the Site

25
Beaver Valley Power Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Greater Than 5 Miles from the Site

26
LIMERICK GENERATING STATION
Limerick Generating Station Units 1 and 2 are boiling water reactors each rated at 1090 megawatts
electrical (Mwe). The facility is located on the east bank of the Schuylkill River in Limerick Township,
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.
The facility is operated by Exelon Nuclear.

27
LIMERICK THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program in the environs of Limerick Generating Station includes 30 stations exchanged
quarterly. The TLDs range in distance from 0.4 to 11.8 miles from the site.
Contractor cross check dosimeters from Proxtronics, Inc. were at four locations to provide a check on
BRP data. (See Appendix 3.A) Both BRP dosimeters and dosimeters provided by the ICN Worldwide
Dosimetry Service were placed at all 30 stations during the third and fourth quarters in 2002. Results
from dosimeters provided by the service can be found in Appendix 2002 8.B where ICN and BRP net
exposures for the quarters are compared. The ICN contractor service is being considered for replacing the
BRP system in an effort to control fiscal expenditures.
All dosimeters are changed by BRP staff.
The annual average exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 70.8 milliroentgen in 2002 (See
Appendix 3.B) compared to 68.2 in 2001. The annual average for the four BRP TLDs collocated with
contractor TLDs was 75.0 milliroentgen without correction for control values. The corresponding
contractor values were 63.8 milliroentgen (control corrected).
LIMERICK AIR SAMPLING
In 2001 and 2002, air sampling in the environs of Limerick Generating Station continued at four stations.
A control sampler is located at Harrisburg. (See TMI air sampling data Appendix 6.C.5 2001 and 2002.)
The samplers continuously collect air particulates and radionuclides. The particulate filters were
individually analyzed for gross activity and composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis.
Activated charcoal canisters impregnated with TEDA, a chelating agent, were analyzed individually by
gamma spectroscopy for iodine-131. The filters and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of Limerick was observed to be relatively uniform throughout
both years. No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data from Limerick are similar to
analogous data from other nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania and the control station (15L3) at
Harrisburg. (See Appendices 3.C and 3.D 2001 and 2002)

28
2001
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Limerick Generating Station
X 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Jan Feb Mar
Apr May Jun
Jul
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2B2
6A2
9B2
13B1
15L2
2002
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Limerick Generating Station
X 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Jan Feb Mar
Apr May
Jun
Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2B2
6A2
9B2
12B1
15L3

 
29
LIMERICK WATER SAMPLING
The Limerick Generating Station uses the Schuylkill River for station water and for the discharge of
effluents.
Raw river water is sampled at two locations. The upstream sample is collected at the Limerick intake and
the downstream sample is collected at Vincent Dam, 1.7 miles downstream. Finished drinking water is
sampled at the Philadelphia Suburban Water Co., 7 miles downstream. These monthly samples represent
essentially continuous composites.
The samples were analyzed for gross beta activity, tritium and gamma emitters. No reactor related
isotopes were detected in samples from either 2001 or 2002. (See Appendix 3.E, 2001 and 2002)
LIMERICK MILK SAMPLING
In 2001 and 2002, milk sampling near Limerick Generating Station continued monthly at local farms.
The samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
A trace of cesium-137 was detected in one sample collected at farm 10B1 in 2001, and one sample at
farm 9C1, in 2002. Presence of this isotope is attributable to fallout from weapons testing and the
accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. Natural potassium-40 concentrations are equivalent to a potassium
content of 1.6 to 2.0 d/L in 2001 and 1.5 to 2.1 grams per liter in 2002. (See Appendix 3.F, 2001 and
2002 )
LIMERICK FISH, PRODUCE AND SEDIMENT
During the reporting period, fish and sediment from the Schuylkill River were collected by a utility
contractor and split with BRP. Due to extreme drought conditions in 2002, produce from gardens in the
immediate vicinity were unavailable. The sample of grape leaves was collected by BRP personnel from
an open area within 0.5 mile of the facility.
The semi-annual samples of bottom-feeding and predator fish were collected in the vicinity of the
discharge. The produce sample of cabbage in 2001 was collected from a garden located 0.9 mile
southwest of the site. The sediment samples were collected approximately 1.5 miles downstream from
the Limerick discharge.
Cesium-137 from station discharges was detected in both years' spring and fall sediment samples. Cobalt-
60 was also detected in the November sediment. Presence of these isotopes is attributable to station
discharges. (See Appendix 3.G, 2001 and 2002)

30
Limerick Generating Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Within 5 Miles of the Site

31
Limerick Generating Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Greater Than 5 Miles from the Site

32
PEACH BOTTOM ATOMIC POWER STATION
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 are boiling water reactors each rated at 1065
megawatts electrical (Mwe). The facility is located on the west bank of the Conowingo Pond of the
Susquehanna River in Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pennsylvania.
The facility is operated by Exelon Nuclear.

33
PEACH BOTTOM THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program in the environs of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station was expanded, beginning
in October 1999, from 30 to 36 dosimeter stations exchanged quarterly. The six additional dosimeters
were placed for the purpose of monitoring a dry cask storage. The TLD locations range in distance from
0.1 to 11.0 miles from the site.
Contractor cross check dosimeters are at four locations to provide a check on BRP data. The Teledyne
contractor used in previous years subcontracted their dosimeter service business to Proxtronics, Inc.,
beginning with the fourth quarter of 2000. Dosimeters from both companies were collocated during the
third quarter of 2000 for comparison in preparation for this change. Results were comparable. Beginning
with the second quarter of 2001 the contractor service supplied a different type of dosimeter for the
collocations, which may now contribute to the lower response, compared to BRP dosimeters. (See
Appendix 2001 4.A)
Contractor cross check dosimeters from Proxtronics, Inc. were at four locations to provide a check on
BRP data. (See Appendix 2002 4.A) Both BRP dosimeters and Dosimeters provided by the ICN
Worldwide Dosimetry Service were placed at all 36 stations during the third and fourth quarters in 2002.
Results from dosimeters provided by the service can be found in Appendix 2002 8.C where ICN and BRP
net exposures for the quarters are compared. The ICN contractor service is being considered for replacing
the BRP system in an effort to control fiscal expenditures.
All dosimeters were changed by BRP staff.
In 2001, the average annual exposure for the 36 BRP TLD locations was 68.4 milliroentgen as compared
to 66.6 milliroentgen in 2000. The average annual dose for the four BRP TLDs collocated with
contractor TLDs was 64.4 milliroentgen. The corresponding contractor value was 51.4 milliroentgen.
(See Appendix 2001 4.B)
In 2002, the average annual exposure for the 36 BRP TLD locations was 66.8 milliroentgen as compared
to 68.4 milliroentgen in 2001. (See Appendix 2002 4.B) The average annual dose for the four BRP
TLDs collocated with contractor TLDs was 59.6 milliroentgen without correction for control values. The
corresponding contractor value was 46.9 milliroentgen control corrected.
PEACH BOTTOM AIR SAMPLING
Air sampling in the environs of Peach Bottom continued at four stations in 2001 and 2002. A control
sampler is located at Harrisburg. (See TMI air sampling data.) The samplers continuously collect air
particulates and radioiodines. The particulate filters were analyzed individually for gross activity and
composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis. Activated charcoal canisters impregnated with
TEDA, a chelating agent, were analyzed individually by gamma spectroscopy for iodine-131. The filter
and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of Peach Bottom was observed to be relatively uniform
throughout both years. No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data from Peach Bottom
are similar to analogous data from other nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania and the control station
(15L3) in Harrisburg. (See Appendices 2001 and 2002 4.C and 4.D)

34
2001
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
3C2
5B2
7A2
11D2
15L2
2002
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
3C2
5B2
9A2
11D2
15L3

35
PEACH BOTTOM WATER SAMPLING
The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station uses the Susquehanna River (Conowingo Pond) for station
water and discharge of effluents.
Raw river water is sampled at two locations, upstream at Holtwood Power Station and downstream at
Conowingo Dam. The monthly samples essentially represent continuous composites.
The samples were analyzed for gross beta activity, tritium and gamma emitters. During 2001 tritium was
detected in 2 samples collected downstream. No reactor related isotopes were detected in samples
collected in 2002. (See Appendix 4.E, 2001 and 2002)
Holtwood Power Station viewed from the western shore of the Susquehanna.

 
36
PEACH BOTTOM MILK SAMPLING
In 2001 and 2002, milk sampling near Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station continued monthly at local
farms. The grab samples of raw milk were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
No reactor related isotopes were detected in any of the samples during 2001. Natural potassium-40
concentrations are equivalent to a potassium content of 1.5 to 1.8 grams per liter. (See Appendix 2001
4.F)
During 2002 traces of cesium-137 were detected in one sample from the farm location at 13A1 and two
samples at 9A1, attributable to fallout from weapons testing. Natural potassium-40 concentrations are
equivalent to a potassium content of 1.5 to 1.9 grams per liter. (See Appendix 2002 4.F)
PEACH BOTTOM FISH, PRODUCE AND SEDIMENT
During the reporting period, fish and sediment from Conowingo Pond were collected by a utility
contractor and split with BRP. The locally grown produce sample of lettuce was collected by BRP
personnel.
The samples of predatory and bottom-feeding fish were collected downstream from the station discharge.
The lettuce was sampled from a garden located 1.2 miles south-southwest of the site. The sediment
sample was collected downstream of the discharge point. Analysis was by gamma spectroscopy.
The 2001 sediment sample contained small amounts of cobalt-60 and cesium-137.
The 2002 sediment sample contained small amounts of manganese-54, cobalt-60 and cesium-137. Traces
of cesium-137 were detected in the 2002 predator fish sample. Presence of these isotopes was attributed
to station discharge. No reactor-related radionuclides were detected in the produce or bottom-feeding fish
samples. (See Appendix 2001 and 2002 4.G)

37
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Within 5 Miles of the Site

38
Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Greater than 5 Miles from the Site

39
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM ELECTRIC STATION
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station Units 1 and 2 are boiling water reactors each rated at 1065
megawatts electrical (Mwe). The site is located on the west bank of the Susquehanna River in Salem
Township, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania.
The facility is operated by PP&L.

 
40
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program in the environs of Susquehanna Steam Electric Station includes 30 dosimeter
stations exchanged quarterly. The locations range in distance from 0.3 to 19.6 miles from the site.
In 2001 contractor cross check dosimeters are at four locations to provide a check on BRP data. The
Teledyne contractor used in previous years subcontracted their dosimeter service business to Proxtronics,
Inc. beginning with the fourth quarter of 2000. Dosimeters from both companies were collocated during
the third quarter of 2000 for comparison in preparation for this change. Results were comparable.
Beginning with the second quarter of 2001 the contractor service supplied a different type of dosimeter
for the crosscheck collocations, which may now contribute to the lower response, compared to BRP
dosimeters. (See Appendix 2001 5.A)
Contractor cross check dosimeters from Proxtronics, Inc. were at four locations to provide a check on
BRP data during 2002. (See Appendix 2002 5.A) Both BRP dosimeters and Dosimeters provided by the
ICN Worldwide Dosimetry Service were placed at all 30 stations during the third and fourth quarters in
2002. Results from dosimeters provided by the service, can be found in Appendix 2002 8.D where ICN
and BRP net exposures for the quarters are compared. The ICN contractor service is being considered for
replacing the BRP system in an effort to control fiscal expenditures.
All dosimeters are changed by BRP staff.
In 2001, the annual average exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 71.7 compared to the 2000
annual average of 70.7 milliroentgen. In 2001, the annual average of the four collocated BRP TLDs was
72.9 and the collocated contractor TLDs was 57.9 milliroentgen. (See Appendix 2001 5.B)
In 2002, the annual average exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 69.8 compared to the 2001
annual average of 71.7 milliroentgen. In 2002, the annual average of the four collocated BRP TLDs was
70.7 without correction for control values, and the collocated contractor TLDs was 54.0 milliroentgen
(control corrected). (See Appendix 2002 5.B)
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM AIR SAMPLING
In 2001 and 2002, air sampling in the environs of the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station continued at
four stations. A control sampler is located at Harrisburg. (See TMI air sampling data Appendix 6.C.5
2001 and 2002.)
The samplers continuously collect air particulates and radionuclides. The particulate filters were analyzed
individually for gross activity and composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis. Activated charcoal
canisters impregnated with TEDA, a chelating agent, were analyzed individually by gamma spectroscopy
for iodine-131. The filters and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station was observed to be
relatively uniform throughout both years. No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data
from the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station are similar to analogous data from other nuclear power
plants in Pennsylvania and the control station (15L3) at Harrisburg. (See Appendices 2001 and 2002 5.C
and 5.D)

41
2001
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
3A1
5A2
12E1
12A1
15L2
2002
Average Gross Beta Concentrations in Airborne
Particulates At Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Ja
n
Fe
b
M
ar
Ap
r
May
Ju
n
J
u
l
Au
g
S
e
p
Oct
No
v
Dec
pCi/m3
3A1
5A2
12A2
12E1
15L3

 
42
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM WATER SAMPLING
The Susquehanna Steam Electric Station uses the Susquehanna River for station water and the discharge
of liquid effluents.
Raw river water is sampled at two locations. Weekly sampling for a monthly composite is conducted at
the station’s water intake on the Susquehanna River. The location near the discharge is also sampled
weekly for a monthly composite. Finished drinking water is sampled downstream at the Danville
municipal water treatment plant. This sample is collected daily for a monthly composite.
The samples were analyzed for gross beta activity, tritium and gamma emitters. No reactor related
isotopes were detected in any of the samples. (See Appendix 5.E, 2001 and 2002)
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM MILK SAMPLING
During 2001, milk sampling near the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station continued monthly at two local
farms. The grab samples of raw milk were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
A trace of cesium-137 was detected in a March sample from the farm at location 10D1. Presence of this
isotope is attributable to fallout from weapons testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986.
Natural potassium-40 concentrations are equivalent to potassium content of 1.5 to 1.9 grams per liter.
(See Appendix 2001 5.F)
During 2002, milk sampling near the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station continued monthly at the local
farm at location code 10D1. The location code 10D2 farm discontinued dairy production in June.
Collections began at a farm with the location code of 12B1 in July of 2002. The grab samples of raw
milk were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
A trace of cesium-137 was detected in a March sample from the farm at location 10D1. The November
sample from farm 12B1 contained a trace of cesium-137, also. Presence of this isotope is attributable to
fallout from weapons testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. Natural potassium-40
concentrations are equivalent to potassium content of 1.4 to 1.7 grams per liter. (See Appendix 2002 5.F)
SUSQUEHANNA STEAM FISH, PRODUCE AND SEDIMENT
During both years, fish and sediment from the Susquehanna River and locally grown produce were
collected by a utility contractor and split with BRP.
The fish sample was collected in the vicinity of the discharge. The produce sample of pumpkin was
collected from a truck garden 3.3 miles southwest of the plant. The truck garden irrigates with water
drawn from downstream of the station discharge. Sediment was collected downstream of the discharge.
Analysis was by gamma spectroscopy.
Cesium-137 was detected in all sediment samples collected from both upstream and downstream of
station discharges and could be attributed to fallout or station discharges.
No reactor-related
radioisotopes were detected in the fish or produce samples. (See Appendix 5.G, 2001 and 2002)

43
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Within 5 Miles of the Site

44
Susquehanna Steam Electric Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Greater than 5 Miles from the Site

45
THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR STATION
Three Mile Island Nuclear Station Unit 1 is a pressurized water reactor rated at 871 megawatts electrical
(Mwe). The facility is located on an island in the Susquehanna River, Londonderry Township, Dauphin
County, Pennsylvania.
The facility is operated by Exelon Nuclear.

 
46
THREE MILE ISLAND THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program in the environs of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station includes 30 dosimeter
stations exchanged quarterly. The locations range in distance from 0.5 to 16.4 miles from the site.
Contractor cross check dosimeters are at four locations to provide a check on BRP data in 2001. The
Teledyne contractor used in previous years subcontracted their dosimeter service business to Proxtronics,
Inc. beginning with the fourth quarter of 2000. Dosimeters from both companies were collocated during
the third quarter of 2000 for comparison in preparation for this change. Results were comparable.
Beginning with the second quarter of 2001 the contractor service supplied a different type of dosimeter
for the collocations, which may now contribute to the lower response, compared to BRP dosimeters. The
new dosimeters also show a larger margin of error than the previous dosimeter used. (See Appendix
2001 6.A)
During 2002 contractor cross check dosimeters from Proxtronics, Inc. were at four locations to provide a
check on BRP data. (See Appendix 6.A) Both BRP dosimeters and dosimeters provided by the ICN
Worldwide Dosimetry Service were placed at all 30 stations during the third and fourth quarters in 2002.
Results from dosimeters provided by the service can be found in Appendix 2002 8.E where ICN and BRP
net exposures for the quarters are compared. The ICN contractor service is being considered for replacing
the BRP system in an effort to control fiscal expenditures.
All dosimeters are changed by BRP staff.
In 2001 the average annual exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 59.4 milliroentgen as compared
to 57.5 in 2000. The average annual dose for the four BRP TLDs collocated with contractor TLDs was
47.3 milliroentgen. The corresponding contractor value was 31.3 milliroentgen. (See Appendix
2001 6.B)
In 2002 the average annual exposure for the 30 BRP TLD locations was 56.9 milliroentgen as compared
to 59.4 in 2001. (See Appendix 2002 6.B) The average annual dose for the four BRP TLDs collocated
with contractor TLDs was 48.0 milliroentgen without correction for controls. The corresponding
contractor value was 25.3 milliroentgen (control corrected).
THREE MILE ISLAND AIR SAMPLING
In 2001 and 2002, air sampling in the environs of Three Mile Island continued at four stations. A control
sampler is located at Harrisburg.
The samplers continuously collect air particulates and radioiodines. The particulate filters were
individually analyzed for gross activity, and composited quarterly for gamma spectrum analysis.
Activated charcoal canisters impregnated with TEDA, a chelating agent, were individually analyzed by
gamma spectroscopy for iodine-131. The filters and canisters were changed by BRP on a weekly basis.
The airborne gross activity in the environs of Three Mile Island was observed to be relatively uniform
throughout both years. No airborne iodine-131 was detected. Air monitoring data from Three Mile
Island are similar to analogous data from other nuclear power plants in Pennsylvania and the control
station (15L3) at Harrisburg. (See Appendices 2001 and 2002 6.C and 6.D)

 
47
2001
Average Gross Beta Concentrations In
Airborne Particulates Around Three Mile Island
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
01C2
05A2
08C2
12B2
15L3
2002
Average Gross Beta Concentrations In
Airborne Particulates Around Three Mile Island
x 0.01 pCi/m
3
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
01C2
05A2
08C2
12B2
15L3

48
THREE MILE ISLAND WATER SAMPLING
The Three Mile Island Nuclear Station uses the Susquehanna River for station water and discharge of
liquid effluents.
Finished drinking water is sampled upstream at the Steelton Water Treatment Plant and downstream at the
Columbia Water Co. The monthly samples represent essentially continuous composites.
The Samples in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed for gross beta activity, tritium and gamma emitters.
Tritium was detected in four samples in 2001 and one in 2002 collected at the Columbia Water Co., and a
trace of cesium-137 in a February 2002 sample, attributable to station discharges or fallout from weapons
testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. (See Appendix 6.E, 2001 and 2002)
All data compare favorably with the USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water regulations.
Those criteria were 15 picocuries per liter gross alpha, 50 picocuries beta and 20,000 picocuries per liter
tritium before the December 2000 revisions went into effect. Drinking water criteria, at present, maintain
the 15 picocurie per liter gross alpha limit but make beta and tritium criteria contingent on activity levels
for isotopes that are not analyzed in this program.

49
THREE MILE ISLAND MILK SAMPLING
In 2001, milk sampling near Three Mile Island Nuclear Station continued monthly at two farms with the
exception of January. Beshore Farms (the control site) elected to no longer participate in the sampling
program in January 2001. No sample was obtained. Sampling was initiated at the Wayne Myers farm in
February and continued throughout 2001.
The grab samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
No reactor related isotopes were detected in any samples during 2001.
Natural potassium-40
concentrations are equivalent to potassium content of 1.3 to 2.0 grams per liter. (See Appendix 2001 6.F)
In 2002, monthly milk sampling near Three Mile Island Nuclear Station continued monthly at two local
farms.
The grab samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.
Cesium-137 was detected in one sample collected in January from farm location code 10K1,
attributable
to fallout from weapons testing. Natural potassium-40 concentrations are equivalent to potassium content
of 1.3 to 2.0 grams per liter. (See Appendix 2002 6.F)
THREE MILE ISLAND FISH, PRODUCE AND SEDIMENT
During the reporting period, vegetation and sediment from the Susquehanna River were collected by the
utility and split with BRP.
Cesium-137 was detected in both the upstream control and downstream sediment samples attributable to
fallout from weapons testing and the accident at Chernobyl in April 1986. No reactor-related
radioisotopes were detected in the produce or fish samples. (See Appendix 6.E, 2001 and 2002 )

50
Three Mile Island Nuclear Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Within 5 Miles of the Site

51
Three Mile Island Nuclear Station
Locations of Environmental Monitoring Stations
Greater Than 5 Miles from the Site

52
BABCOCK AND WILCOX FACILITY
Babcock and Wilcox Apollo and Leechburg facilities were previously utilized for fuel processing and
fabrication using uranium and plutonium. From 1977 until 2002 BRP maintained and operated a
modified environmental monitoring program around the facilities.
The Leechburg facility remained
under decommissioning status through 2002, but there is currently no decommissioning activity on site.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers has determined there is no threat of a release of radioactivity
from the site, and air sampling was discontinued at the end of 2001. Surface water, soil, vegetation and
sediment sampling was discontinued in 2001. The Apollo site has been released from decommissioning
status, and air sampling at the site was discontinued in 1996.
BABCOCK AND WILCOX AIR SAMPLING
Throughout 2001 air sampling continued at the Parks Township and Kiskimere sites and the Crooked
Creek State Park control site. The samplers continuously collect air particulates. The filters were
changed by BRP on a weekly basis and composited monthly for alpha spectrum analysis.
During 2001, levels of uranium and plutonium isotopes detected on filters from both the control site at
Crooked Creek State Park and from Parks Township and Kiskimere sites are attributable to natural
sources and the glass fibers in the filter’s content. Results from the Parks Township and Kiskimere site
are comparable to the control’s results. (See Appendix 2001 7.A)

 
53
QUEHANNA FACILITY
Since 1967, the Bureau of Radiation Protection has provided technical support to the Bureau of
Forestry/Department of Conservation and Natural Resources managing an industrial radiation facility
located in Clearfield County’s Quehanna Wild Area. The facility was originally built by Curtiss-Wright
as a research facility, but was donated to Pennsylvania State University in 1960. In 1967 Penn State
transferred its interest to the Commonwealth. PermaGrain Products, Inc., which operated portions of the
facility in the manufacture of irradiated flooring products, ceased operations and declared bankruptcy in
December 2002. The contracted cleanup company, SCIENTECH, assumed responsibility for security of
the facility December 22, 2002, and continues with decommissioning work. Please refer to:
www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/ airwaste/rp/Quehanna/index.htm
for the most recent status of this site.
Parts of the facility are contaminated with strontium-90 and cobalt-60 resulting from activities of previous
owners/tenants. Decommissioning and remediation of contaminated areas by a contractor overseen by
BRP began in spring 1998. A majority of the cleanup has been completed. In preparation for the project,
air monitor stations were installed July 20-21, 1997. In January 1999, 15 environmental dosimeters were
placed within a 15-mile radius of the PermaGrain clean up project. The number was reduced to five
dosimeters in December 2001.
QUEHANNA THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program in the environs of the former PermaGrain Products, Inc., facility includes 5
dosimeter stations exchanged quarterly during 2002. The locations range in distance from 25 feet to 5
miles from the site.
All dosimeters are changed by BRP staff.
In 2001 the average annual exposure for the 15 BRP TLD locations was 66.5 milliroentgen. This is
comparable to the annual averages observed in other monitoring programs in Pennsylvania during 2001.
(See Appendix 2001 7.B)
In 2002 the average annual exposure for the 15 BRP TLD locations was 63.1 milliroentgen. This is
comparable to the annual averages observed in other monitoring programs in Pennsylvania during 2002.
(See Appendix 2002 7.B)
QUEHANNA AIR SAMPLING
Four of the air particulate monitoring stations were installed in the immediate vicinity of the facility. A
control sampler was placed approximately 6.1 miles southeast at the Quehanna Boot Camp. The air
samplers continuously collect air particulates. Filters are analyzed individually for gross alpha and beta
activity and composited monthly for gamma spectrum and strontium-90 analysis. Air monitoring data
from samplers at the PermaGrain, Inc., facility are similar to analogous data from the control sampler at
the Quehanna Boot Camp. (See Appendix 2002 7.B)

54
MOLYCORP FACILITY
Monitoring at the Molycorp Facility in Washington, Pennsylvania continued through 2002. One air
sampler continuously collected air particulates at the site until January 2003. Active work at the site was
suspended, electrical power was shut off and air sampling was discontinued. Air particulate filters were
changed weekly by BRP. Filters are composited quarterly and analyzed by alpha and gamma
spectroscopy. (See Appendix 2002 7.D.)
MOLYCORP THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY
The BRP TLD program continued during 2002 in the environs of the Molycorp facility. This program
included 12 dosimeter stations, exchanged quarterly. The locations range in distance from 0.1 to 5.0
miles from the site.
All dosimeters are exchanged by BRP staff.
In 2001 the average annual exposure for the 12 BRP TLD locations was 82.0 milliroentgen. Increased
levels during the first quarter at the plant fence site is attributable to waste bins of tailings stored directly
adjacent to the sampling location. (See Appendix 2001 7.D)
In 2002 the average annual exposure for the 12 BRP TLD locations was 72.5 milliroentgen. These results
are comparable to levels measured at background locations. (See Appendix 2002 7.C)
MOLYCORP AIR SAMPLING
In May 2000 adjustments were made to the software responsible for generating analysis reports. By
changing the software’s ability to report a larger number of significant figures, a lower level of positive
results could be reported. Previously, these levels were not recognized due to rounding to a value lower
than the lowest level detectable. Positive results that were detected can be attributed to naturally
occurring terrestrial thorium and thorium existing in the glass fibers of the filters used in sampling.
Analysis of blank filters showed they typically contribute an average between 4 and 6 x 10
-5
pCi/m
3
to
report results. Typical activity concentrations of thorium in crustal rock range from 0.65 pCi/g in
sandstones to 1.1 in shales (Kathren, 1984). Slightly elevated levels detected during the second quarter
are likely attributable to cleanup activities. (See Appendix 2002 7.D)
The air sampler continuously collects air particulates. Filters are collected weekly and composited each
quarter and analyzed for thorium 228, 230 and 232. Positive results that were detected can be attributed
to naturally occurring terrestrial thorium and thorium existing in the glass fibers of the filters used in
sampling. Analysis of blank filters showed they typically contribute an average between 4 and 6 x 10
-5
pCi/m
3
to report results. Results indicate work at facility was not responsible for increasing exposure to
the public. (See Appendix 2002 7.D)

 
55
WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC CORPORATION;
WALTZ MILLS SITE
Westinghouse Electric Corporation’s (WELCO) Waltz Mills site is located in Westmoreland County
approximately 30 miles southeast of Pittsburgh. The site is about three miles west of New Stanton
between the towns of Madison and Yukon. The site is 850 acres in size. About 85 acres of the site were
developed and utilized.
The site is currently undergoing cleanup. Most of the radiological
contamination can be attributed to the fuel failure that occurred in the test reactor in 1960.
The two air samplers, (a second air sampler was added in 2002) continuously collect air particulates.
Filters are collected weekly and composited each quarter and analyzed for cesium-137, thorium-228, 230,
232, plutonium-238, 239 and uranium-234, 235, and 238. Results indicate work at facility was not
responsible for increasing exposure to the public. (See Appendix 7.E, 2001 and 2002)

 
56
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE
The Bureau of Radiation Protection is responsible for planning and directing an emergency radiation
response program in conjunction with the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. Technical
staff and equipment are available for response to accidents at nuclear power plants, transportation
incidents involving radioactive materials or any other event that necessitates radiation emergency
assistance. A major radiological emergency response plan is routinely updated. Drills and exercises are
carried out with the five nuclear power plants within the Commonwealth.
During 2001 BRP responded to an Unusual Event (UE) April 6 at the Beaver Valley Power Station but
the Emergency Operation Center (EOC) was not activated. A fire was discovered in the Chemistry Cold
Lab. The problem was investigated and resolved, and the event terminated. An Unusual Event is the least
serious emergency classification. On August 23 a security breach was reported at Susquehanna Steam
Electric Station and an UE was declared. The EOC was not activated. The problem was investigated and
resolved, and the event terminated. On October 17 BRP responded to a security threat directed toward
Three Mile Island Unit 1, provided limited staff in the EOC to monitor the situation with the utility,
PEMA, and the NRC. The threat was eventually deemed non-credible.
In 2001 BRP participated in 15 practice drills and lesser exercises. Participation in drills after the
September 11 New York City attack was minimal. Focus in Emergency Response planning has shifted
and expanded to address the heightened threat of terrorist attacks.
During 2002 an Alert was declared on June 2 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). An
automatic fire suppression system utilizing carbon dioxide activated during a routine diesel generator test.
Under the plant's emergency plan the release of carbon dioxide into a vital area results in an automatic
declaration of an ALERT. The EOC was partially activated. On October 3 an Unusual Event (UE) was
declared at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) due to a transformer fire. The EOC was not
activated.
In 2002, BRP participated in 15 practice drills and 4 evaluated exercises.
A monthly communication drill was conducted with each nuclear power plant to test notification
procedures and the operation of dedicated telephone lines.
Emergency Siren at Three Mile Island Visitor Center.
References

57
ICRP, Principles of Monitoring for the Radiation Protection of the Population. ICRP-43. 1984.
Kathren, Ronald L., Radioactivity in the Environment. Harwood Academic Publishers, New York, 1984.
U.S. EPA, Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Guide. ORP/SID 72-2. USEPA. June 1972.

Page Intentionally Left Blank

59
PENNSYLVANIA BUREAU OF
RADIATION PROTECTION
ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE SECTION
Appendix A
2001
Source-Oriented Monitoring

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60

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61

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62

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63

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64

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68

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69

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127
7.E
Waltz Mills Sampling Results

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PENNSYLVANIA BUREAU OF
RADIATION PROTECTION
ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE SECTION
Appendix B
2002
Source-Oriented Monitoring

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8.A

199
3rd Qtr Beaver Valley Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
BVT0
1
B
VT
0
3
B
VT
0
5
BVT0
7
B
VT
0
9
B
VT
1
1
BVT1
3
B
VT
1
5
B
VT
1
7
BVT1
9
B
VT
2
1
B
VT
2
3
BVT2
5
B
VT
2
7
B
VT
2
9
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN
4th Qtr. Beaver Valley Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
BVT01
B
V
T
03
B
V
T
05
BVT07
B
V
T
09
BVT11
BVT
13
BVT15
BVT
17
BVT19
BVT21
BVT
23
BVT25
BVT
27
BVT29
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN

200
8.B

201
3rd Qtr. Limerick Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
LGT
01
LG
T04
LG
T07
LG
T10
LG
T13
L
GT16
L
GT19
LGT22
LGT25
LGT28
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN
4th Qtr. Limerick Tlds
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
L
GT
01
LG
T
04
L
GT
07
LGT
1
0
L
GT
13
LGT
1
6
L
GT
2
0
L
GT
23
L
GT
26
L
GT
29
Locations
mR
Forth Quarter 2002 BRP
Forth Quarter 2002 ICN

202
8.C

203
3rd Qtr Peach Bottom Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
P
B
T
01
P
BT0
4
PBT
0
7
P
BT1
0
PBT1
3
P
BT1
6
PBT1
9
P
B
T
2
2
P
BT2
5
PBT
2
8
P
BT31
PBT3
4
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN
4th Qtr. Peach Bottom
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
PBT0
1
P
BT0
4
P
BT0
7
PB
T1
0
PBT1
3
PBT1
6
PBT1
9
PBT2
2
P
BT2
5
P
BT2
8
PB
T3
1
PBT3
4
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN

204
8.D

205
3rd Qtr. Susquehanna Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
SST0
1
SST0
4
SST07
SST1
0
SST1
3
SST16
SST1
9
SST22
SST25
SST2
8
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN
4th Qtr. Susquehanna Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
SS
T01
SS
T04
S
S
T07
SS
T10
S
ST1
3
S
S
T16
S
S
T19
S
ST
22
S
S
T25
S
S
T28
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN

206
8.E

207
3rd Qtr. Three Mile Island Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
TMI
T
01
T
MI
T
0
5
T
MI
T08
TM
I
T11
TMI
T
1
4
TMI
T
18
T
MI
T
21
T
MI
T2
4
TMI
T
27
T
MI
T
30
Locations
Sites
BRP
ICN
4th Qtr. Three Mile Island Tlds
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
TM
I
T01
T
MI
T
0
4
TM
I
T07
T
MI
T
10
TM
I
T1
3
TMI
T
1
6
T
MI
T1
9
TMI
T
22
T
MI
T
2
5
TMI
T
28
Locations
mR
BRP
ICN

For more information, visit DEP's website at www.dep.state.pa.us, Keyword: "DEP Radiation Protection."
2900-BK-DEP4006 4/2005

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